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Full text of "Old clocks and watches & their makers, being an historical and descriptive account of the different styles of clocks and watches of the past, in England and abroad, to which is added a list of ten thousand makers"

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" T/ie Hatch and Clockmakers' Handbook , Dictionary and Gitidc," 

" Hatch Springing and Adjusting^^ Etc. 












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•Since the publication, in i<Sij4, of " l-'ornier Clock unci Watch- 
makers and their Work," so many suggestions have reached nie 
from lovers of old clocks and watches that I have been induced 
to recast the volume. Much additional information of a general 
cliaracter has been embodied in the present book, and details 
relating to modern construction wliich appeared before are now 

Technical terms are, 1 am told, particularly exasperating to people 
unacquainted with horological phrases, and I ha\e therefore a\oided 
them as much as possible. "The Watch and Clockmakers' Hand- 
book, Dictionary and Guide " may be consulted by those especially 
interested in the mechanism of clocks and watches, and who desire 
more explicit details than I have given here. 

Few places can boast of a finer display of eighteenth-century 
clocks than Windsor Castle. The principal representative specimens 
I have been enabled to illustrate and describe by special permission 
of the Queen. 

Additions have been made to the list of old makers and some 
inaccuracies corrected. Se\eral items of information in connection 
with this list I have obtained from the magnificent collection of 
tradesmen's cards owned by the Hon. Gerald Ponsonby, who 
allowed me free access to this most interesting record. A perusal 
of the Banks collection of tradesmen's cards at the British Museum 
has also elicited particulars not to be met with in ordinary channels. 
^Ir. J. E. Hodgkin, F.S.A., furnished me with a list of the clock and 

vi Prefatory Notes. 

watchmakers in his collection, which proved a useful check in several 
instances. Mr. C. H. Read, of the British Museum, has given me 
every possible help in going over the unsurpassed display of time- 
keepers in his charge, for the purpose of revising the references 
thereto. A similar favour in respect of the collection at South 
Kensington Museum has been accorded by Mr. A. B. Skinner. 

I have to acknowledge the kindness of many owners of old time- 
keepers who permitted me to inspect their treasures. In particular 
I should mention Mr. Albert Schloss, who has choice examples of 
every period ; he placed the Avhole of them in my hands for exami- 
nation, and of these between sixty and seventy have been selected 

for illustration. 

F. J. B. 

35, Northampton SyuARE, London, E.G. 
April, iSgg. 


That this edition is so much larger than the previous one is due 
mainly to the kindness of owners of old timekeepers, who have 
permitted me to illustrate and describe them. Altogether, more 
than three hundred new illustrations have been provided. The 
chief alteration in the arrangement is di\ision into chapters, which 
will, I trust, prove convenient to readers. The section on long case 
clocks has been entirely re-written, and that on clocks in the French 
style considerably extended. To all friends and correspondents who 
have favoured me with information and suggestions I offer the most 
grateful acknowledgment, and I must, in particular, mention the 
kind assistance of Mr. Albert Schloss and Mr. C. F. Bell. 

F. J. B. 

35, Northampton Square, London, E.C 
April, 1904. 




Solar Time — Cycle of the Sun — Sidereal Time — Duration of a Year- 
Golden Number — Epact — Number of Direction — Roman Indiction — 
Julian Period -Meridian Dials — Horizontal Sun Dial — Ring Dial — 
Clepsydra^ — Wick and Lamp Timekeepers — Sand Glass 



Early Clocks — Jacks — St. Paul's — Westminster — Rouen — Glastonbury — 
Wimborne — De Vick — Palais de Justice — Foliot or Verge — Exeter — 
Oxford — Strasburg — Lubeck — Hans of Jena — XVth Century Clocks — 
Anne Boleyn — Hampton Court — Fine — Habrecht — Lyons — Venice 



Robert Bruce — Henlein — Early Examples — Zech — Mainspring and Fusee 
— Octagonal — Nef — Dresden — Pendulum —Balance Spring — Alarum — 
.\utomata — Bacchus — Crucifix — Elizabeth — Mary of Scots — Death's- 
head — Tambourine Case — Spherical Watch — Astronomical Watch — 
P>ook — Padlock — Lion — Cruciform — Fancy Shapes— Tulip — Poppy — 
Floral — Olive - — Ring extremely diminutive — Horn — Butterfly — 
Octagonal — Reputed Whiting — Square Steel — Oval — Holbein — Salt- 
cellar 62 



Cromwell — Watch Glasses — Cases — Enamel — Pair Cases— Chasing — 
Repoiissf — Steel — Carnelian — Tortoise-shell — Bull's-eye — Watch Papers 
— Engine-turning — Parti-coloured Gold — Dials — Early Minute Indi- 
cators—Hands — Changing Hour-Figures — Fencing Soldiers — Pendulum 
Watches — Musical Watches — Moving Figures — Souvenir Watch — 
Winged Mercury — Tra\elling Watches— Watch Kejs .... 

viii Contents. 




Cratzer — Newsam — Bull — Nouwen — Garret— Grinkin — Henche — Flood- 
North — Crayle — Alcock — Ramsay — Partridge — The Clockmakers' 
Company — East — Jones — Barlow — Betts — Tompion — Graham — Quare 
— Fromanteel — Hooke — Huygens — Barrow — Knibb — Harrys — Bradley 
— Ellicott — Sully — Harrison — Pinchbeck — Mudge — Arnold — Earnshaw 
— Ascertaining the longitude at sea by means of the Chronometer — 
VuUiamy — Clay — Ferguson — Jenkins — Margetts — Breguet — Equation 
Clocks — Enderlin — Lichfield Clock — Bridges — Lovelace — Cox — Horst- 
mann — Fan Clocks ........... 245 



Early Records — Paris Guild — Boulle or Buhl Work — Clocks at Windsor 
Castle — Marot — Martinet — Le Roy — Lepaute — Mantel Clocks — Hang- 
ing or Cartel Clocks — Thuret — Courtois — Courvoisier — Gudin— Le Noir 
— Robin — Leguesse — Dauthiau — Passement — Sotian — Berthoud — 
Lepine — Bailly I'Aine — Porcelain Cases — Symbolical Clock Hands — 
Italian Cartel Timepieces — INIystery Clocks — Falling Ball — Grollier de 
Serviere — Rolling Ball — Atlas — Globes — Urns — Vases — Marie 
Antoinette — Falconet — Three Graces — Negress Head — Rolling Clock — 
Schmidt's Mystery Clock — Fan-shaped Clock— Bird Cage — Magnetic 
Timekeepers — Congreve Clock — Japanese Clocks — Hogarth . . . 378 



Lantern Clocks—Bob Pendulum — Bowyer — Knifton — Dyde — Frets — 
Sheep"s Head Clocks — Hood Clocks — Long Case Clocks — Smith- 
Clement — Dials — Prime — Tompion — Clay — Cornerpieces of Various 
Periods — Further Examples of Dials and Hands — Cases — Examples — 
Marqueterie — Oriental Lacquer — Chippendale — Sheraton — Bracket or 
Pedestal Clocks — Basket Top— Bell Top — Engraved Back Plates — 
Musical Clocks — Broken Arch — Balloon — Lancet — Taxes on Clocks — • 
Act of Parliament Clocks 445 



Pendulum — Striking Work — Watch Movements — Pendulum Watches — 
Balance Springs — Hog's Bristle — Hooke — Huygens — Tompion — 
Barrow — Le Count — Enamelled Balance Covers - Watch Cocks — 
Pillars — Escapements — Watch Jewelling — Compensation — Winding 
Mechanism— Self Winding— Pedometer Winding— Hall Marks . . 51S 







As defined by the title, our subject may be said to begin with the 
introduction of clocks ; and, although primitive methods of time- 
keeping should not, perhaps, be passed over without notice, it will 
be unnecessary to make more than a brief reference to them. It 
may be convenient and useful to begin with some explanation of the 
various time standards. 

Solar Time. — Solar time is marked by the diurnal revolution of 
the earth with regard to the sun, so that the instant the sun is seen at 
its greatest height above the horizon it is true midday, which some- 
times takes place i6 min. i8 sec. sooner, and at others 14 min. 
28 sec. later, than twelve o'clock mean time. The diurnal rotation of 
the earth on its axis might naturally be supposed to bring each 
place to the meridian at regular intervals; this would be nearly the 
case if the earth had no other movement ; but it advances at the 
same time in its orbit, and as the meridians are not perpendicular 
to the ecliptic, the days are not of equal duration. This may be 
easily perceived by placing a mark at every 15° of the equator and 
ecliptic on a terrestrial globe, as, by turning it to the westward, the 
marks on the ecliptic, from Aries to Cancer, will come to the brazen 
meridian sooner than the corresponding ones on the equator, those 
from Cancer to Libra later, from Libra to Capricornus sooner, and 
from Capricornus to Aries later ; the marks on the ecliptic and 
equator only coming to the meridian together at Aries, Cancer, 
Libra, and Capricornus. True and mean time do not agree though 
on the days in which the sun enters these signs, in March, June, 

c.w. B 

2 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

September, and December, for the earth moves with greater rapidity 
in December, when it is nearer the sun, than it does in July, when 
it is farther from it. The regularity of the earth's motion is also 
further disturbed by the attraction of the moon, Venus, and Jupiter. 
True and mean agree about the 25th December, 15th April, 
14th June, and 31st August; these coincidences vary slightly in 
different years, because the earth takes about a quarter of a day 
more than a year to complete a revolution in its orbit, and this 
error accumulates from leap year till the fourth year, when the extra 
day is taken in. 

Sun-dials mark apparent time, while clocks measure equal or 
mean time ; if, therefore, a timekeeper, perfectly regular in its 
motion, were set to apparent solar time, it would be found to agree 
with it only on four days in the year. 

Cycle of the Sun. — A cycle of the sun is a period of twenty-eight 
years, after which the days of the week again fall on the same days of the 
month as during the first year of the former cycle. The cycle of the sun 
has no relation to the sun's course, but was invented for the purpose 
of finding the Dominical Letter which points out the days of the 
month on which the Sundays fall during each year of the cycle. 

Sidereal Time. — Sidereal time, the standard used by astronomers, 
is measured by the diurnal rotation of the earth, which turns on its 
axis in 23 hours 56 min. 4-1 sec. The sidereal day is therefore 

3 min. 56 sec. less than the mean solar day, and a clock to show 
sidereal time must have its pendulum a trifle shorter than a mean- 
time clock with the same train. About the 15th of April the sidereal 
clock and the mean-time clock would agree, but from that time 
the divergence between the two would be increased each day by 
3 min. 56 sec. 

Mean-time clocks, though, can be regulated by the stars with 
greater facility than by the sun, for the motion of the earth with 
regard to the fixed stars is uniform, and a star will always appear at 
the meridian 3 min. 56 sec. sooner than it did Oxi the preceding day. 
In the absence of a transit instrument and a table giving the right 
ascension of particular stars, choose a window having a southern 
aspect, from which the steeple of a church, a chimney, or any other 
fixed point may be seen. To the side of the window attach a thin 
plate of brass having a small hole in it, in such a manner that by 
looking through the hole towards the edge of the elevated object, 
some of the fixed stars may be seen ; the progress of one of these 
being watched, the instant it vanishes behind the fixed point a signal 

Time and Eavly Time Recorders. 3 

is made to a person observing the clock, who then notes the exact 
time at which the star disappeared, and on tlie following night the 
same star will vanish behind the same object 3 min. 56 sec. sooner. 
If a clock mark ten liours when tlie observation is made, when the 
star vanishes the following night it should indicate 3 min. 56 sec. 
less than ten hours. If several cloudy nights have rendered it 
impossible to compare the clock with the star, it will then be 
necessary to multiply 3 min. 56 sec. by the number of days that 
have elapsed since the observation, and the product deducted from 
the hour the clock then indicates gives the time the clock ought to 
show. The same star can only be observed during a few weeks, for 
as it gains nearly one hour in a fortnight, it will, in a short time, 
come to the meridian in broad daylight and become invisible ; to 
continue the observation, another star must be selected. In making 
the observation, care must be taken that a planet is not observed 
instead of a star ; Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are those most likely 
to occasion this error, more especially Saturn, which, from being 
the most distant of the three, resembles a star of the first magnitude. 
The planets may, however, be easily distinguished, for being com- 
paratively near the earth, they appear larger than the stars ; their 
light also is steady because reflected, while the fixed stars scintillate 
and have a twinkling light. A sure means of distinguishing between 
them is to watch a star attentively for a few nights ; if it change its 
place with regard to the other stars it is a planet. 

Duration of a Year. — The earth performs its revolution round 
the sun in 365 days 6 hours 9 min., nearly, and this constitutes 
the sidereal year. Owing to the precession of the equinoxes, the 
sidereal year hardly accords with the seasons, and so the tropical, or 
equinoctial, year is taken as 365 days 5 hours 48 min. 48 sec. 
Among the Romans no regular account was taken of the difference 
between the year and 365 days till b.c. 45. Then the surplus w^as 
reckoned as six hours, making one day in four years ; and one day 
was accordingly added to every fourth year. There still remained 
the apparently trifling difference of 1 1 min. 11 sec. between the civil 
and the tropical year ; this, however, produced an error of about 
seven days in goo years. In 1582, Pope Gregory XII. struck out 
ten days, which represented the accumulated error, from the calendar, 
and it was decided that three leap years should be omitted every 400 
years; thus, as 1600 was leap year, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 
were not, but 2000 will be leap year. This rectification was not 
adopted in England till 1752, when eleven days were omitted from 

B 2 

4 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

the calendar. As our year still exceeds the true year, although by 
an extremely small fraction, another leap year in addition to those 
should be omitted once in 4000 years. 

The Golden Number. — Meton, an Athenian astronomer, b c. 
432, discovered that after a period of nineteen years the new and full 
moons returned on the same days of the month as they had done 
before ; this period is called the cycle of the moon. The Greeks 
thought so highly of this calculation, that they had it written in 
letters of gold, hence the name Golden Number ; and at the Council 
of Nice, A.D. 325, it was determined that Meton's cycle should be 
used to regulate the movable feasts of the Church. 

The Epact. — The Epact serves to find the moon's age by showing 
the number of days which must be added to each lunar year, in order 
to complete a solar year. A lunar month is composed of 29 days 
12 hours 44 min. 3 sec, or rather more than 29-5 days; 12 lunar 
months are, therefore, nearly 1 1 days short of the solar year — 
thus, the new moons in one year will fall 1 1 days earlier than they 
did in the preceding year, so that were it new moon on ist January, 
it would be nearly 11 days old on the ist of January of the ensuing 
year, and 22 days on the third year ; on the fourth year it would be 
33 ; but 30 days are taken off as an intercalary month (the moon 
having made a revolution in that time), and the 3 remaining would be 
the Epact ; the Epact thus continues to vary, until, at the expiration 
of 19 years, the new moons again return in the same order as before. 

The Number of Direction, — The Council of Nice decided, 
A.D. 325, that Easter Day is always the first Sunday after the full 
moon which happens upon or next after the 21st of March. 
Easter Day, therefore, cannot take place earlier than the 22nd of 
March or later than the 25th of April. The Number of Direction 
is that day of the thirty-five on which Easter Sunday falls. 

The Roman Indiction. — The Roman Indiction was a period of 
fifteen years, appointed a.d. 312 by the Emperor Constantine for 
the payment of certain taxes. 

The Julian Period. — The Julian Period of 7980 years is the 
product obtained by multiplying together 29, 19 and 15, which 
numbers represent the cycles of the sun, the moon, and the Roman 
Indiction. The beginning of the Julian Period is reckoned from 
709 before the creation of the world, so that its completion will 
occur A.D. 3267, until which time there cannot be two years having 
the same numbers for three cycles. 

Timekeepers are more immediately concerned with the 

Time and Early Time Raoidcrs. 

sub-(li\isions of a day. The Persians divided tlie day into twenty- 
four hours, starting from sunrise ; the iVthenians began the day at 
sunset ; the present civil day begins at midnight, and is divided into 
two equal periods of twel\-e hours eacli, but astronomers reckon from 
noon and count the hours continuously from i to 24. 

Sun-Dials. — The simplest form of sun-dial, and a useful one for 
setting a timekeeper when no standard is available for comparison, 
is one for showing when the sun is on the meridian. With a time- 
keeper showing mean time and an equation table, a meridian line 
may, of course, be at once traced for future reference. In the absence 
of these, the following, which are practically Ferguson's instructions, 
may be followed : " Make four or five concentric circles, a quarter of 
an inch from one another, on a flat stone, and let the outmost circle 
be but little less than the stone 
will contain. Fix a pin perpen- 
dicularly in the centre, and of such 
a length that its whole shadow 
may fall within the innermost 
circle for at least four hours in 
the middle of the day. The pin 
ought to be about an eighth of an 
inch thick, with a round blunt 
point. The stone being set exactly 
level, in a place where the sun 
shines, suppose from eight in the 
morning till four in the afternoon, 

about which hours the end of the shadow should fall without all 
the circles ; watch the times in the forenoon when the extremity 
of the shortening shadow just touches the several circles, and there 
make marks. Then, in the afternoon of the same day, watch the 
lengthening shadow, and where its end touches the several circles, 
in going over them, make marks also. With a pair of compasses, 
find exactly the middle points between the two marks on any circle, 
and draw a straight line from the centre to that point, which line 
will be covered at noon by the shadow of a small upricht wire, 
which should be put in place of the pin. The reason for drawing 
several circles is, that in case one part of the day should prove 
clear, and the other part somewhat cloudy, if you miss the time 
when the point of the shadow should touch one circle, you may 
perhaps catch it in touching another." 

By observation the hours of the morning and afternoon may also 

Fig I. 

Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

be marked on the meridian dial, and it will be noticed that, although 
the position of the hour immediately preceding corresponds with the 
one immediately after noon, these divisions will not answer for any 
of the remaining hours. 

Curious Meridian Dial. — The very ingeniously contrived meri- 
dian dial shown below and reproduced from L'Horlogerie by Joseph 


mm 'ipf 

2. — Curious Meridian Dial. 

Rambal, formed part of St. Peter's Cathedral, Geneva, from 1760 
till the renovation of the building in 1894, ^^^^ has since been 
restored on the initiative of the Society of Arts. The white spot in 
the centre of the disc's shadow not only indicates accurately solar 
noon when it is bisected by the central vertical line, but also 
approximately mean solar noon when it is centrally over a line of 
the figure-of-8 loop which allows for the equation of time on each 

Time and Early Time Recorders. y 

particular clay. Tlie full line of the loop serves from June to 
December, and the dotted line during the complement of the year. 
As the year is not made up of a complete number of days, and a 
day is interpolated every fourth year, the exact equation in each year 
of the four is different ; still the approximate equation would be 
practically sufficient for all but scientific purposes. 

The art of dialling is somewhat complex. A glance at the figure 
below will show why, except for places on the equator, the hour 
spaces are not all equal. A sun-dial may be regarded as a circle 
round the earth, or as the edge of a disc which passes through the 
centre of the earth from the spot where the dial is fixed, a, b, c, d, 
e,f,g, etc., are longitudinal circles, representing the hours, B the 

Fig. 3. 

spot where the dial is situated, D the corresponding latitude, P P 
the poles, and E the centre of the earth. 

A dial prepared for any particular place is useless for another 
place in a different latitude, with the exception that a hoiizontal 
dial for a certain latitude will be a vertical dial for a latitude 
which is the complement of the first, or what it wants of 90'''. That 
is, a horizontal dial for our latitude of 5ii''\ would have to be placed 
in a vertical position facing the south in latitude 38|^. 

Horizontal Sun-dial. — To set out a horizontal dial, first draw 
two lines parallel to each other, at a distance equal to the thickness 
of the gnomon which is to cast the shadow. Next, draw a line at 
right angles to these, the extremities of which will indicate respec- 
tively the hours of six in the morning and six in the evening. Then, 

Old Clocks and Watches and ihcir Makers. 

with A and B as centres (see Fig. 4), draw quadrants of circles, and 
divide each into g6\ Now, assuming the dial to be for the latitude 
of London, lay a rule over B, and draw the first line through ii|°, 
the second through 24^°, third 38yV°> fourth 53!°, and fifth 7iyV°- 
Proceed the same with the other side. Extend the afternoon hour 
lines of four and five across the dial, and these will form the morning 
hours, while eight and seven of the morning hours prolonged will 
give the same evening hours. To form the style or gnomon, draw 
a radial line through that degree of the quadrant which corresponds 
to the latitude = 5i|°. This will show the elevation of the style. 

Fig. 4. — Horizontal Sun-dial. 

Fig. 5.— Dials at Whitehall, 1669. 

which is here represented as if lying on the surface of the dial. The 
thickness of the style must be equal to the distance between A and 
B. Place the style truly upright on the dial, and it is finished. 

A dial, or rather a series of dials of every conceivable description, 
forming a structure, as shown in Fig. 5, was erected in Whitehall in 
i66g, by order of Charles II. It was the invention of Francis Hall, 
alias Line, a Jesuit and professor of mathematics at Liege. Vertical 
dials, inclining dials, and dials for showing time as computed by 
various nations at different periods were all included. 

Of these, the bowls or brackets appear to be the most attractive. 
One, on the first platform, to show the hour by fire, consisted of a 
little trlass bowl filled with clear water. This bowl was about three 

Time and liarlx Tiiuc Recorders. 

inches diameter, placed in the middle of another sphere, about six 
inches diameter, consisting of several iron rings or circles, repre- 
senting the hour circles in the heavens. The hour was known by 
applying the hand to these circles when the sun shone, and that 
circle where you felt the hand burnt by the sunbeams passing 
through the bowl lilled with water showed the true hour. 

This curious erection had no covering ; exposure to the elements and 
other destroying influences led to its speedy decay and subsequent 
demolition. The engraving is taken from the Mirror, vol. xi\-. 

The commonest form of portable dial is shown in Fig. 6. 
When held to the sun, by means of the small ring at top, 
a ray of light passed through a tiny hole and impinged on the inner 
surface of the opposite side of the rim, which was engra\ed with 
numerals corresponding to the hours of 
daylight. The hole was formed in a 
slide which covered a slit in the rim. 
The slide could be moved higher or 
lower, and signs of the zodiac were 
engraved on the rim as a guide to its 
position in different months of the year. 
Dials of this sort were in general use 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. A small horizontal dial like 
Fig. 4, but with a hinged style and a 
compass attached, formed a more costly 
pocket " horologium." 

Clepsydrae, or Water Clocks. — 
These indicate intervals of time by the passage of water, and may 
be divided into two classes : the ancient recorders for hours of 
\'arying length, and the more simple instruments used during and 
after the seventeenth century, when equal hours were measured. 

Clepsydrae are of remote antiquity. They were known by the 
Egyptians, in Judea, Babylon, Chaldea, and Phoenicia, but these 
contrivances for measuring time were of the simplest description. 
They appear to have consisted each of a basin filled with water 
and exposed in some niche or corner of a public place. At the 
extreme end of the vessel was a spout or tap, from which trickled 
the liquid, drop by drop, into a receiver having on its inside 
marks for indicating the hours of the day and night. 

In parts of Southern India was used a thin copper bowl about five 
inches in diameter and rather deeper than half a sphere, having a 

Fig. 6. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

very small hole in the bottom. The bowl, placed in a vessel con- 
taining water and floating thereon, gradually filled. At the expira- 
tion of an arranged interval it sank, and a boy or other watcher 
then struck a gong, and thus announced the time. One of these 
bowls is among the collection of the Horological Institute. It sinks 
after the lapse of forty-five minutes with tolerable accuracy, but the 
time is varied somewhat with the temperature of the water. 

A form of clepsydra, said to have been in use in Egypt about 
300 B.C., is shown in Fig. 7, for which I am indebted to Dr. Pearson's 
article in Rees' Cyclopaedia. A supply of water ran through the 
pipe H into the cone A, and from there dropped into the cylinder E. 
A conical stopper B regulated the flow, and the superfluous 

water escaped by the waste pipe I. The 
Egyptians divided the period between 
sunrise and sunset into twelve equal 
hours, so that the conical stopper had to 
be adjusted each day, and marks for every 
day in the year, and for the particular 
latitude of the place, were cut on the stalk 
D as a guide to the position of the stopper. 
A floating piston terminating in a rack 
ser\ed to actuate a pinion, to the arbor of 
which an hour hand was fixed. 

In Fig. 8 is shown an improved clep- 
sydra, constructed so that its aperture is 
adjusted as the year advances by the 
putting of an index to the sun's place in 
an ecliptic circle. It consists, first, of a 
reservoir A, to the top of which is attached 
a waste pipe to carry off the superfluous water^ and thus keep it at 
the same level. A pipe B projects from this vessel into the rim of 
a drum M N, on the front of which is a circle with the signs 
of the ecliptic engraved thereon. A smaller drum O F L passes 
within the large one, having attached to it an index. This drum 
has a groove or slot a h cut through it, tapering in breadth i^oth 
ways to a point. When in its place, this tapering groove comes 
just under the orifice of the pipe leading from the reservoir. This 
inner drum turns on a pipe or tube F, which is continued within 
and has a funnel at the end (not seen) for receiving the water as it 
drops through the groo\e in the drum. The index is double, 
L for day and O for night, and it will be evident that, as it is 

Fig. 7. 

Time and Enrlv Time Recorders. 


turned, the capacity of the orifice is altered, and the water passes 
more or less rapidly through the pipe. The ecliptic being pro- 
perly divided, the hand was set to the proper sign in which the 
sun then was, and was altered as he shifted round the ecliptic. The 
water, thus regulated, dropped into a cylindrical vessel H, within 
which was a float I, connected by a chain passing over a pulley on 
an arbor P, and having a counterpoise K at its other end. This 
pulley carried an index which pointed out the hours on a circle. 

The next is ascribed to Ctesibius, the son of a barber, about 
200 B.C. It was a self-adjusting machine, and is shown in Fig. g, 
taken from the Horological Journal. The water dropped into a 
funnel A, from the eyes of a figure placed over it, and connected 

Fig. 8. 

with a full reservoir, thus ensuring a constant pressure. The tube 
conveyed the water into an open cylinder with a float and a light 
pillar C attached. On the top of this pillar a human figure is 
placed, which points to the divisions on a large column. As the 
water rises in the cylinder, it also rises in the small tube or short leg 
of a syphon F B E, till it reaches the top, when it flows over the 
bent part, and quickly 'empties the cylinder, bringing down the 
float, and with it the index to the starting-point. So far it would 
have measured hours of equal length ; but the Egyptian method 
required some further contrivance to accommodate it to hours of 
varying length. This was done by drawing the divisions around 
the large column out of a horizontal line, so as to vary in their 
distance on different sides. The water as it came from the syphon 
fell into a chambered drum K, which turned with the weight as 


Old Clocks and ]]\itchcs and their Makers 

each compartment became filled. On the axis of this drum was 
placed a pinion gearing with a contrate wheel I, which, by another 
pinion H, turned a wheel G, to the axis L of which the column Avas 
fixed. The lines were drawn slanting round the column to suit the 
hours of varying length throughout the year. The clepsydra was 
introduced into Greece by Plato. The introduction of the clepsydra 
into Rome took place about 157 b.c, by Scipio Nasica. Pliny tells 


Fig. g. 

Fig. 10. 

us that Pompey brought a valuable one among the spoils from the 
eastern nations, which he made use of for limiting the speeches of 
the Roman orators. Julius Cffisar is said to have met with an 
instrument of the kind in England, by the help of which he 
observed that the summer nights of this country are shorter than 
they are in Italy. 

With the decadence of Rome, when oraiiors had certain periods of 
time allotted to them in the law courts for accusation or defence, the 
clepsydra was often, it is said, tampered with in the interest of 

Time ami luirly Time Rccordcys. 


particular suitors by adding to or subtracting from the wax used in 
the lawful regulation of the flow of water, or by using the fluid in 
an impure condition. 

In 807 a water clock of bronze inlaid with gold was presented by 
the King of Persia to Charlemagne. 

Gifford in his history of France says : " The dial was composed 
of twelve small doors, which represented the hours ; each door 
opened at the hour it was intended to represent, and out of it came 
the same number of little balls, which fell one by one, at equal 
intervals of time, on a brass drum. It might be told by the eye 
what hour it was by the number of doors that were open, and by 
the ear by the number of balls that fell. When it was twelve 


I ! 

Fig. lOA. — Section of Drum. Fig. ii. 

Fig. iia. 

o'clock twelve horsemen in miniature issued forth at the same time 
and shut all the doors." 

Hamburger, in Beckmann's " History of Inventions," dates the 
revival of clepsydra^ to some time betv/een 1643 and 1646; and 
Dr. Hutton asserts that in 1693 the first water clock was brought to 
Paris from Burgundy. 

Fig. 10 represents a clepsydra of the seventeenth century, con- 
sisting of an oblong frame of wood, A B C D, to the upper part of 
which two cords are fixed, their lower ends being wound round the 
axis of the drum E. The drum is shown in section at Fig. ioa. It 
has seven water-jtight metallic partitions, F /, G g, H //, I i, K k, 
L /, and M m. If, now, the cord be wound around the axis until the 
drum rises to the top of the frame, and the drum be left to obey the 
force of gravity, it will of course tend to fall, and the cord resisting 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

this tendency will cause it to revolve rapidly as it descends. But if 
we introduce water into the vessel, it will be retained in certain parts 
of the circumference by these partitions, and, one side being thus 
heavier than the other, the tendency to revolve will be counteracted, 
and the drum will remain stationary. If now we pierce a small 
hole near the bottom of each cell, the water will slowly ooze from 
it into another, thus reducing the opposing weight of water, and 
causing the drum slowly to revolve. The rate of motion being 
properly regulated by altering the size of the apertures, the axis will 
point out the hours on the side of the frame ; or a cord c d, with a 
weight F, may be made to pass over a pulley attached to an arbor 

Fig. 12. 

Fig. 13. 

bearing an index or hand to point out the hours on a circle properly 
engraved or painted. 

The sealed water drum with partitions was utilised in another 
way which was described in Engineering some years ago, and 
will be understood on reference to the front and side views (Figs. 
II and iia). The drum A is suspended from two cords e e. An 
index placed loosely on the end of the arbor a is weighted at 
its lower end p. A grooved pulley b is fixed to the arbor and on it 
hangs the hour ring R which is carried round by its adhesion to the 
pulley /'. 

A very simple form of clepsydra is shown in Fig. 12. It is merely 
a glass vessel which has an orifice at the bottom, and is filled with as 
much water as will flow out in exactly twelve hours, figures being 
placed at the proper distances to denote the successive hours. 
Fig. 13 shows an open vessel with a syphon attached to a float. 

Time and Early Time Recorders. 


The syphon will empty the vessel of the whole of the contained 
fluid, and the pressure exerted, being equal to the difference in 
length between the shorter and longer leg, remains always the same 
in consequence of the float falling as the water falls. 

The construction of clepsydra^ and of weight clocks went on 
contemporaneously for a long period. 
With the introduction of the pendulum, 
clocks were made in which water acted as 
the motor and a pendulum as the con- 
troller. Such a clock was invented by 
Perrault in i6gg. At the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich, I remember seeing, a 
few years ago, a water-driven clock with 
a revolving pendulum, which was used 
for driving the equatorial telescope. Water 
at a pressure escaping from holes in a 
pair of horizontal arms caused the arms 
to revoh'e. One of the earliest steam 
engines was made on this principle ; a 
similar contrivance, under the name of a 
sparger, has long been used by brewers 
to sprinkle water on their malt, and more 
recently a sprinkler of the same kind has 
been adapted for w^atering gardens. 

^A^ick and Lamp Timekeepers. — 
Among the primitive timekeepers adopted 
by Chinese and Japanese was a kind of 
wick about two feet in length, made of 
material resembling flax or hemp, which 
underwent some process, so that when 
ignited it would smoulder without break- 
ing into a flame. Knots were tied at 
particular distances, and the effluxion of 
time estimated as the sections between 
the knots smouldered away. Mons. Plan- 
chon, of Paris, has one of these curiosities, which I am assured is 
a genuine relic. 

In Le Passe temps of Jehan Lhermite, who was born at Antwerp in 
1560, and died at Madrid in 1622, having served as Gentleman of the 
Chamber to Philippe II. of Spain, mention is made of a lamp time- 
keeper to show the hours at night as among the contents of his 

Fig. 14. 

Old Clocks and U^atcJics and ilicir Makers. 

Royal master's room. Fig. 14 is a drawing of what appears to be 
a similar instrument in the Schloss collection. On a stand of 
pewter is a glass reservoir, fastened with longitudinal slips of pewter, 
on one of which are cast the hour numerals from 1 1 II at the top 
downwards to XII, and then from I to VIII, thus covering the period 
of darkness during winter. From the base of the reservoir extends 

a nose to receive the wick, which, 
when alight, illuminates the hour 
band and the reservoir. 

Lamp timekeepers of this 
kind were, I am told, to be met 
with occasionally in German 
and Dutch outlying country 
dwellings till a comparati-vely 
recent date. 

Sand Glasses. — These, con- 
sisting of two glass bulbs joined 
by an intervening neck, measure 
a pre-arranged period by the 
falling of fine sand from the 
upper into the lower bulb, and 
are of considerable antiquity. In 
Fig. 15 is shown a handsome 
specimen of the sixteenth cen- 
tur}'. Great care seems to have 
been taken in the preparation of 
the sand. According to a pre- 
scription in Le Maiagiev de Paris, 
"pour faire sablon a mettre es 
orloges " ground black marble 
dust was to be boiled in wine, 
and, after Deing thoroughly 
dried, to be ground again, the process to be repeated about nine 

' To this day a sand glass is used in the House of Commons to 
measure certain intervals, and in comparatively recent times it was 
not uncommon to see a preacher, as he began his discourse, turn a 
sand glass attached to the pulpit. 

Fig. 15. 

( 17 ) 



So many vague and contradictory records exist as to the invention 
of clocks composed of an assemblage of wheels actuated by a weight, 
that any attempt to fix the exact date of their introduction would 
be mere guesswork. 

It is claimed that Pacificus, Archdeacon of \'erona, who died in 
the middle of the ninth century, devised a clock which Bailly, in his 
" History of Modern Astronomy," considers was furnished with an 
escapement ; but this is not substantiated, and otlier authorities 
decide that it was a water clock. Charlemagne's clepsydra which 
sounded the hours is also sometimes erroneously referred to as a 
weight clock. 

In Stow's "Chronicles," under date 606, it is stated: "This year 
dyed St. Gregory ; he commanded clocks and dials to be set up in 
churches to distinguish the houres of the day." These were 
probably sun-dials, and Stow's introduction of the word clocks is 
therefore unwarranted. The Latin "horologium" or the Italian 
" orologio " was used indiscriminately for sun-dials, clepsydrae, and 
other timekeepers. Clocks other than sun-dials were also designated 
nocturnal dials to distinguish them from those which showed the 
hour by the solar shadow only. 

Havard says there is hardly a word in the French language that 
underwent so many transformations as the word horloge. It assumed 
in turn reloge, ovoloige, ovloge, orelogc, ologe, and even aiiloge, before 
arriving at hovlog:. In an inventory of Charles V. made in 1380, 
a reference is found of " ung grand orloge de mer," consisting 
of " deux grans fiolles (flasks) plains de sablon." In other words, 
an hour glass. 

The French equivalent for dial has been for several centuries 
cadvan. But at one time, hcnriey, from heiire, the hour, appears 
to have served. Richard, Archbishop of Reims, at the Chateau 
de Porte Mars, in 1389, refers to "ung petit orloge a ung heurier 
de cuivre peint en vert, prix IIII. livres p.," that is: a small 

c.w. c 

i8 Old Clocks and Watches and tlicir Makers. 

clock with a dial of copper painted in green colour, price 4 livres 

Gerbert, a monk, afterwards Pope Sylvester II., placed a clock in 
Magdeburg Cathedral at the end of the tenth century ; but Dithmar 
declares it was only a kind of sun-dial ; other writers consider 
Gerbert to be the originator of the escapement. \\'hatever may be 
inferred, there is no absolute proof that an escapement was con- 
structed for more than two centuries after Gerbert's time, though it 
is pretty certain that clocks of some sort existed in cathedrals and 
monasteries during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 

The word "clock," whether derived from the Sdcaon clugga, the 
Teutonic glocke, the Latin glocio, or the French cloche, signified " a 
bell," and there is reason to suppose that many of the early efforts 
consisted merely of a bell sounded at regular intervals by hand, the 
instant of ringing being determined by a sun-dial or sand-glass. 

In monasteries prayers were recited at certain fixed hours of the 
night as well as of the day, and as the monks were not always 
unfettered by sleep at the needful moment, this horologe or alarum 
was probably invented to rouse the drowsy religicux to a due sense 
of his duties. In the "Rule" of the monks of Citeaux, drawn up 
about 1 1 20, and quoted by Calmet, the duty is prescribed to the 
sacristan of so adjusting the abbey clock that it may strike and 
awake the monks for matins. Durandus, in the thirteenth century, 
alludes to the clock as one of the essential features of a church. 
Dante, who was born in 1265 and died in 1321, mentions an 
" orologia " which struck the hours ; and Chaucer, who was born in 
1328 and died in 1400, speaks of the cock crowing as regularly as 
clock or abbey horologe. 

Berthoud considered it likely that a revolving fly was used as a 
controller prior to the invention of an escapement. 

Captain Smyth, R.N. (Archaologia, vol. xxxiii.), suggests that John 
Megestein of Cologne, who is spoken of as having improved clocks 
in the fourteenth century, was possibly the inventor of the escape- 
ment. Still it is only surmise. 

An early clock often referred to is the one which was presented by 
Saladin of Egypt to the Emperor Frederick II. of Germany, in the 
year 1232. It is described as resembling internally a celestial globe, 
in which figures of the sun, moon, and other planets, formed with 
the greatest skill, moved, being impelled by weights and wheels. 
There were also the twelve signs of the Zodiac, with appropriate 
characters, which moved with the firmament. 

11 'd'/;;/// Clocks. 19 

In 1359 John II. of France, then a prisoner in London, desirous of 
measuring the time, addressed himself to "the King of the Minstrels" 
to whom was delegated the task of entertaining this royal personage, 
and in the Journal de la depense dn roy Jean the following occurred : — 
" Dymenche XII. jour de Janvier le roy des menestereulx, sur la fa9on 
de I'auloge qu'il fait pour le roy, VII. nobles ^•alent CXIII. sols X. 
deniers et a promis que parmi cette somme et XX sols, qui paravant li 
ont este haillier le VI. de Janvier, il rendra I'auloge parfait,' the trans- 
lation of which is that on the 12th January, Sunday, the king of the 
minstrels was paid for making a clock for the King seven " nobles " 
worth 113 sous and 10 derniers, and promised, having already 
been lent on the 6th January the sum of 29 sous, to deliver the 
clock in perfect condition. 

Jacks. — Mechanical figures for striking the hour on bells seem to 
liave been in use before the introduction of dials, and they proved to 
be a lasting attraction. There was, prior to 1298, a clock at St. 
Paul's Cathedral with such figures ; and Decker, in his " Gull's 
Hornbook," calls them "Paul's Jacks." In the accounts of the 
cathedral for the year 1286, allowances to Bartholomo Orologiario 
the clock-keeper are entered, namely, of bread at the rate of a loaf 
daily. In 1344 the dean and chapter entered into a contract with 
Walter the Orgoner of Southwark to supply and fix a dial, from 
which it may be inferred that the clock pre\iously had no dial. In 
Dugdale's history of the old cathedral the dial is referred to as 
follows : " Somewhat above the stonework of the steeple was a fine 
dial, for which there was order taken in the i8th of Edward III., 
that it should be made with all splendour imaginable, which was 
accordingly done ; having the image of an angel pointing to the 
hours both of the day and night." The dial was placed below the 
"Jacks," which were not ousted from office, but continued to strike 
the hour with their accustomed regularity. Decker says " the time 
of St. Paul's goes truer by fi\e notes than St. Sepulchre's chimes. 

Other writers confirm the supposition that dials were absent from 
most of the early clocks. M. Viollet le Due (" Dictionnaire Raisonne 
de i' Architecture Fran9aise") observes that from the twelfth to the 
fourteenth centuries no space was arranged in the towers of churches 
for dials which could be seen at a distance. The earliest dials, he 
says, were covered by small projecting roofs and made either of wood 
or lead and decorated in colours. 

Froissart, who had an affection for clocks, speaks of one which 
existed at Courtray prior to 1370 as the largest which had then been 

c 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

made. It was brought from thence with other spoils of war in 1382, 
by Philip, Duke of Burgundy, who presented it to the people of 
Dijon. The clock was surmounted with his crest, and set up at 
Dijon in a tower of the Church of Notre Dame. In a turret over it 

Fig. 16. — Jacquemarts at Dijon. 

Fig. 17. — "Jack the Smiter, 
Southwold Church. 

were a bell and the figures of a man and woman, one on each side, 
which struck the hours, as shown in Fig. 16. To the present day 
these automata are locally called /czr(///f/;/rtr/5, and G. Peignot, author 
of a dissertation on them, contended that they received their name 
from Jacquemart, a clock and lock maker of Lille, who was employed 

Wciisht Cloch. 


bv the Duke of Bui'fijundy in the year 1442. The appellation, 
liowever, seems to he merely a corruption of Jacconiavchiadus, i.e., 
a man in a suit of armour. During the middle ages it was the 
custom to place as sentries on the belfries on tops of towers mailed 
men to watch over the safety of castles and towers, and their office 
was to give alarm at the approach of an enemy, a fire or other 
disturbing event. And at many castles in luuope till (juite late in 
the seventeenth century a trumpeter was posted en a tower to 

Fig. 18. — Jacks at Rye. 

announce by a blast on his instrument the time of day for meals to 
be served. 

In Fig. 17 is shown a "Jack" which, though not on active service, 
is still in Southwold Church. It is an oak figure, three feet six 
inches in height, of a man clad in armour, and is said to date from 
early in the fifteenth century. Locally it is known as "Jack the 
Smiter." The engraving is from a photograph by Mr. J. Martyn, 
Southwold. At the Parish Church, Rye, Sussex, is a clock said to 
have been the gift of Queen Elizabeth. This may be so, but the 
hands are certainly of much later date, atid the movement has 
undergone reconstruction, for it is now fitted with a pendulum 
which beats but once in two seconds and a half, and projects below 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

the clock into the church. Fig. i8, from a photograph by Mr. 
W. L. F. Wastell, shows the dial surmounted by a canopy, under 
which stand two Jacks, which strike the quarters on small bells. 
Between these two figures, within an ornamental border, is a label 
thus inscribed: ''For our time is a very shadow that passeth away. 

Wisdom I. 5." An excellent 
representative of striking Jacks 
exists at the Church of St. Mary 
Steps, Exeter ; there is a pair 
at York Cathedral, and a pair, 
from Glastonbury, at Wells ; a 
pair, formerly on the eastern 
wall of St. Martin's Church, 
Oxford, has lately been restored 
and placed upon the tower of 
the church ; the quarters are 
struck by Jacks at All Saints' 
Church, Leicester, where the 
clock, which is said to date 
from the time of James I., was 
restored in 1899; in the tower 
of Holy Trinity Church, Bristol, 
which was demolished in 1787, 
was a pair ; and in a recess of 
the south aisle of Norwich 
Cathedral were two small Jacks 
which, actuated by wires from 
the clock, struck the quarters on 
adjacent bells. Of the Exeter 
Jacks, and two at the Church 
of St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, 
which were dear to Londoners 
of the last century, I shall be 
able to give engravings. 
The peculiar clock shown in Fig. 19 appears to be a sixteenth cen- 
tury production. There are three trains of wheels, all arranged to 
face the sides of the clock. The clock is twelve inches wide, eleven 
inches high, nine inches from front to back, and two feet two and a 
half inches from the bottom of the clock to the top of the figure. 
By means of wires at the back, which extend to levers actuated by 
the striking and quarter trains, the figure on top of the clock strikes 

Fig. 19. — Portable Clock, with 
Striking Jack. 

JW-ifl'Jit Clocks. 23 

the hours on the large bell with the large hammer in his hands, and 
at the quarters kicks the two small bells with his heels. 

In the early part of the fourteenth century, a large stone tower 
was built in Palace Yard, opposite to Westminster Hall, and a clock 
placed therein whicli struck every hour upon a great bell. There is 
a tradition that in tlie sixteenth year of the reign of Edward I. 
(1298) the Lord Chief Justice Randulphus de Hengham, having 
made an alteration in a record, was fined 800 marks by the king's 
order, and the money was applied to defray the cost of erecting a 
public clock opposite the entrance to Westminster Hall. The first 
official mention of Hengham's punishment extant appears to be in a 
Year Book of the time of Richard III., where it is stated that on 
an occasion when the king closeted the judges in the Inner Star 
Chamber to consider various points submitted to them, one of the 
judges cited the case of Hengham, and said the offence consisted of 
altering a record so that a poor defendant might have to pay but 
65. 8d. instead of 135. 4^., but nothing is said respecting the building 
of a clock. Stow, who was born in 1525 and died in 1605, in his 
"Account of Westminster" (vol. ii. p. 55) states that the clock was 
provided from Hengham's fine ; and the Hon. Daines Barrington, 
in an interesting letter to Mr. Justice Blackstone in 1778 {Anhaologia, 
vol. V.) accepts the tradition, which is very possibly well founded, 
although it must be confessed that the evidence on the point is not 
conclusive. In an Issue Roll of the forty-fourth year of the reign 
of Edward III. is recorded the payment of two pounds to John 
Nicole, keeper of the great clock of the king within the Palace of 
Westminster, being his wages for eighty days at the rate of sixpence 
a day. In subsequent reigns further references are made to the 
keeper of this clock. In the first year of Henry V. was granted a 
patent to "Henricus Berton Valectus camerae Regis custos horologii 
Regis infra Palatium \\'estm. pro vita, cum feed. \T. dem per diem." 
Henry VI. entrusted its custody to William Warby, Dean of St. 
Stephen's, together with sixpence a day remuneration. The tower 
was standing in the time of Elizabeth, for Judge Southcote mentions 
the tradition, stating that the clock still remained which had been 
made out of the Chief Justice's fine. The engraving which I 
am enabled to give of this interesting erection is from the Mirror, 
vol. xi., which was published in 1825. The sketch is copied 
from an engraving by Hollar, who was born in 1607 and died in 
1677. It doubtless represents the locality as it existed about the 
middle of the seventeenth century, shortly after which time the 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

tower was pulled down, but the exact date of its destruction is 

On the old Houses of Parliament, which were destroyed by fire 
in 1834, a dial on the second pediment of the buildings in Palace 
Yard marked the site, the remarkable motto on which, " Discite 
Justitiam Moniti," may be taken to relate to its origin. The clock 
tower of the present home of our Legislature is, it is conjectured. 

Fig. 20. — Clock Tower in Palace Yard, Westminster. 

but a few paces from the situation of the original clock. The great 
bell, "Tom of \\'estminster," was broken up and re-cast for the 
St. Paul's Cathedral clock, of which more particulars will be given 
later on. 

There was a large clock in Canterbury Cathedral at the end of 
the thirteenth century, which, according to Dart's history of the 
sacred edifice, was put up at a cost of ^"30 in 1292, and one at 
Exeter at the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

An " orologium " of some kind was under construction at Norwich 

Weight Clocks. 25 

Cathedral in 1323. From that date numerous entries relating to it 
occur in the Sacrist's Rolls. There were twenty-four small images, 
which it may be conjectured represented the hour of the day and 
night ; thirty images, probably corresponding to the days of the 
month, and also painted and gilded plates portraying the sun 
and moon. 

About 1326 Richard Wallingford, Abbot of Saint Albans, placed 
a " horologe " in his monastery, and the account which he gave of 
his machine is still preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 
From this, Wallingford's conception really appears to have been 
more of a planetarium for showing the course of the heavenly 
bodies than a timekeeper, for his description contains no mention of 
any escapement or regulator for ensuring equable motion. 

The earliest clock worthy of our modern definition, of which we 
have any authentic details, is the one which is said to have been 
made about the year 1335, by Peter Lightfoot, an ingenious monk 
of Glastonbury Abbey, for and at the expense of his superior, Adam 
de Lodbury, who was promoted to the Abbacy of Glastonbury in 
1322 and died in 1335. The fourteenth century was distinguished 
by the introduction of the peculiar class of clocks which, besides 
mdicating the flight of time, were furnished with mechanism for 
other purposes. One of the earliest of this kind was described by 
Viollet le Due as having been given about the year 1340 to the 
monastery of Cluny by the Abbot Pierre de Chastelux. In addition 
to its indication of the phases of the moon, the movements of the 
sun, etc., this clock had a quantity of little figures which acted 
various scenes, as " The Mystery of the Resurrection," " Death," 
etc. The hours were announced by a cock, which fluttered its wings 
and crowed twice. At the same time an angel opened a door and 
saluted the Virgin Mary, the Holy Ghost descended on her head in 
the form of a dove, God the Father gave her His benediction, a 
musical carillon chimed, animals shook their wings and moved their 
eyes ; at last the clock struck, and all retreated within it. 

From a horological point of view such marionette exhibitions may 
be puerile and contemptible ; still they caught and held the popular 
fancy, their producers being as a rule more honoured than those 
who merely strove after exactness of timekeeping. 

Horological construction of this kind was not confined to the 
western part of Europe. Anent the wonders in the Palace of Abu 
Hammou, Sultan of TIemcen, the Abbe Barges, a French scholar 
and Orientalist, speaks of a clock in the king's palace, ornamented by 

26 Old Clocks and Watches and ilicir Makers. 

figures wrought in solid silver. Above the case containing the 
works was a scene representing a thicket in which was a bird 
spreading its wings over its young. A serpent stealthily crawled 
out of its hiding place towards the birds, endeavouring to surprise 
and devour them. Ten doors introduced in the forepart of the clock 
represented the ten hours of the night. At the end of each hour 
one of these doors creaked and shook. Two wider and higher doors 
occupied the lateral extremity of the case. Above these doors and 
near the cornice, a sphere of the moon moved in the direction of the 
equatorial line and indicated the course of this heavenly body. At 
the commencement of each hour, when one of the smaller doors 
rattled, an eagle swooped out of each of the two bigger doors and 
settled on a copper vase or basin, dropping into it a piece of metal — ■ 
also copper — which they had carried in their beaks. These weights, 
which glided into a cavity introduced at the bottom of the ^'ase, 
dropped into the interior of the clock, subsequently rising again 
when required. Then the serpent, which by that time had wound 
itself up to the top of the thicket, emitted a sharp hiss, pounced upon 
and bit one of the young birds, its mother meanwhile squeaking 
and endeavouring to defend it. At this moment the door which 
marked the time opened by itself, a young female slave appeared, 
and in her right hand presented an open book whereon the name of 
the hour could be read in verses. She held her left hand up to her 
lips as if to salute a khalifa. This clock was named in Arabic 
" Menganah," and was first seen in 1358. 

The first of the celebrated Strasburg Cathedral clocks was begun 
about 1350, under the direction of John, Bishop of Lichtenberg. 
Henry Wieck, of Wiirtemberg, constructed a clock for Charles V. 
of France, surnamed the Wise, and it was erected at Paris in the 
Royal Palace (now the Palais de Justice). Henry Wieck, or, as he 
was afterwards known, Henry De Vick, began his task in 1370 and 
completed it eight years after. He was lodged in the tower 
and received six sous parisis per day during the time he was 
employed. Somewhat similar clocks were, probably about the same 
time, erected at Caen and Montargis, though some French writers 
assert that the Caen clock was made by one Beaumont in 13 14. In 
Rymer's " Fcedera " there is printed a protection given by King 
Edward HI. of England to three Dutchmen named John Lietuyt, 
John Uneman and William Uneman, who were " orologiers," 
invited from Delft to England in 1368. The title of this protection 
' is, " De Horlogiorum Artificio exercendo." There were probably 

]]'ci<:ht Clocks. 


also English artificers practising their craft at the same time as that 
of the issue of the decree which gave tlie Dutchmen protection, for 
that document enacted that the English artificers should not be 
molested. The "horologium" of John Dondi, constructed at Padua 
in 1344 by order of Hubert, Prince of Carrara, seems also to have 
been a true clock. It is described as being placed on the top of a 
turret on the steeple, and designating the twenty-four hcnirs of the 
day and night. De Maizieres, 
a contemporary writer, says it 
was visited by all the scientific 
men of the day, and from 
thenceforward the family of 
Dondi took the name of " Dondi 
d'Orologia." He also speaks of 
Joseph Dondi, apparently a son 
of John, as one who excelled in 
clockmaking, and after sixteen 
years' labour constructed a 
sphere or clock governed by a 
single balance, and which cor- 
rectly showed the motion of the 
celestial bodies. John Visconti, 
Archbishop of Milan, set up a 
clock at Genoa in 1353 ; in 1356 
one was fixed at Bologna. 

Froissart has left a descrip- 
tive eulogium of a clock, written 
in 1370 in the form of a frag- 
mentary poem, entitled "I'Hor- 
loge Amoureuse." In this the 
controlling medium is referred 
to as a " foliot," which was 
doubtless the straight armed 
balance with weights such as 
appears in the drawing of De Vick's clock presently to be described. 
In 1389 a splendid clock, made by Jehan de Fealins, was erected at 
Rouen, which with some modern alterations to the movements is 
still a reliable timekeeper, showing the hours and also the days of the 
week and the phases of the moon. The handsome dial shown in 
Fig. 21 is about six feet square. At Spires, in Bavaria, there was a 
clock in the year 1395. Dr. Helein describes a complicated clock 

Fig. 21. — Clock at Rouen. 
DIctioiiiiaire de V Ameubkment. 

28 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

which at the end of the fourteenth century was erected at Lund, in 
Sweden. When the hours were struck, two knights came forward, 
and gave each other as many blows as the number of the hour ; a 
door then opened and showed the Virgin Mary, seated on a throne 
with the infant Jesus in her arms. The Magi then presented their 
offerings, during which trumpets sounded, and the figures dis- 
appeared. From the beginning of the fifteenth century mathema- 
ticians, astronomers and mechanicians throughout Europe vied with 
each other in contriving timekeepers with various supplementary 
actions. In 1401 a large clock with bells was placed in the 
Cathedral of Seville, and in 1404 a similar one for Moscow was 
constructed by Lazare, a Servian. The clock of Lubeck was made 
in 1405 and one at Pavia by G. Visconti a little later. In 1442 
Nuremberg had a clock with figures to represent soldiers which 
went through evolutions periodically. The Auxerre clock was 
finished in 1483, and shortly after an astronomical clock was erected 
at Prague ; the clock at Munich dates from the same period. The 
first monumental timekeeper in the Square of St. Mark's, Venice, 
was put up in 1495. Among clocks of the sixteenth century may 
be cited one at Brussels, one at Berne, the latter constructed in 1557 
by Gaspard Brunner, having performing soldiers something in the 
style of the Nuremberg one; "Hans of Jena," in which a pilgrim 
ofifered an apple to an immense open-mouthed grotesque head as the 
hours struck ; the clock at Coblentz, where, in the belfry of the 
Kaufliaus, was fixed a large helmeted head, the mouth of which 
opened and shut as the hours were sounded ; an astronomical clock 
at Beauvais Cathedral, of thirty-six feet in height and having fifty 
dials ; the second great Strasburg clock, which was begun in 1570 ; 
a clock with numerous mechanical figures set up at Niort, in Poitou, 
the same year ; a clock at Calais, with two figures which attacked 
each other as in the Lund clock ; and the celebrated Lyons clock 
which dates from 1598. These are but some of the more notable 
clocks erected up to the close of the sixteenth century, by which 
time nearly every town in Europe had at least one public timekeeper 
of some pretensions. Of several typical ones among those enumerated 
I am enabled to give fuller particulars. 

The Glastonbury ancient and complicated piece of machinery 
was, according to William of W^orcester, originally in the south 
transept of the abbey church ; but it was removed with all its 
appendages from thence to W^ells Cathedral at the time of the 
dissolution of the monastery in the reign of Henry VIII., where, 

^'cis'ht Clocks. 


in an old chapel in the north transept, it still remains. The face of 
the clock as it now appears is shown in Fig. 22. The dial is six 
feet six inches in diameter, and contained in a square frame, the 
spandrels of which are filled with angels, holding in their hands 
each the head of a man. The outer band is painted blue, with gilt 
stars scattered over it, and is divided into twenty-four parts, 
corresponding with the twenty-four hours of the day and night, in 
two divisions of twelve hours each. The horary numbers are 

Fig. 22. — Dial of Glastonbury Clock. 

painted in old English characters, on circular tablets, and mark the 
hours from twelve at noon to midnight, and from thence to twelve 
at midday again. The hour-index, a large gilt star, is attached to 
the machinery behind a second circle, which conceals all except 
the index. On this second circle are marked the minutes, indicated 
by a smaller star. A third and lesser circle contains numbers for 
indicating the age of the moon, which is marked by a point attached 
to a small circular opsning in the plate, through which the phases 
of the moon are shown. Around this aperture is an inscription, not 

30 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

very intelligible, which one author reads as " Ab hinc monstrat 
micro , . . ericus archery pung," meaning, probably, that in this 
microcosm were displayed all the wonders of the vast sidereal 
hemisphere. Corresponding to the moon aperture on the opposite 
side of the centre is a circle, in which is a female figure, with the 
motto " Semper peragrat Phoebe." An arched pediment surmounts 
the whole, with an octangular projection from its base line, forming 
a cornice to the face of the clock. A panelled turret is fixed in the 
centre, around which four equestrian knights, equipped for a 
tournament and mounted on two pieces of carved wood, used to 
revolve in opposite directions, two on each side, as if running at the 
ring in a tilt, when set in motion by a connection with the clock. 
The figure of a man seated at one angle of the transept, within the 
church, is connected by rods with the clock, and he is made to 
strike the quarters with his feet on two little bells, and the hours on 
another bell before him with a battle-axe 'that is in his hands. If 
the date of the construction of the clock be correct, the figures at 
present moved by its machinery cannot, according to J. R. Planche, 
be the original ones, or they have undergone strange alteration. 
Those that circulated in a sort of tilting match are very clumsily 
carved, and have suffered some injury from time ; but two of them 
appear to be intended for jesters ; one wears a hood with ears to it ; 
the third is a nondescript ; but the fourth is painted in the civil 
costume of the reign of James or Charles I., with falling collar, 
striped doublet, and the peaked beard and moustache of that period. 
Two figures that strike the quarters on bells on the outside with 
their battle-axes are in armour of the fifteenth century, and the time 
of Henry VI. or Edward IV. 

The old interior works of this clock were of iron, not differing 
materially in principle from the mechanism of much later date 
clocks, except that the appliances for the variety of the movements 
of the dial-plate were necessarily complicated. They exhibited a 
rare and interesting specimen of the art of clockmaking at so early 
a period, in which the monks particularly excelled. After going for 
nearly five centuries, the works were found to be so completely worn 
out that, about the year 1835, they were replaced by a new train. 
The old movement, now controlled by a pendulum, may be seen in 
action at South Kensington Museum. Except for the quarter 
striking part and the lunation work, the movement is identical with 
that of De Vick's clock, presently to be described. 

Another clock attributed to Lightfoot was erected at Wimborne 

U't'i^^^ht Clucks. 


in Dorsetshire. The dial as it at present appears is represented in 
I'ig. 22, and an examination will show many features in common 
with these two fourteenth-century clocks. 

Figs. 24, 25 and 26 represent De Vick's clock in front and in 
profile. There was but one hand, and that in its revolution round 
a dial-plate indicated the hours. A heavy weight tied to a rope, 
which was wound round a cylinder or barrel, served as the power to 

Fig. 23. — Dial of Wimborne Clock. 

cause the hand to revolve ; but the hand, instead of being fixed to 
the axis of the barrel, had its motion communicated through a 
wheel and pinion, so that the weight did not need to be wound 
up so frequently as would otherwise be the case. If the weight 
were freely subjected to the influence of gravity, its motion would 
have been accelerated, and so an escapement and controller had to 
be devised in order that all the spaces traversed by the hand should 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

be passed through in the same time as each other. The device 
adopted to check the progress of the Aveight was as follows; Con- 
nected with the arbor carrying the hand is a spindle carrying a 

— Qj > c a> 

, barre 
for dri 
, cou 
T, lev 


tes; C 
g the 
2l; N 
king w 





.iS c u< 5 ^-v 



A,B, p 
or rais 

fly; /, 

nt wh 
g off st 


• -^ 3 1- C 

f, pins 
tail; L 
ing CO 
for letti 





oj > a 

2'S. O 


bo^ -^ 

— ■- = S o 
.=: -I'o. 

_ CD_C| c 'w 
"S rt f ^ — 

Ui tnO 0< 5 


wheel with ratchet-shaped teeth, as will be seen from Fig. 24. This 
wheel, called the "escape wheel," has an odd number of teeth, and 
on a vertical rod or "verge" are two beds or "pallets," of a 

]Vci((Jif Clocks. ^^ 

distance from each other equal to the diameter of the wheel. The 
actin<^ faces of these pallets form nearly a ri^^ht an<,de, and the 
ver<j:e is planted close to the teeth of the wheel, so that one of the 
projecting pallets is always intercepting the path of the wheel teeth. 
In this way an alternating rotary motion is imparted to tl:e verge, 
the escape wheel slipping by a space equal to half the distance 
between two teeth at every alternation. The action of the teeth 
of the wheel on the pallets will perhaps be better understood by a 
reference to Fig. 27, which is drawn to an enlarged scale. A tooth 
of the escape wheel is pressing on the upper pallet ; as it drops off 

; yfcW-X-- ■ ■ ■ .( 

Fig. 27. — Verge escapement with cross-bar or 
"foliot '" balance. 

the under tooth will reach the root of the lower pallet, but the 
motion of the verge will not be at once reversed. The escape wheel 
will recoil until the impetus of the cross-bar and weights mounted 
on the verge is exhausted. The teeth of the wheel are undercut to 
free the face of the pallet during the recoil. The inertia of the 
cross-bar and weights, by opposing the rotary motion, forms the 
regulator, and as the centre of gyration may be altered by shifting 
the weights along the bar, the time occupied by each vibration can 
be increased or lessened, as may be required. The verge was 
usually suspended by a cord to lessen the friction and wear at the 
pivot or "toe" on which it rested. This controller, the foliot of 
Froissart, admirable as it was, did not give anything like the 
c.w. D 

34 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

exact result now attained by means of a superior escapement and 
pendulum, for its constancy was seriously affected through varia- 
tions in the motive force, such as would be caused by deterioration 
and thickening of the lubricant used to the pivots and bearing 
surfaces. It is, however, curious to note that the balance of a 
modern chronometer or watch, which vibrates with such marvellous 
accuracy, is analogous in its action to that of the early cross-bar 

To understand the way the weight was raised after the rope was 
uncoiled from the barrel, it may be necessary to explain that, though 
the great wheel is tight on its arbor, the barrel on the same arbor 
is loosely fitted, the connection between the two being established 
by means of a ratchet-wheel and click. To lessen the labour of 
winding, a wheel is attached to the barrel, into which a pinion 
gears, and on the squared extremity of the pinion arbor the winding 
handle is placed. The different parts are shown and lettered in 

Fig- 24- 

The manner of striking the hours in regular order will be apparent 
from Figs. 25 and 26, with a little explanation. The striking part 
of the clock is distinct from the going part, and is actuated by a 
separate weight. It occupies the right in Fig. 25. The wheel to 
which the hand is attached turns once in twelve hours, and it will 
be observed that, projecting from its face, are twelve pins, equidistant 
from each other. Although continually solicited by the weight, the 
striking train of wheels cannot turn except once at each hour, 
because it is locked by a tooth at one extremity of a " bell-crank " 
lever, T, engaging with one of a series of notches in the locking- 
plate, N. At the completion of each hour this tooth is lifted out by 
one of the twelve pins depressing the other end of the lever, and 
the striking train then rotates till the tooth of the lever falls into the 
next notch of the locking-plate. The tail of the hammer which 
strikes the bell intersects the path of the lifting pins, c, which are 
arranged around the great wheel of the striking train. The notches 
around the edge of the locking-plate are placed at such distances 
that at one o'clock the tooth enters a notch directly one blow has 
been struck on the bell. At the next hour there is a longer space 
before a notch is reached, and so two blows are struck before the 
train is again locked ; at the succeeding hour the space permits of 
three blows, and so on, till at twelve o'clock the plate has made a 
complete rotation, and the action of the preceding twelve hours 
recurs. The striking train would run down with increasing velocity 

]Vcii>Iit Clocks. 


but for the fan L, which keeps the periods between the strokes of 
the bell practically uniform. This is the principle of the striking 

Fig. 2S. — Clock of the Palais de Justice, Paris. 

work still used in most turret clocks, and till recently in nearly all 
small clocks of French make. The chief objection to it is that the 
hours are struck in regular progression without reference to the 

D 2 

36 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

position of the hands ; so that if the striking part happens to run 
down before the going part, the striking will be all wrong when it is 
started again, unless the precaution has been taken to set it going at 
the same hour as that at which it stopped. 

Fig. 28 shows the dial of De Vick's clock and its splendid sur- 
roundings, adjoining the side of the Palais de Justice, which faces 
the Quai aux Fleurs. Though the clock appears to have been 
erected in the round tower of the palace in 1370, the present archi- 
tectural environment was not completed till 1585. The engraving 
is from " Les Merveilles de I'Horlogerie." The figures of Piety and 
Justice flanking the dial, and the angels supporting the coat of arms 
which crowns the pediment, are by Germaine Pilon. On the upper 
tablet is the inscription, " Qui dedit ante duas triplicem dabit ille 
coronam." The panel below the dial perpetuates the quotation from 

Passerat : — 

" Machina que bis sex tarn juste dividit horas, 
Justitiam ser\-are monet legesque tueri." 

This celebrated clock has experienced several long intervals of 
neglect, and been many times repaired. In 1852, after thorough 
examination, its defects were made good, and it was in some 
measure reconstructed. The bell on which the hours are struck 
was cast by John Jouvance, and it is said that upon this bell was 
repeated the signal from St. Germain I'Auxerrois for the massacre 
of St, Bartholomew in 1572, The bell for the Montargis clock was 
also made by Jouvance. 

A turret clock which was erected at Dover Castle in the fourteenth 
century is still in action at South Kensington Museum. In con- 
struction it is somewhat similar to those of Lightfoot and de Vick. 
On the wrought-iron frame are the letters R.L. arranged as a 
monogram. The train, however, consists of only one wheel, which 
drives the escape-pinion so fast that there must have been either a 
very long driving-cord, or the clock must have been wound at 
frequent intervals. The winding is accomplished by means of 
handles or spokes projecting radially from one end of the barrel, 
which runs freely on the arbor of the wheel. On the face of the 
barrel which is nearest the wheel is a spring click, catching into 
the arms of the wheel, the arms thus serving the purpose of a 
ratchet. This click and ratchet arrangement was long favoured 
by some makers, and is often found in lantern clocks of the 
seventeenth century. The wheels of these early clocks were of 
wrought iron, the arms being riveted into the rim. A clock very 

Weii^ht Clocks. 


similar to the Dover one was erected at Peterborough about the 
same date. 

Exeter Clocks. — Few places probably can show more interesting 
relics of primitive horology than Exeter. " From the patent rolls 
of Edward IE," the kite Mr. Britton observes, in his description of 
Exeter Cathedral, " it is evident there was a clock in this church in 
1317. In the fabric roll under the year 1376-77, the sum of 1195. gd. 
is set down for expenses 
' circa caincvam in horeali tiwre 
pro Horlogio quod vocatuv 
clock — (this appears to be 
the earliest mention of the 
word) — de nove constrnendam.^ 
The whole charge in the 
roll ^7iova camera pro horlogio ' 
iS;^io 6s. 5|i. In the same 
rolls we find repeated entries 
relative to the clock. In 
1424-25, two men were sent 
off on horse-back to fetch 
Roger, clockmaker, from 

Whatever its construc- 
tion, no trace of the original 
horologe can be found, but 
of its successor, stated to 
have been presented by 
Bishop Courtenay in 1480, 
the wrought-iron framing 
and the great wheel are pre- 
served, and were quite re- 
cently to be seen in the 
Chapter House. It is said that this clock was made by Peter 
Lightfoot, but if the date of its construction (1480) is correct, this 
cannot be true, for Lightfoot had then been dead some years. The 
dial which still does duty bears a resemblance to the one of Eightfoot's 
at Glastonbury, from which it was possibly copied. It shows the 
hour of the day, and the age of the moon ; upon the face or dial, 
which is about seven feet in diameter, are two circles, one marked 
from one to thirty for the moon's age, the other figured from I. to 
XI I. twice over, for the hours. In the centre is a semi-globe, 

Fig. 29. 


Old Clocks and WatcJies and their Makers. 

representing the earth, round which a smaller ball, the moon 
painted half white and half black, revolves every month, and in 
turning upon its axis shows the varying phases of the luminary 

which it represents ; be- 
tween the two circles is a 
third ball, representing the 
sun, with a Jleur de lis, 
which points to the hours 
as the sun, according to 
the ancient theory, daily 
revolved round the earth. 
Underneath it is the in- 
scription, " Pereunt et 
imputantur " (they [the 
hours] pass and are placed 
to our account). In 1760 
the clock was thoroughly 
repaired by William 
Howard, when an addi- 
tional dial to show the 
minutes was provided and 
placed on the top of the 
case as shown in Fig. 29. 
The movement was re- 
placed by a modern one in 

The hours are still 
struck on " Great Peter," 
a fine-toned bell in the 
north tower. This bell 
was the gift of Bishop 
Courtenay, and was 
brought from Llandaff 
(1478-86). According to 
Worth's excellent Guide 
to Exeter Cathedral, it 
was re-cast in 1676 by 
Thomas Perdue. Its weight, as computed by the Rev. H. T. 
Ellacombe, is 14,000 lb., its diameter at the mouth 76 inches, and 
its height 56 inches. 

In the tower of the Church of St. Mary Steps, near by where 

TlV/i,'A/ Clocks. 39 

once stood the old West Gate, is a most curious clock, which is 
probably a production of the sixteenth century. The corners of the 
dial are embellished with basso-relievos representing the four seasons, 
and in an alcove over the dial are three automatic figures, as shown 
in Fig. 30. The centre one is a statute of Henry VIII. in a sitting 
posture, which, on the clock striking the hour, inclines the head at 
every stroke. On each side is a soldier in military attire, holding a 
javelin in one hand and a hammer with a long handle in the other. 
These soldiers strike the quarters by alternate blows on two bells 
beneath their feet. 

The three figures are termed by many Exonians " Matthew the 
Miller and his two sons," from the fact that " Matthew the Miller," 
who resided in a place known as Cricklepit Lane, was remarkable 
for his integrity and regular course of life. His punctuality of going 
at one hour for and returning with his grist led his neighbours to 
judge with tolerable exactness the time of day from his passing. 
By this the statue received its vulgar name. Some years ago the 
following distich used to be current in Exeter : — 

Matthew the Miller's alive, 

Matthew the Miller is dead, 
For every hour in Westgate Tower, 

Matthew nods his head. 

Another old clock is contained in the tower of St. Petrock's 
Church, in the High Street. This timekeeper is believed to date 
from 1470. In the tower also is a peal of six bells, the oldest of 
which bears the arms of Henry V. or \T., not later than 1425. 

St. Mary's Church, Oxford. — There was a clock at St. Mary's 
Church, Oxford, in the fifteenth century, and one of the ancient 
Latin statutes of the University is devoted to the duties of its 
custodian. Other references are made to it in the proctor's accounts. 
Under date 1469 is " Pro custodia horilogij \]s. v'njd.," and a some- 
what similar entry occurs in 1473. In 1523 a new clock was erected 
from fines imposed on negligent students. In the vice-chancellor's 
accounts from 1550 to 1554 is an item, " Paid to Thos. Masey for 
mendinge St. Maryes clocke, 25 Junii, travellinge (travailing) by the 
space of two weekes thereon, and was moreover paid the sum of 
tenpence for a clock for the said machine." On some parchment 
rolls in the tower of the schools, among the proctor's accounts, 
appears, " 1469, Pro custodia horilogii, iijs.," and " 1472, Pro 
reparatione horilogij, vJ5. viijrf." 

Although details are in most instances wanting, there are sufficient 

40 Old Clocks and ]Vatchcs and their Makers. 

references among the ecclesiastical records of the country to show 
that church clocks were pretty general throughout England in the 
fifteenth century. According to the churchwardens' accounts for 
Walberswick, in Suffolk, iid. was paid to the clockmaker in 1451, 
and 125. 8d. in the following year. In 1495, John Payn, the smith, 
of South wold, received 65. 8d. for a new clock, and in 1499 Nicholas 
Schrebbys was paid four sums — i/. 135. 4^., 65. 8^., i/. 2s., and 13s. ^d. 
— for the clock. 

John Baret, of Bury St. Edmunds, by his will dated 1463, 
bequeathed 85. yearly to the sexton of St. Mary's Church, "To keep 
the clokke, take hede to the chymes, wynde vp the peys and the 
plummeys as ofte as nede is." 

The records of Dunstable mention a clock over the pulpit in 
1483, and the churchwardens' accounts of Wigtoft, Lincolnshire, 
refer to several sums paid to Richard Angel for keeping the clock 
from 1484 onward. 

An old clock at York Cathedral, which was fixed to the wall near 
the south door and covered with a large Gothic case, was removed 
in 1752, when the present clock, made by John Hindley, was 

Strasburg Clocks. — The first clock set up in the interior of the 
cathedral at Strasburg was begun in 1352, and completed two 
years after, under John, Bishop of Lichtenberg. It consisted of a 
calendar, representing in a painting some indications relative to the 
principal movable feasts. In the middle part there was an astrolabe, 
whose pointers showed the movements of the sun and moon, the 
hours, and their subdivisions. There was placed at the same 
elevation the prime mover, and the other wheel work which caused 
the clock to go. The upper compartment was adorned with a 
statuette of the Virgin, before which, at noon, the three Magi (wise 
men of the East) bowed themselves. An automaton cock, placed 
upon the crown of the case, crowed at the same moment, moving its 
beak and flapping its wings. A small set of chimes, composed of 
several cymbals, formed a part of this work. 

The Second Clock, of which an exterior view is given on 
p. 41, was certainly a triumph of ingenuity. It was projected in 
1547; but though the designs appear to have been then ready, the 
execution went no further than the building of the chamber and the 
preparation of some of the heavier ironwork, till 1570, when Conrad 
Dasypodius, a mathematician of Strasburg, undertook to supervise 
the completion of the horologium. By his advice the mechanical 

Wci-ht Clocks. 


works were confided to Isaac and Josiah Habrecht, mechanicians of 
Schaffhausen, in Switzerland, wliilc TolMas Slimmer, of tin- same 

Fig. 31. — The Second Strasburg Clock, 
place, was employed to do the paintings and the sculpture which 
were to serve as decorations of the achievement. 

42 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Before, and at the foot of the clock, there was a celestial globe 
supported on four columns of wood richly carved. It performed a 
revolution on its axis, showing the stars known in the time of 
Ptolemy, about a.d. 140. These stars, to the number of 1,020, were 
grouped in forty-eight constellations, represented by as many figures. 
Two circles, one carrying the sun and the other the moon, turned 
round the globe, the first in twenty-four hours, the second in the 
space of about twenty-five hours. 

Immediately behind the celestial globe there Avas a large wooden 
disc, in which was painted a calendar for the space of a century, the 
months, the days, the Dominical letter, the names of the saints, and 
the dates of the principal movable feasts. The calendar made an 
entire revolution every year. The statues of Apollo and Diana, 
placed on two sides of the disc, pointed out, with their sceptres, the 
one the day of the year, the other the corresponding day at the end 
of six months. The central part of the calendar was immovable ; 
on it were represented the countries of Germany situated along the 
Rhine, and the topographical plan of the city of Strasburg. 

The compartments on each side of the calendar were occupied by 
large panels upon which were painted the principal eclipses of the 
sun and moon visible in the northern hemisphere, and answering to 
the interval of thirty-two years from 1573 to 1605. 

Above the calendar there were seen in the clouds the seven pagan 
divinities that have given their names to planets, and afterwards to 
the days of the week. These allegorical figures, seated in cars, each 
one drawn by the animals which mythology assigns to that par- 
ticular divinity, showed themselves successively on the days which 
were sacred to them. On Sunday, Apollo was seen, this day being 
dedicated to the sun. The ancients named it Dies solis (the day of 
the sun), and the Christians the Lord's day {Dies Dominica), whence 
is derived the French word, Dimanche, for Sunday. A representa- 
tion of Diana was shown on the second day, which was called Dies 
lima (day of the moon) — Lmidi — Monday. Mars, the god of war, 
appeared on (Mardi) Tuesday, the English word being derived from 
Tuesco, the Saxon name of the god of war. The fourth day was 
represented by Mercury, the messenger of Olympus ; French, 
Mercredi ; English, Wednesday (the latter being derived from Wodiu, 
the Saxon name of the same deity). The following day Dies Jovis, 
Jupiter's day; French, J eiidi; English, Thursday (derived from Thor, 
the Saxon name for Japiter). Venus succeeded on Friday (which 
in English is derived from Friga, the Saxon name of the goddess 

TlV/ifA/ Clocks. 43 

Venus). Saturn, the god of Time, came on Saturday, to close the 
Olympian procession. 

Immediately above the divinities of the week was erected a 
gallery, in the middle of which a small dial plate indicated the 
quarter-hours and the minutes, the hours being represented upon 
the astrolabe ; at the sides of the dial plate were seated two genii, 
of which the one placed on the right raised a sceptre each time the 
hour was to strike, and of which the other at the same moment 
turned upside down an hour-glass which he held in one hand, 
turning it always in the same direction. An astrolabe, constructed 
according to Ptolemy's system, occupied the greater part of the 
middle story, in the interior of which was contained the wheel work 
of the clock. Six pointers, bearing the same number of planets, 
pointed out, upon twenty-four divisions of the astronomical day, the 
movements of these heavenly bodies; one pointer, larger than the 
others and terminated by a sun, finished in twenty-four hours an 
entire revolution round a small map of the world placed in the 
central part of a large dial plate, which was ornamented at the 
same time by the circles of a horoscope and by the twelve signs 
of the zodiac. The upper part of the astrolabe was crowned with 
the phases of the moon. There was visible a small dial plate cut in 
its lower part by two semicircles, behind which the moon, repre- 
sented by a golden disc, disappeared at the time of the new moon, 
and came out from day to day to show successively a quarter part of its 
orb, till it presented to view its entire disc, at the time of full moon. 

At the third story of the clock there was a platform, upon which 
were fi.xed four small statues representing the four periods of life — • 
infancy, youth, manhood, and old age; these figures struck the 
(juarter-hours upon cymbals. 

Above this platform was suspended the bell intended for sounding 
the hours. Two figures stood beside this bell ; the one was Death 
under the form of a skeleton, the other represented Christ, having in 
one hand the cross and the palm branch. At the instant the hour 
ought to strike, the Saviour came forward, and the skeleton drew 
back; but hardly had this movement taken place when Christ 
retreated precipitately, and Death advanced in the same way, to 
strike on the bell the number of strokes required. This movement 
was repeated as many times as there were strokes in the hour. 

The turret, placed on the left of the principal edifice, contained 
the weights of the clock, as well as the machinery intended for the 
cock which was perched on the summit of this turret. This cock 

44 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

(the only piece which was preserved from the first clock, called the 
clock of the three kings) crowed at first daily, at noon, flapping its 
wings and opening its beak; but having been struck with lightning 
in 1640, it was made to crow only on Sundays and feast days. It 
ceased crowing entirely in 1789, at the time when overwhelming 
attention bestowed upon the great events that were taking place 
caused it to be completely forgotten. 

Third Strasburg Clock. — At length it was evident that some 
reconstruction was necessary. After considerable debate, the neces- 
sary work was entrusted to Jean Baptiste Schwilgue, who entered 
on his task in 1838, and completed it about the middle of 1842. On 
the 2nd of October of that year the life of the resuscitated marvel 
was solemnly inaugurated. Some of the former actions were altered 
or omitted, and fresh ones added, the greater part of the movement 
being entirely new, for only in some few cases was a restoration of 
the former mechanism practicable. 

The structure of the second clock was retained to encase the 
mechanism with but slight alteration. It is over twenty feet in 
height, and is surmounted by a remarkably handsome dome, as 
shown on page 41. On the right is a spiral staircase, by means of 
which the various galleries are reached. 

The motions now are briefly as follows : — On the floor-level is a 
celestial globe, indicating sidereal time. In its motion round its 
axis the globe carries with it the circles that surround it — namely, 
the equator, the ecliptic, the solstitial and equinoctial colures, while 
the meridian and horizon circles remain motionless, so that there 
are shown the rising and setting, as well as the passage over the 
meridian of Strasburg, of all stars that are visible to the naked eye, 
and which appear above the horizon. Behind the celestial globe is 
the calendar; on a metallic band, nine inches wide and thirty feet in 
circumference, are the months, the days of the month, Dominical 
letters, fixed and movable feast days. The band is shifted at mid- 
night, and a statue of Apollo points out the day of the month and 
the name of the saint corresponding to that day. The internal part 
of the annular band indicates true solar time ; the rising and setting 
of the sun; the diurnal motion of the moon round the earth, and its 
passage over the meridian ; the phases of the moon, and the eclipses of 
the sun and moon. Adjacent compartments are devoted to a perpetual 
calendar, solar and lunar cycles, and other periodic recurrences, solar 
and lunar equations, etc. Above the calendar appear allegorical figures, 
seated in chariots, and representing the days of the week. These 

]Vcii;ht Clocks. 45 

chariots, drawn by such animals as are assigned as attributes of the 
divinities, run on a circular iron railway and appear each in order. 

The dial for showing mean solar time is in the gallery above, 
called the Gallery of Lions. iV genius stands on each side of the 
dial. The one on the left strikes the first note of each quarter-hour 
with a sceptre he holds in his hand, the second note being struck 
by one of the four ages in a still higher gallery, as will be described 
presently. At the completion of each sixty minutes the genius on 
the right of the dial reverses an hour-glass filled with red sand. 

The story above is occupied by a planetarium, in which the 
revolutions of the planets are represented upon a large dial plate. 

Above the planetarium, and upon a star-decked sky, is a globe 
devoted to showing the phases of the moon. 

Next come movable figures representing the four ages, one of 
which in turn appears and gives upon a bell the second stroke of 
each quarter of an hour. At the first quarter a child strikes the 
bell with a rattle; a youth in the form of a hunter strikes it with 
an arrow at the half-hour ; at the third quarter the blows are given 
by a warrior with his sword ; at the fourth quarter an old man 
produces the notes with his crutch. When he has retired a figure 
of Death appears and strikes the hour with a bone. 

In the upper apartment is a figure of Christ ; and when Death strikes 
the hour of noon the twelve Apostles pass before the feet of their Master, 
bowing as they do so. Then Christ makes the sign of the cross. During 
the procession of the iVpostles, the cock perched at the top of the 
weight-turret flaps his wings, ruffles his neck, and crows three times. 

In addition to the mean time dial in the gallery, there is one, seven- 
teen feet in diameter, above the principal entrance to the cathedral, 

Liibeck Clocks. — A most remarkable clock was in 1405 erected 
in the church of St. Mary at Liibeck. Doubtless it has been much 
altered since that time; but in 1820, from the description of Downes, 
it was in good order. It consists of three compartments, the lowest 
of which contains the original inscription : — 

" Hoc horologium factum est primum, Anno mccccv, 
Hanc. rempl. gubernantibus Dn. IVoconsulibus Henrico 

Westof et 
Goswino Clingenberg, Provisoribus hujus ecclesiae. Ipso die 
purificationis Mariae. 

Aspectum coeli, Solis Lunseque nitorem, 
Lumina per certos ignem ducentia cursus, 
Ut fluat hora fugax, atque irrevocabilis annus, 
Hoc tibi, conspiciens ! oculis liaurire licebit. 
Sed resonos quoties modules campana remittit, 
Pronus astripotens Numen laudare memento." 

46 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

These lines may be translated as follows : — 

" This horologe [clock] was first made in the year 1405. The lord pro-consuls 
of this state, H. Westof and G. Clingenberg, being overseers of this church. In 
the very day of the Purification of the Virgin Mary. 

" The aspect of the heavens and the gleam of the Sun and Moon — luminaries 
drawing their light through certain courses, as flows the swift hour and irrevocable 
year, to thee, O beholder, will it be permitted to take in with thine eyes. But as 
often as the bell with resonant sounds [beats upon thine ears] remember in reverent 
attitude to praise the starpotent deity." 

There are also several other inscriptions recording the different 
dates at which the clock underwent repairs. 

The principal division of the compartment is occupied by a plate 
on which several concentric circles are described. This has a 
progressive motion, and is calculated to exhibit the various details 
of the calendar from 1753 to 17S5, such as the Sunday letters, the 
days of the week and month, the hours of sunrise, the golden 
number, the solar circle, the day of Easter full moon, and the 
number of weeks intervening between Christmas and Shrove Tues- 
day. The centre plate contains a specification of all the solar and 
lunar eclipses visible at Liibeck between the years 181 1 and i860, 
drawn up by the celebrated Bode, of Berlin. 

In the middle compartment another plate is inserted, containing 
an hour circle, a movable zodiac, and a dial which points out the 
hours and the solar place in the ecliptic. A gilt representation of 
the sun, accompanied by the inferior planets Venus and Mercury, 
appears on the dial. There are four other dials respectively 
calculated for Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and the moon. On two side 
columns the planetary hours are marked. 

The highest compartment contains a small tower, with a set of 
bells which play every hour, and a clock which is struck by a figure 
of Time, while on the opposite side, that of Transiency, which, as 
here personified, reverts its face at every stroke. Under this tower 
is the figure of our Saviour, before which a procession, representing 
the emperor and the seven electors, passes at twelve every day, 
entering at one side, and retiring at the other. The first-mentioned 
figure bestows a blessing on those of the potentates as they move 
by, and they express adoration by bowing the head. Two angels 
always announce the ceremony by sound of trumpet. An attendant 
stands before each of the little doors through which the train appears 
and disappears, and pays obeisance as they pass. The number of 
figures amounts to twelve ; hence some people have considered that 
they represent the Apostles. 

The sides of this stupendous horologe, which is enclosed by an 

Wcii^ht Clocks. 


iron railing, exhibit various scenes from the narrative of Christ's 
suffering's ; and carved in the corner of the framework surrounding 
one of these scriptural pieces is the figure of a mouse, which is the 
work-mark of Liibeck. 

Downes describes another extraordinary clock at Liibeck, in the 
Dome Church. This is of a much later date. The dial plate represents 
the face of the sun, the 
eyes of which, turning 
alternately to the right 
and left with the oscil- 
lation of the pendulum, 
produce a most hideous 
effect. Above are two 
figures, one of which 
personifies Faith, and 
beats the quarters ; the 
other a skeleton, said to 
represent Time, exhibits 
rather the lineaments of 
Death. In the left hand 
it holds an hour-glass, 
and in the right a ham- 
mer, with which it strikes 
the hours, slowly moving 
the head to the right and 
left during the process. 

The Hans of Jena 
clock, already referred to, 
is shown in Fig. 32, 
which is reproduced from 
Dubois' work. The legend 
is that Hans of Jena, re- 
presented by a monstrous 
head of bronze, is to be 
tantalised for three centuries by the pilgrim who presents to the 
open mouth a golden apple as the clock strikes, but quickly 
withdraws it before the mouth can be closed. The figure of an 
angel on the right raises its eyes and shakes the bell as each blow of 
the hour is struck. 

Whatever variations were made in the form or size of clocks 
during the fifteenth century, the principle of the mechanism 

Fig. 32. — Hans of Jena. 


Gld Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

remained unaltered, and such as were constructed appear to have 
been mostly for public buildings or persons of exalted position. 

The fact that small clocks and portable clocks are mentioned as 
existing in the fourteenth century, seems to have led to the 
supposition that the mainspring as a motor was then in use, but 
such a conclusion is vmwarranted. Most of these descriptions, or 
rather references, though interesting, are of the vaguest character, 
for instance, among the ancient inventories quoted by M. de 

Fig. ^2- — Chamber clock, fifteenth 
century. Bib. Nat. Paris. 



Fig. 34. — Fifteenth century clock from 
Italian tarsia-work. 

Laborde are "a.d. 1380, a clock of silver, entirely without iron"; 
and "a clock of white silver for placing on a column." In 1381, 
"I'oreloge" of Charles VI. being out of order, a smith from Senlis, 
named Robert d'Origny, who repaired it, received sixteen sols 
parisis. The accounts of the Duke of Burgundy recite that in 1407 
a smith (fevre) named " Jehan d'Alemaigne," supplied a movement 
for a small clock (petite orloge) to be placed in the chamber of 
" Madame." 

Sir John Paston, in the course of a letter written in the spring of 

Weight Clocks. 49 

1469, says : " I praye you speke wt Harcourt off the Abbeye ffor a 
lytell clokke whyche I 'sent liini by James Gressham to amend and 
yt ye woll j^et it off him an it he redy, and send it me, and as ffor 
mony for his labour, he hath another clok of myn whiche St. 
Thorns Lyndes, God ha\e hys sowle, gave me. He maye kepe that 
tyll 1 paye him. This klok is my Lordys Archebysshopis but late 
him not wote off it." 

The appended Fig. 33, from the Bibliotheque Nationale at 
Paris, purports to represent the remains of a hfteenth-century 
chamber clock. It is pretty evident there was originally a bell at 
the top of the case, and perhaps a hand to indicate the hour. It is 
not however certain there was a hand, for some of the early clocks 
had revolving dials. In the South Kensington Museum there is on 
a " tarsia," or inlaid wood panel of Italian late fifteenth-century 
production, a representation of a clock with a revolving ring, on 
which the twenty-four hours are marked, the current hour being 
indicated by a fixed pointer, as seen in Fig. 34. The whole panel 
represents an open cupboard, in which there are, besides the clock, 
a flagon, a chalice, a cross, etc. ; so one may infer that the clock was 
of comparatively small size, and of course of older date than the 
panel, which careful comparison by the experts of the Museum fixes 
at certainly not later than 1500. The action of the winding work is 
obscure, but with that exception the construction of the clock is 
toleral)ly clear. 

Anne Boleyn's Clock. — In the corridor at Windsor Castle is a 
clock which is said to have been presented to /Vnne Boleyn on her 
wedding morning by Henry VIII. It is rather over four inches 
square and ten inches high, exclusive of the bracket on which it is 
mounted, as shown in Fig. 35. It was purchased on behalf of Queen 
Victoria for ^iio 55. when Horace Walpole's collection at Straw- 
berry Hill was sold, and was then described as " a clock of silver gilt 
richly chased, engraved and ornamented with fleurs-de-lys, little heads, 
etc. On the top sits a lion holding the arms of England, which are 
also on the sides." This description is not quite correct, for the case 
is of copper gilt ; the weights are of lead cased in copper, gilt and 
engraved ; on the one visible in the engraving are the initial letters 
of Henry and Anne with true lovers' knots above and below ; on the 
other H. A. alone ; at the top of each is " Dieu et mon droit " ; at 
the bottom "the most happye ! " The movement at present in the 
case has brass wheels, a crown wheel escapement and a short 
pendulum ; though not modern it is certainly later than the middle 

c.w. K 


Old Clocks and ]Vatches and their Makers. 

of the sixteenth centiif y. 
'A sight of the clock 
evoked from Harrison 
Ainsworth a reflection 
to which but few will 
take exception. "This 
love token of enduring 
affection remains the 
same after three cen- 
turies, but four years 
after it was given the 
object of Henry's eternal 
love was sacrificed on 
the scaffold. The clock 
still goes ! It should 
have stopped for ever 
when Anne Boleyn 
died." And whether by 
accident or design, 
though the weights are 
suspended below the 
supporting bracket, the 
mechanism, which ap- 
pears to be in fairly 
good condition, is now 
silent, and the hand 
remains stationa ry . 
There is no record as 
to the maker of this 
interesting relic, but at 
this time most of the 
" orologes " were the pro- 
duction of foreign artists, 
judging from the names 
quoted in State Papers 
of the period. 

In the "Privy Purse 
Expenses of Henry 
VIII., from 1529 to 
1532," edited by Sir 
Harris Nicolas, it is 

Fig. 35. — Anne Boleyn's clock. 

Weight Clocks. 51 

recorded that in July, 1530, /'15 was paid to the Frenchman who 
sold the king " ij clocks at Oking." In the following month was 
paid to " a Frenchman called Driilardy, for iij dyalls and a clokk 
for the King's Grace the sum of ^15." In December of the same 
year ^19 65. 8^. was "paid to Vincent Keney clok maker for xj 
clokks and dialls." So many payments within a brief period 
warrant the assumption that clocks were a form of present favoured 
by his Majesty. 

In the " Sixth Report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission " 
mention is made of an agreement, dated 1599, between one Michael 
Neuwers, a clockmaker, and Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury, for the 
construction of a clock. " It is agreed that Michael should make a 
striking clock about the bigness of that which he made for the Earl 
six years past ; it is to be made by the last of December next. The 
cover or case of it to be of brass, very well gilt, with open breaking 
through all over, with a small fine hand like an arrow, clenly and 
strongly made, the ... or white dial plate to be made of French 
crown gold, and the figures to show the hour and the rest to be 
enamelled the fynelyest and daintyest that can be, but no other 
colour than blew, white, and carnalian ; the letters to be somewhat 
larger than ordinary; the price of the clock must be /'15, which 
makes with the earnest already given £16, but the circle I must pay 
for, besides the gold which shall make it ; the sides of the brass case 
must not be sharp, but round, and the case very curiously made." 

The Michael Neuwers here referred to was probably Michael 
Nouwen, a sixteenth century horologist, several specimens of whose 
work survive. That the Earl of Shrew'sbury was somewhat of a 
connoisseur of timekeepers, as well as an authority on horological 
matters, is borne out by the following letter, dated 161 1, from him 
to Sir Michael Hickes, which is preserved in the Lansdowne MSS. 
at the British Museum : — 

" I perceived by you to-day that you understood My Lord 
Treasurer's design was to have a watch, but I conceaved he wysshed 
a stryknge clock, made lyke a Watch, to stande oppon a Cubbart, & 
suche a one (though no new one, & yet under a dozen years ould) I 
have found oute, & send you by this bearer, which I pray you 
deliver to his Lordship from me, & tell him that I am very well 
perswaded of the truth of it, or else I should be ashamed to send him 
so gross & rude a piece as this is, & if I hadd thought his Lordship 
could have well forborne it but for four or five days longer, I would 
have bestowed a new case for it, for this is a very bad one. If his 

E 2 

52 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Lordship would not have it stryke, either in the dayes or nights, the 
striker may be forborne to be wounde up, and so the Watch being 
wounde up it will go alone. It will goe twenty-six houres, but I 
wysh it may be wounde up every mornyng or nyght about eight or 
nine o'clock, which will be sufficient until the next day or nyght at 
the same tyme." 

Among the State Papers of the time of James I. there is an 
original letter, dated August 4th, 1609, addressed by Sir Julius 
Csesar to the clerks of the signet, requesting them to prepare a 
warrant to pay ^300 to Hans Niloe, a Dutchman, for a clock with 
music and motions. And on the 17th of the same month Sir 
Julius wrote from the Strand to Salisbury, stating that he was 
pressed by Hans Niloe for the ;^300 for his clock. 

In " A true certificat of the names of the Straungers residing and 
dwellinge within the City of London," etc., taken by direction of the 
Privy Council, by letters dated September 7th, 161 8, it is stated that 
in the ward of Farringdon Within was then living " Barnaby 
Martinot, clockmaker; b. in Paris; a Roman Catholicque." In 
Portsoken ward was living "John Goddard, clockmaker; lodger and 
servant with Isack Sunes in Houndsditch ; h. at Paris, in Fraunce ; 
heer three years ; a papist ; yet hee hath the oath of allegiance to 
the king's supremacy, & doth acknowledg the king for his soveraigne 
dureing his abode in England ; & is of the Romish church." 

Clock at Hampton Court Palace. — Derham gives the numbers 
of the wheels and pinions of a large clock which appears to have 
been erected at Hampton Court Palace about 1540. This date is 
assumed from the marks N.O. or N.C. and the figures 1540 which 
were engraved on a bar of the original wrought-iron framework. If 
the letters were N.C, they may have referred to Nicholas Cratzer. 
In 171 1 the clock was repaired by Langley Bradley. The original 
and curious dial of the clock is on the eastern side of the gate-tower 
in the second quadrangle. It is composed of th^ee separate copper 
discs of different sizes, with a common centre, but revolving at vary- 
ing rates. The smallest of these is 3 ft. 3^ in. in diameter, and in 
the middle of this is a slightly projected globe, painted to represent 
the earth. The quarters marked on the centre disc by thick lines 
are numbered with large figures, and round the edge this disc is 
divided into twenty-four parts, a red arrow painted on the second 
disc pointing to these figures and showing at once the quarter in 
which the moon is, and the time of southing. Next to the figure of 
the earth in this centre disc, a circular hole, 10 in. in diameter, 

Weight Clocks. 


allows a smaller disc travelling behind to show the phases of the 
moon. On the second disc, 4 ft. i^ in. in diameter, but of which 
only the outer rim is seen, are twenty-nine divisions, and a triangular 
pointer, projecting from behind the central disc, shows the moon's 
age in days. The largest of the three discs is 7 ft. 10 in. in diameter. 
There are many circles painted on so much of the rim of this as is 
seen, the inner, or, following the order above observed and proceed- 
ing from the centre, the first circle, giving the names of the months. 

Fig. 36. — Dial of Hampton Court Palace clock. 

the second the days of the months (only twenty-eight for February), 
the third the signs of the zodiac, and on the rim, with 30° for 
each space filled by a sign, a circle divided into 360 parts. A long 
pointer with a gilded figure of the sun attached, projecting from 
behind the second disc, shows on this third or outmost disc of the 
dial the day of the month and the position of the sun in the ecliptic. 

54 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

This pointer performs another duty, acting hke the hour hand of an 
ordinary clock, and showing the time of day or night as it passes the 
twenty-four figures — two sets of twelve — painted on the stonework 
within which the dial revolves. The diameter of this outer immovable 
circle on the stone is g ft. 8 in., and the characters for the hours are 
Roman numerals, g inches in length. 

In 1575 a payment appears to have been made to George Gaver, 
Serjeant painter, for painting the great dial at Hampton Court 
Palace, containing hours of the day and night, the course of the sun 
and moon, and doubtless since that time the same necessary restora- 
tion has been often undertaken. In 1835 an extraordinary trans- 
position was made, for the works of the old clock were removed, 
and have since disappeared. In their place was fixed a movement 
with the following inscription : " This clock, originally made for the 
Queen's Palace in St. James's Palace, and for many years in use 
there, was, a.d. 1835, by command of his Majesty King William IV., 
altered and adapted to suit Hampton Court Palace by B. L. Vulliamy, 
clockmaker to the king"; and on another plate on the clock— 
"Vulliamy, London, No. 352, a.d. i7gg." Worse than all, the 
precious dial was taken down and stowed away in a workshop at the 
palace, the gap left being filled by a painted board. In iSyg, how- 
ever, a new and sufficient clock movement was provided, the dial 
found, restored by Mr. James Thwaites, and replaced. It now 
shows the hours, the motions of the sun and moon, etc., with 
certainly as much regularity as formerly, and as well as N.O. or 
N.C. could have desired. For the appended sketch of the dial I am 
indebted to Mr. Thwaites. 

Oronce Fine, mathematician to Francis I. and Henry II. of 
France, devised what is often spoken of as a planetary clock, which 
is shown in Fig. 37. The construction of this machine was begun 
in 1553, and after seven years, when it was completed, it was 
presented to the Cardinal de Lorraine. Afterwards it was placed 
in the library of St. Genevieve at Paris. It is in the form of a 
pentagonal column seventeen inches in diameter and six feet high. 
The movement concealed in the pillar is composed of over one 
hundred wheels and actuated by a weight which falls one foot per day 
and was calculated to keep the apparatus going for forty-eight hours. 

Clock by Isaac Habrecht. — At the top of the main staircase 
of the British Museum is a most curious clock, which was bequeathed 
to the nation by Mr. Octavius Morgan. It was constructed in i58g 
by Isaac Habrecht, one of the two ingenious brothers who made the 

WeigJit Cloch 


second famous clock mechanism at Strasburg. It is about four feet 
in height, and tlie general design is the same as that of the left tower 

Fig. 37. — Planetary clock of Oronce Fine. 

Fig. 38. — Clock by Isaac 

of the Strasburg clock, and on the sides of both are figures of the 
three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, and each is surmounted 
by a figure of the cock of St. Peter, which at the stroke of the hour 

56 Old Clocks and Watches and ihcir Makers. 

flaps its wings and crows. It had originally a balance as a con- 
troller, for which a pendulum was subsequently substituted. The 
quarters are struck by four figures, representing the ages of man, 
and the hour by a figure of Death. On a lower balcony is a seated 
figure of the Virgin and Child, before whom passes a circle of 
angels, who, as they are set in movement by the striking of the 
clock, are caused to make an obeisance in front of the Virgin. 
Below this, the gods of the days of the week perform their circuit, 
each driving in a chariot, while the dials on the lower stages fulfil 
the more useful functions of indicating the hour, the phases of the 
moon, the feasts of the Church, etc. The case is of gilt copper, 
with well-engraved figures and ornamental designs, perhaps by 
Tobias Stimmer, who was employed to decorate the original clock 
at Strasburg. The history of this clever piece of mechanism is 
somewhat curious, though it rests upon slender foundations. It is 
stated that Pope Sixtus V. was so pleased with the Strasburg clock 
that he ordered Habrecht to make one of the same kind. The time- 
keeper of which a view is given on page 55 was the result, and it 
remained at the Vatican for two hundred years. Its next appear- 
ance was in Holland, where it w^as in the possession of the king; 
from Holland it was brought to London and exhibited about 

In the royal palace of Rosenborg, Copenhagen, is a similar 
clock by Isaac Habrecht, and at the Historical Museum, Dresden, 
is one, also very similar, which was made for the Elector Augustus 
between 1563 and 1568 by the astronomer-horologist Baldwein, of 
Marburg, and H. Bucher, under the direct superintendence of the 
learned Landgraf William IV. of Hesse Cassel. 

Lyons Clock. — The cathedral of Lyons contains a remarkable 
specimen of complicated horological work, which is in the form of 
a tower forty feet high. The original clock was constructed by a 
mechanician named Nicholas Lippms, of Basle, who completed it in 
1598. Guillaume Nourisson in 1660 repaired the structure, and 
among other alterations introduced a large oval dial. Not only was 
the outline of the dial oval, but also the graduated and figured band, 
which was divided into sixty to represent the minutes, and with 
distinct marks for the quarter hours. From a description of this 
curious clock published in 1677, are taken the following engravings, 
which show how the hand dilated and contracted as it travelled 
around the dial in order that one tip might always indicate the 
minute and the other the quarter hour, 

Weight Clocks. 


Fig. 40 is the exterior of the hand stretched to its maximum 
length. As the hand approaches the narrower part of the oval, the 

Fig. 39. — Lyons clock. 

inner socket-like ends of a and h pass over the extremities of the 
fixed central portion. 


Old Clocks and Watclies and tlieir Maker: 

Fig. 41 is a view of the central part with the ornamental covering 

Fixed to the centre part is a cannon pinion driven by a bevelled 
pinion which also drives another pinion, the stalk of which passes 
through the cannon to the upper part of the hand, and there engages 

Fig. 40. 

with a double crank attached by means of connecting rods with the 
solid core of the parts a and h. 

This dial is on one side of the tower. On the front are two dial 
plates as shown in the engraving on page 57. The lower one is a 
calendar, and the other an astrolabe. The calendar is divided into 
365 divisions, on which are fixed crowns. Each crown represents 
the day of the month in the calendar, and the name of the saint. 

Fig. 41. 

when the anniversary of the latter is due. The names of the 
months are on the circumference. The circle forming the centre 
is divided into sixty-six years, and moves one division forward on 
the 31st of every December. The inscriptions about the religious 
festivals, etc., are in handwriting on parchment. The astrolabe is 
exceedingly ingenious. Thereon all the zodiacal and other astro- 
nomical signs are displayed, the solar and lunar movements, etc. 
In the upper part of the tower are various automatic pieces. There 
is a gilt niche in which appear representations of the days of the 

]]^ci\i^ht Clocks. 


week. For Sunday the symbol is the Resurrection ; Monday, 
Death ; Tuesday and Wednesday, Saints Stephen and John ; 
Thursday, the Sacrament ; Friday, the Passion ; Saturday, the 
X'irgin. At niichii^ht, the statue that has finished duty cedes the 

Fig. 42. — Venice clock. 

place to that for the coming day. On the left is an angel which 
turns a sandglass every hour ; on the right, another angel beats the 
measure with head, hand, and foot, as the clock strikes each hour. 
Above all is a large space, where the Almighty in the scene of the 
Annunciation bestows His benediction. The cupola terminates the 
monument and covers the bells, which play several religious chants 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

and the Ave Maria. There is the figure of a beadle who appears, 
and marches round the gallery, to inspect, as it were, the bells. 

In 1895, Chateau, of Paris, thoroughly repaired the clock, by 
direction of the French Government. 

Fig. 43. 

Venice Clock.— The first clock in the Square of St. Mark, at 
Venice, the work of Giovanni P. Rainaldi, of Reggio, and his son 
Carlo, was completed in 1495. Of its construction but httle is known. 
Its successor, the monumental timekeeper shown on page 59, was 

nV/if/;/ Clocks. ' 6i 

erected at the Grand Piazza early in the seventeenth century. 
There is a large dial showing the hours, and above is a balcony 
of gilt lattice surrounding an image of the Blessed Virgin, seated 
between two doors overlaid with gold. Evelyn, in his " Memoirs," 
under date 1645, speaks of this "admirable clock, celebrated next to 
that of Strasburgh, for its many movements ; amongst which about 
twelve and six — which are their houres of Ave Maria, when all the 
towne are on their knees — come forth the 3 kings led by a starr, 
and passing by ye image of Christ in his Mother's armes do their 
reverence, and enter into ye clock by another doore." Another 
writer in 1841 remarked that at a certain period of every year, on 
the Feast of the Ascension, and fourteen days afterwards, as the 
hour struck, the door on the right hand opened and an angel with a 
trumpet issued forth, followed by three Eastern kings, each of 
whom, as he passed the Virgin, raised his crown, bowed, and then 
disappeared through the other door. The hours are struck by two 
bronze giants on a large bell which surmounts the structure. 

Alterations to the movements appear to have been made from time 
to time, the most recent in 1859. The clock as it now exists is shown 
in Fig. 43, reproduced from a photograph taken by INIr. Julien Tripplin. 
Above the balcony is seated a figure of the Virgin Mary, and the 
doors on each side are utilised to exhibit by means of jumping figures 
the hour and minute. On the left facing the structure appear Roman 
numerals representing the last completed hour, and on the right the 
number of minutes past, these figures changing automatically every 
five minutes. 

( 62 ) 


Portable Timekeepers. 

It was not until driving weights depending from cords or chains 
were superseded by a more compact motor, which allowed of their 
being readily transported from place to place, that timekeepers were 
regarded as objects of particular interest, the acquisition of which 
was sought in fashionable circles. 

The Hon. Daines Barrington, in vol. v. of the Avc]ia;ologia, speaks of 

^' "f^i^' 

i 1'-.. 44. Fig. 45. 

Canister case ; covers pressed on, back and front (no hinged joints). 

a watch as belonging to Robert Bruce, who died in 1328. This watch 
was of small size, with an enamelled case, a piece of transparent 
horn over the dial, and had engraved on the plate " Robertus Bruce," 
in Roman characters. Though it passed current for some time at the 
end of last century, and eventually became theproperty of George III., 

Portable Tiuickecpcvs. 


careful examination revealed the fact that the inscription was 
undoubtedly a recent addition, and the watch a production of three 
centuries later than Bruce. Except that the quotation of Harrington's 
statement is perennial, it would be hardly worth while to refer to so 
clumsy an imposition. A watch now in the Schloss collection is, I 
believe, the one referred to. It will be illustrated in Chapter IV. 
It is now generally conceded that the production of a portable 

Fig. 46. — Cover closed. 

timekeeper was accomplished by Peter Henlein or Hele, a clock- 
maker of Nuremberg, who was born in 1480 and died in 1542. He, 
shortly after 1500, used a long ribbon of steel tightly coiled round a 
central spindle to maintain the motion of the mechanism. The 
invention has been ascribed to Habrecht and others, at a much later 
date, but Johannes Coccleus, who was born in 1470, in his com- 
mentary dated 151 1, accurately describes a striking watch and 
distinctly credits its introduction to Henlein. Although portable 
timekeepers were not in general use for a long period afterwards, a 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

taste for table clocks and watches was at once apparent among 
wealthy people, who delighted in the possession of curious novelties. 
The earliest watches are scarcely to be distinguished from small 
table clocks. The case was a cylindrical box, generally of metal, 
chased and gilt, usually with a hinged lid on one side to enclose the 
dial, the lid being engraved and, as a rule, pierced with an aperture 

Fig. 47.— Cover open. 

over each hour, through which the position of the hand might be 
seen. Most of the watches were provided with a bell, on which in 
some cases the hours were sounded in regular progression ; in other 
instances the bell was merely utilised for an alarum. When 
furnished with a bell the case w^as, as a rule, worked a Jour to 
emit the sound. Cases in which the covers over the dial and back 
are quite flat, and the edges of which project over the middle of the 
body, are often spoken of as tambourine or drum cases. A canister 

Portable Tiiiicki-cpcys. . 65 

case is understood to he one in which the covers are not hinged to 
the body of the case, but simply pressed on in the same way as is 
the cover of a canister. 

Ilhistrations of dissimilar examples are appended. All are worth 

Fig. 48. — Tambourine case, jointed cover. 

examination. In Fig. 49, to form twelve apertures through which 
the position of the hand might be seen, and to connect the outer part 
of the cover with the centre, are six pairs of male and female figures 
joining hands, well carved with very pretty effect. A happier com- 
bination of ornament and utility would be difficult to conceive. 
At the South Kensington Museum is a circular table clock, about 
c.w. F 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig. 49. 

Fig. 50. 

Fig. 51. 

three inches in diameter, in an engraved brass case having a per- 
forated dome surmounted by a small horizontal dial. On the mside 
of the bottom cover is inscribed, "P. H. Nor . . 1505." This 

Portable Thiickccpcrs. 


led to the supposition that "Nor" stood for Norimbergae, "at 
Nuremberg," and that the clock was the handiwork of Hele. The 
plates of the movement are of steel, and the piece appears to be 
evidently a production of the sixteenth century, but the balance and 

Fig. 52 

Fig. 53. 

Fig. 54. 

its accessories are comparatively modern, and it would be unsafe to 
rely on the inscription as conclusive evidence of authenticity. 

A somewhat similar piece, of rather later date, is shown in 
Fig. 52, which is about two-thirds of the actual size of the clock. 

The square table clock of which two views. Figs. 53 and 54, are 

F 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

appended, is, judging from the engraving and general construction, 
a sixteenth century production. It is furnished with the primitive 
cross-bar balance. There is no indication of the maker or his place 
of abode. 

On very early productions the maker's name is exceptional ; 

- ■ r-j J j\ 

Fig. 55. 

initials were a more usual signature, and occasionally a work 
stamp is to be found, from which it may be possible to ascertain 
the locality of manufacture. Most German towns had a distinctive 
trade or work mark, that for Nuremberg being the letter N in a 
circle, and for Augsburg a pineapple. Sebastian Lehr, clockmaker 
to the city of Nuremberg, who died in 1556, may be taken to have 
been an eminent craftsman. Among others of the period of whom 

Po vta ble Tiinckccpc vs. 


mention is made is Hans Gruber, clockmaker and master of the 
Locksmiths' Guild about the middle of the sixteenth century. 

Fig. 5C. — Front with cover closed. 

Fig. 57. — Front with cover removed. 

Fig. 58. — Edge. 

Fig. 59. — Back. 

There are several specimens in tlie British Museum of a date 
between 1535 and 1570. Of two by Jeremia Metzger (or Metzker), 
Augsburg, one is furnished with a bow, and one is without any 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

provision for suspending the watch. The South Kensington col- 
lection includes a circular striking and alarum clock, supported 
by a figure of Atlas on a pedestal of gilt brass, inscribed thus: 
"Jeremias . Metzger . Vrmacher . 15.60 . in Avgspvrg." A clock 
with complicated movements by this maker in the Vienna Treasury 
is dated 1564. In the same repository are two watches in cylindrical 
brass cases which match each other. The movements bear the 

f |» I In ^«. « 


Fig. 60. 

letters A.S. arranged as a monogram, but there is no other indication 
of the maker. 

Fig- 55' from the Soltykoff collection, is one of the earliest of the 
kind. It is unnamed, but doubtless of German make, in a brass 
gilt case with covers top and bottom. In the open top cover may 
be seen the twenty-four perforations, through which the position of 
the hand could be discerned. For this engraving and other illustra- 
tions of sixteenth century horology, formerly in the magnificent 

Povtablc Ti)iickccpcrs. 


collection of Prince IMerre Soltykoff, I am indebted to the sumptuous 
descriptive quarto prepared by Pierre Dubois. 

Figs. 56, 57, 58, 59, are four views of a fine mid-sixteenth 

Fig. 61. 

century alarum watch, in a case of gilt metal, the front, back, and 
edge of which is perforated. On each of the covers is a bust as 

Of another early example belonging to Mr, Schloss three views 
are appended (Figs. 60, 61, 62). The movement is especially 

72 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

interesting. It is of the most primitive character, the balance for 

Fig. 62. 

Fig. 63. — Earl}' oval watch. 

Fig. 64. — Early oval watch. 

controlling the motion of the wheels being of the cross-bar type, 
designated by Froissard "-le folioV and by German writers ''■ivaagr 

Portable Timekeepers. 


Another feature, the "stackfreed," for etjualising the power, will be 
referred to a little further on. 

A large oval case, with geometrical perforations in the lid, was 
almost contemporaneous with the circular box form, and an oval 

Fig. 65 

Img. 6G. 

shape, either small and plain or larger with more or less of decora- 
tion, remained in favour for over a century. An early specimen is 
shown in Figs. 63 and 64. The oval striking and alarum w^atch 
reproduced in Figs. 65 and 66 is sixteenth century w^ork by Jacques 
Duduict, "-inaitve ovologiev en la bonne ville de Blois,'" and is from the 


Old Clocks and WntcJies and their Makers. 

Soltykoff collection. It has covers back and front, on each of which 
is a tableau reproducing a scene in the life of Esther. 

The luxury and extravagance in dress which characterised the 
Elizabethan period required more variety of form and colour than 
could be found in a plain regular form of gold or silver, so rock 
crystal and other stones were often converted into cases, which were 
cut in the form of crosses, stars, shells, and other extraordinary 

FiG. 67. 

Fig. 68. 

fancies, while the dials and mounts were occasionally enriched 
with coloured enamels. The most elegant of these costly toys 
emanated from France, Blois being distinguished as an early seat 
of manufacture. 

Figs. 67 and 68 represent what Dubois declared to be one of the 
richest productions of the kind which has survived. It is from the 
Soltykoff collection, oval in form, with square edges, in a case of 
crystal, with mountings engraved, splendidly enamelled, and further 
embellished with diamonds and rubies. The ball depending from 

Portable Timekeepers. 


the bottom of the case is a fine pearl. The dial is of gold, the 
borders above and below being enriched with enamel of various 
colours. The back plate is engraved all over with arabesques, 
giving a delightful effect. In the midst of the engraving may be 

Fig. 69. — Front with cover removed. 

Fig. 70. — View of back. 

Fig. 71. — Front cover. 

discerned the letter N, the Nuremberg work mark. It bears no 
indication of the maker's name, but from the primitive foliot balance 
and other features it may safely be classed as not later than mid- 
sixteenth century work. 

There is at the Horological Institute a print of a very old striking 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig, 72 

or clock-watch, the case of which is enriched with remarkably fine 

arabesque work, pierced to emit the sound. Three views of it are 

appended : Figs. 69, 70, 71. 
The dial has two hour circles, 
the divisions of the outer 
circle being marked with 
Roman, and those of the 
inner with Egyptian cha- 
racters, while between the two 
is a circle of minute marks. 
I have had an opportunity of 
examining' the watch, Avhich 
belongs to Mr. Schloss. It 
is one inch and three-quarters 
in thickness, and three inches 
in diameter ; the wheels are of 
iron, but it has neither barrel 
nor fusee. There are two 

springs, one the motive power for timekeeping, and the other for 

striking, which is effected 

upon a broad bell occupying 

the whole bottom of the 

watch. The outer end of 

the mainspring appears to 

be attached to a pillar 

between the plates — an 

arrangement reintroduced 

in quite modern times 

for cheap clocks. 

There has been lately 

added to the British 

Museum a table watch in a 

drum-shaped case, dating 

from about 1550. It is 

from the Zschille collection, 

and is shown in Fig. 72. 

The mechanism is very 

crude, without screws, and 

includes a foliot balance and 

"stackfreed." The movement bears, in a shield, the work mark M and 

a Jicuv-de-Us. 

Fig. 73. 

Portable Timchccpcrs. 


The watch case shown in Fig. 73 is interesting as a specimen of 
pierced chasing, probably German, dating from about 1560. 

A fine striking watch in a circular table case, from the Soltykoff 
collection, is shown in Fig. 74. It dates from about 1575 and is by 
Charles Cusin, " iiiaitre horlogcy dc la ville d'Aiitiiii." The hour band 
is of silver and the hand of blue steel. It has covers top and 
bottom, the upper one pierced 
as shown ; the solid centre is 
the reverse of a mounted cava- 
lier, of which the obverse is 
visible when the cover is closed ; 
this it is averred represents 
Henri IV., King of France and 
of Navarre. The under-cover, 
simihuly pierced, contains in 
the centre a mounted figure, 
said to be a counterfeit of the 
son of Marie de Medicis, after- 
wards King of France. 

The origin of the term 
" watch " is not very clear. It 
may have been taken from the 
Swedish vacJit, or from the 
Saxon wcrcca, "to wake"; but 
whatever its derivation, it had 
not, when introduced, the signi- 
fication we now attach to it, 
because timekeepers were not 
then worn in the pocket. But 
"watch," or "clock," or " oro- 
loge," seems to have been used 
indifferently as a title for time- 
keepers,- and so it is often 
difficult to decide whether a weight clock of large size or a very 
minute spring timepiece is meant. Derham, in all the editions of 
his book, speaks of timekeepers driven by weights as watches, 
reserving the word clock for parts connected with the striking. 

The action of the mainspring, which still retains its place as a 
motor for portable timekeepers, will be understood with the aid of 
Fig. 75. Here, as is usually the case, the spring is contained in a 
circular box or barrel c, its inner edge being hooked on to the enlarged 

Fig. 74. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

part of the arbor a, and its outer end attached to the inside of the rim 
of the barrel. The arbor passes through and fits easily a hole in the 
bottom of the barrel, and a hole in the barrel cover e. The spring is 
wound by turning the arbor, and then if the spring barrel is attached 
to the largest wheel of the clock, in place of the cylinder or drum 
from which the weight was suspended, the spring in its effort to 
unwind turns the barrel, and with it the wheels composing the clock 
train. Of course some provision must be made to prevent the spring 
from at once uncoiling when the arbor is released after winding, and 
the simplest plan is to have a ratchet wheel fixed on one end of the 
arbor, with which a click pivoted to the framing of the timekeeper 
engages. When the barrel is used in conjunction with a fusee, as 

Fig. 75. — Mainspring 
and barrel. 

Fig. 76. — Mainspring barrel and fusee. 

a, mainspring barrel; b, fusee; c, great wheel; 
rf, winding square ; e, snail-shaped flange. 

will be described presently, the spring is wound by turning the barrel 
instead of the arbor. 

But it is evident that just as the spring offered increased resist- 
ance to every successive turn of the arbor in winding, so the force 
transmitted by it when fully wound would be very much greater 
than the force exerted after the barrel had made a few turns and 
the spring had partially run down, and this variation of force was 
the cause of considerable perplexity for some time after the 
invention of the mainspring, for with the verge escapement 
variation of force means variation of timekeeping. The first con- 
trivance applied with a view of overcoming or abating the drawback 
was that known as the " stackfreed." I have tried in vain to trace 
the derivation of this curious word, but am told it is of Persian 
origin. The device did not prove to be an enduring one ; but it was 
appHed to most portable timekeepers up to about 1540, and occa- 
sionally afterwards to the end of the century. It is shown in Fig. 77, 
which is a watch in a canister case with the back cover removed. 
The front and edge of the case have already been illustrated. The 

Poriablc Timekeepers. 


action of the " stackfreed " may be gathered froin an examination of 
the engrax'ing witli the following explanation. 

Fixed to the mainspring arbor above the top plate is a pinion 
having eight leaves. This gears with a wheel having twenty-four 
teeth, which do not (juite fill out the circumference of the wheel, but 
lea\e a block of two spaces in width which acts as a stop to the 
pinion when the mainspring is wound, and after it has run down 
three whole turns. Fastened to the wheel is a cam, nearly concentric 
for about seven-eighths of its circumference and indented for the 

Fig. 77. 

Watch movements with 

Fig, 78. 


remainder. There is a groove in the concentric portion of the edge, 
into which is pressed a roller which is pivoted at the free end of a 
strong curved spring. When the mainspring is fully wound the 
roller rests in the curved depression of the cam, and the effort 
required to lift the roller up the incline till it is placed upon the 
concentric contour absorbs so much of the force of the mainspring 
as to prevent banking. When the mainspring has nearly run down, 
the roller, in entering the depression by pressing the cam in the 
direction that it is moving, really aids the mainspring in its effort. 
Besides the stackfreed and its appurtenances may be noticed in 
Fig. 77 the cross-bar balance, the very small balance cock, and two 

8o Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

hinged bolts which shut into holes in the edge of the case, and so 
secure the movement in position. The plates, the train wheels, 
stackfreed, balance cock, and balance are all of iron or steel, and the 
various fastenings are made by means of pins or rivets, there being 
no screws used throughout. This movement is, in fact, an excellent 
example of the very earliest kind of portable timekeepers. 

Fig. 79. — Dial of table clock by Jacob Zech. 

In Fig. 78, which shows a later stackfreed movement, is a point 
worthy of note. As a form of regulator are two banking pins of 
stiff bristle, which the straight arm of the balance knocks against. 
These are mounted on a lever which is pivoted at one end by means 
of a screw near the edge of the plate. The pins may be caused to 
approach or recede from the centre of the balance by moving the 
free end of the lever, and in this way the vibrations of the balance 

Portable Ti)nckccpcr<>. 81 

Would be retarded or (juickened. An engraved scale on the plate 
registers the movement of the free end of the lever. 

It is not a matter for surprise that a frictional brake like the 
stackfreed, which must ha\'e absorbed an appreciable proportion of 
the force, failed to give satisfaction for equalising the pull of the 
mainspring. The fusee invented for the same purpose by, it is said, 
Jacob Zech, of Prague, about 1525, is of a far different nature, and 
still survives. It consists of a spirally grooved pulley, which is 
interposed between the mainspring barrel and the great or driving 
wheel of a clock or watch, the connection between the barrel and 
the fusee being made by a cord or chain, one end of which is attached 
to the barrel and the other to the fusee. When the spring is relaxed 
there must be at least as many coils of the cord around the outside 
of the barrel as the barrel is to make turns in winding the spring. 
To wind the spring, the fusee is rotated by means of a key fitting a 
square formed at one end of its arbor, whereby the cord is drawn 
from the barrel on to the fusee, the first coil being on the larger end 
of the fusee, as shown in Fig. 76. 

Then, as the mainspring runs down, the barrel rotates and coils 
the cord on to its periphery again. But while the mainspring when 
fully wound turns the fusee by uncoiling the cord from the smallest 
part of the fusee, it gets the advantage of a larger radius as its energy 
becomes lessened, and by proportioning the diameter of the fusee to 
the varying pull of each successive turn of the mainspring an 
excellent adjustment is obtained, so that the pressure exerted by the 
great wheel on the centre pinion is constant. The fusee is fixed to 
its arbor, on which, in the simplest arrangement, the great wheel 
rides easily, the connection between the fusee and great wheel being 
made by means of a ratchet wheel and click ; this allows of the 
fusee being rotated to wind the mainspring. To prevent undue 
strain on the cord when the winding is completed, the cord as it is 
being coiled on to the smallest turn of the fusee pushes an arm 
which is pivoted to the framing of the timekeeper in the path of a 
snail-shaped flange of the fusee, and this forms a stop. The barrel 
arbor is always stationary. In the early fusees the cord was of 
catgut, and this material is still sometimes used for clocks. Chains 
were introduced in place of catgut for watches in 1664, by one 
Gruet, a Swiss, and they are still used for marine chronometers, 
for some clocks, and for the few fusee watches that are made. 

Table clocks or watches of the sixteenth century are exceedingly 
rare. Many specimens put forward as such are found on examination 

c.w. G 

82 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

to be of a later date. There is no doubt that the manufacture 
of portable timepieces extended to Holland and France before the 
end of the century, but very few examples of that period survive. 
A genuine specimen would have no covering glass over the dial, 
and, if a fusee were present, the connection between it and the 
barrel would be by a piece of catgut, and not a chain. There would 
be, of course, no controlling spring to the balance at that period, 
while the balance cock, instead of being spread over the whole 
extent of the balance, would be narrow. The workmanship of the 
movement would be comparatively rough, however lavishly the case 
might be ornamented. 

During the first quarter of the century the frames and wheels were 
of iron or steel ; productions of the second quarter having brass 
plates and pillars are occasionally to be met with. But brass wheels 
before the middle of the century were quite exceptional. Screws 
seem to have been introduced to join pieces of metal in German 
timekeepers about 1550, so that in early sixteenth century time- 
keepers these convenient fasteners would be absent, and the various 
junctions made by riveting or the use of either pins or cotters. 
Screws are not met with in English work till quite late in the 
century, and are absent in some early seventeenth century watches. 
There were rarely any winding holes in the cases of sixteenth 
century watches ; to attach the key to the winding squares the case 
had to be opened and usually the movement to be turned out of the 
case, a cover at the back being the alternative. 

The Society of Antiquaries possess an undoubted example of the 
handiwork of Jacob Zech, the inventor of the fusee. It is a table 
timepiece with a circular brass gilt case gf in. in diameter, and 5 in. 
in height, which was bequeathed to the Society by Mr. Henry 
Peckitt, an apothecary, of Compton Street, Soho, and handed over 
by his executrix in 1808. It was given to James Ferguson, the 
astronomer and mechanician, by Mudge, and at the "^.ale of Ferguson's 
effects it was bought by Mr. Peckitt in 1777. Captain W. H. 
Smyth gives a minute description of this relic in Archcsologia, 
vol. xxxiii., from which the engraving of the dial (Fig. 79) is taken. 
From the decoration of the case and dial, it is inferred that the 
clock was made for Sigismund I., King of Poland, and that he 
presented it to Bona Sforza, to whom he was married in 1518. 
There are three shields equidistant round the case, which is 
altogether nicely decoratea. On one shield is an eagle displayed 
and crowned, representing Poland ; the second contains a serpent 

Portable Timekeepers. 


entwined and wavy pale crowned, a child issuant from its mouth 
and surmoimted by a ducal crown — this is typical of the house of 
\'isconti ; the third shield bears the arms of Lithuania, a knight 
armed cap-ii-pic, and mounted on a horse proper, holding in his 
dexter hand a drawn sword, and having pendent from his neck a 
shield charged with the Hungarian cross. The frame is fastened by 

Fig. 80. 

buttons on dogs. The verge pivots act on iron dovetails. The 
regulator is a cross-bar balance of the kind used in De Vick's clock, 
except that instead of loose weights of iron there are leaden weights 
screwed one on each end of the cross-bar, and the adjustment is 
made by screwing to or from the centre of- motion. Originally 
these were doubtless fixed weights riveted on and without any 
provision for adjustment. There are two yielding brass arms to act 
as a banking and check excessive vibration of the cross-bar. There 
are eight turns to the fusee, which is of soft metal, and in a circle on 
the face of the barrel is engraved in Bohemian an inscription which 

G 2 


Old Clocks and WaicJics and their Makers. 

Smyth translates thus: " When we counted 1525 years, then made 
me Jacob Zech" (or rather Jacob the Bohemian) "at Prague; it is 

There was originally some additional wheelwork to show the 
motion of the sun and moon on an engraved ecliptic, and also a 
contrivance to strike one at every hour. The wheels are of iron 
and show punch marks of division, proving that they had been cut 
with a file by hand. A catgut had been used to connect the barrel 

Fig. Si. 

with the fusee, but a metallic chain was subsequently applied, 
which destroyed several of the threads. Before this was done it 
went for forty-eight hours with one winding, and gave about 3600 
beats in the hour. 

Fig. 80 shows a primitive table timepiece which was formerly in 
the collection of Baron Pichon and now belongs to Mr. Albert 
Schloss. The drum-shaped case of brass gilt is engraved in the 
Renaissance style, and measures 5 J in. across. On the bottom 
is stamped in a scroll " N. Plantart." A very similar piece is in the 
South Kensington Museum. 

Portable Timekeepers. 


In the Ihitish Museum is an excellent specimen of a German 
early table clock of a scjuare oblong shape. The works are of iron. 

Fig. 82. 

It has no fusee. It fits into an engraved metal box, having a hinged 
cover. The date of production is stated to be 1530. 

Among the collection of Prince SoltykofF was the square table 
clock shown in Fig. 81. The sides are of bronze gilt, very finely 
engraved with allegorical subjects. Representations of St. Paul, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Matthew, Mark and Luke are engraved on silver medallions which 
occupy the centres. Inside the perforated dome is a bell, and 
surmounting: it a horizontal dial enriched with coloured enamels. 

Fig. 83. 

It was the work of Louis David, and dates from the middle of the 
sixteenth century. 

Nuremberg and Augsburg pursued the manufacture of portable 
timekeepers with considerable spirit. The plain square brass towers, 

Portable Timekeepers. 


round and octagonal boxes, gave place to cases of a much more 
ornate design when expense was no object. A very choice example 
from Dubois' historical work is shown in Fig. S2 ; it is of iron, 
damascened with precious metals, a style of work for which Augsburg 
was particularly famous. 

Several good representative specimens belonging to the King of 
Saxony are to be seen in Dresden, part of them in the treasury of 
the palace and part in the Historical Museum. In the green vaulted 
chambers or treasury of the palace is the so-called Venetian astro- 
nomical clock, which is, though, really of German workmanship. 

88 Old Clocks and WatcJics and their Makers. 

A front view of it is given in Fig. 83, but a photograph naturally 
fails to adequately convey the splendour of the case, which is of gold 
and silver covered with gorgeous work in enamel, or the extraordinary 
complexity of the mechanism. The movement bears no maker's 

Fig. 85. 

name, but of two somewhat similar clocks of the same collection 
one is signed by Andreas Schelhorn, of Schneeberg, in Saxony, 1570, 
and the other by Christoph Ullmeyer, of Augsburg. 

Of other specimens in the same repository may be mentioned a 
table clock of very rich appearance which belonged to the queen of 

Portable Timekeepers. 


Augustus the Strong, and was made, presumably about 1700, by 
Jacob Streller, of Nuremberg. Another %ery wonderful clock, the 
so-called Hunting clock, the movement of which was made about 
1700 by J. G. Graupner, is set in a magnificent case with figures of 

huntsmen at the corners and a group representing the legend of 
St. Hubert on the top, all enamelled in brilliant colours and blazing 
with diamonds and emeralds, the work of Johan Christoph Kohler. 
Then there is the famous "Tower of Babel" clock, made in 1602 by 
Hans Schlothein, of Augsburg. It is in the form of a tower of gilded 


Old Clocks and ]Vatches and their Makers. 

metal about four feet high, with a gallery in the manner of an 
inclined plane running round it spirahvise from top to bottom ; every 
minute a little crystal ball comes out of a door at the top of the 

Fig. 87. 

tower and, running all the way down the spiral gallery, enters a door 
at the bottom, when a bell rings. 

Of the horological treasures in the Historical Museum at Dresden 
I can give three illustrations, and wall begin with the remarkable 

Portable Timekeepers. 


clock of which a view appears in Fig. 84. It was bought in 1587 
for 500 gulden of Sebald Schwerzer, who was alchemist to the 
Elector Augustus of Saxony (1526 — 1586) and afterwards ennobled 

Fig. 88. 

by the Emperor Rudolph II., and he is supposed by some to have 
been the maker of the clock, though the claim has been disputed. 
The silver work of the case bears the mark of Elias Lenker, of 

Nuremberg, who died in 1591, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig. 85 is a very elaborate clock with eleven dials and automata. 
The case is decorated with many beautiful plaques of basse taille 
enamel upon silver. It is considered to be the masterpiece of its 
maker, Paul Schuster, of Nuremberg; it was bought in 1591, and 
so was presumably completed in that year. 



Fig, 89. 

In Fig. 86 is another curious clock of the same type, with moving 
figures representing an Indian king hunting with elephants. The 
maker's name is unknown, but the clock was already in the collec- 
tion of the Elector of Saxony in 1587. 

There is as well a curious clock which has upon_it the figure of a 

Portable TinichccpcVs. 93 

man leadinj:,^ a dancing bear ; when the hours strike, the bear beats 
a drum, and the man blows a horn. This piece also bears no maker's 
name, but it has Augsburg marks and probably dates from the end 
of the sixteenth century. 

The examples on pp. go and g i are from the Schloss collection. Fig. 
87, a sixteenth century production, is notable as being an early instance 
of a table clock having provision for striking the quarter-hours. 
There are three bells : a large one, concealed by the base ; a smaller 
one, enclosed by the gallery above the tower ; and a third, still smaller, 
which serves as a canopy over the figure seated above the gallery 
on a ball. The quarter-hours are struck on the smallest bell, and 
the last hour then repeated on the bell behind the gallery. On com- 
pletion of the hour it is sounded on the largest bell. There are two 
dials, one on the front and one on the back. On the main dial in 
front are shown the hours, and outside the hour numerals are marked, 
the quarter-hours, which are indicated by a hand, travelling round in 
one hour, but moving independently of the hour hand. The move- 
naent bears the signature V.M. in a shield. It has a cross-bar 
balance with shifting weights, and there are no fusees. The chasing 
of the case is exceedingly good, and the sides of the square part bear 
evidence of having been beautifully enamelled with birds and flowers. 

Fig. 88 is of later date, and is, I think, Italian work. There are 
three dials on the front and one on the opposite face. The movement 
is controlled by a pendulum which swings outside of the case at 
the back. 

In the South Kensington Museum is an Augsburg astronomical 
striking table clock, in an engraved brass and damascened iron case. 
On the bottom is a sun-dial and the inscription : — 

Jacob . Marqvart . von . Avgspvrg . bin . ih . genant . 

mein . Nam . ist . in . VVelslandt . gar . vvol . bekant . 

der . hat . das . VVercl^ . geraacht . firvvar . 

im . 1567 . Jar . 

ain . svnenvr . ist . das . genant . 

avf . Wels . vnd . Deisch . Landt . erkant . 

(I am called Jacob Marquart, of Augsburg ; 

My name is quite well known in Italy, 

Who has indeed done the work 

In the year 1567 ; 

This is called a sundial, 

Understood (?) in Italy and Germany.) 

The hexagonal clock in the form of a temple from the collection 
of Prince Soltykoff and shown in Fig. 8g is also a sixteenth century 
production. The movement is arranged in stories, the watch part 
being at the bottom and the striking work above. The six doors or 

t)4 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

panels between the fluted columns are of steel damascened with 
arabesques of elegant design. In the arched centre of one of the 
panels is the dial with a band of blue steel for indicating the hours 
of the day ; various planetary and astronomical motions were shown 
on the horizontal dial at the top of the structure. The upper part 
of the case in the style of Henri II. is very handsome ; the entablature 
is supported at the angles by six caryatides, and in the centre of 
each panel is a medallion with the head of a Roman emperor or 

Fig. go. — Curious table clock, early si.xteentii century. 

warrior sculptured in high relief and surrounded by a gilt border. 
A clock similar to the engraving, but surmounted by a statuette, is 
in the British Museum. 

Curious Octagonal Table Clock. — Some time ago, by favour 
of Mr. Charles Shapland, I had through my hands a curious 
sixteenth century striking clock of octagonal form, of which a view 
is subjoined (Fig. go). This clock, which is now in the British 
Museum, is probably of Nuremberg or Augsburg manufacture, and 
has a peculiar method of indicating the rising and setting of the sun 
daily throughout the year, by means of two thin metal dials within 
the hour circle. One of these dials is of silver and the other of steel 
for contrast ; each of them forms a segment nineteen twenty-fourths 
of a circle, divided by ''adial lines into nineteen parts, which are 
numbered at the circumference from one onward in Arabic iigures, 

Portable Timekeepers. 95 

so that each division is one twenty-fourth of the whole circle. A 
brass disc, di\ided into twenty-four, is fixed to the steel dial by rivets 
at Nos. I and 3 ; No. 24, or zero point of the circle, coinciding with 
what may be called the initial edge of the steel dial. The steel and 
silver dials are interlaced — that is to say, the concealed portion of 
the steel dial is underneath the silver one, while the initial edge is 
above it. At the shortest day in the year the least portion of the 
silver dial would be visible, and the figure on the silver dial next to 
the initial edge of the steel dial would represent the number of hours 
the sun was above the horizon, while the figure on the central brass 
circle, which happened to be coincident with the initial edge of the 
silver dial, would represent the number of hours he was below the 
horizon, and the subdivisions of the hour could he well estimated to 
within a tenth. 

The dials are continually revolving in opposite directions, so that 
as the days lengthened more of the silv-er and less of the steel dial 
would be seen. At the close of the longest day the motion of the 
dials would be reversed, and the visible surface of the silver dial 
would be diminished each day in the same ratio that it was formerly 
increased, till the shortest day recurred. 

It is probable that these dials were arranged to show the beginning 
of the Hebrew day at sunset, as well as its duration and close at the 
succeeding sunset. 

On removing the dial plate, the way in which the dials are 
actuated is apparent. Fitting loosely on the centre wheel which 
carries the hour liand is a pinion of twenty-four leaves. The pipe 
of this has a cruciform top fitting into the centre of the silver dial. 
On the pipe of this pinion is another, larger in diameter, but also of 
twenty-four leaves, and with a similar top to carry the steel dial. A 
double rack or segment of a wheel, having internal and external 
teeth, is pivoted close to the edge of the movement, and engages 
with both of the dial plate pinions, the internal teeth being farthest 
from the centre of motion, and of such a distance that they reach 
beyond the centre arbor and engage with the teeth of the larger 
pinion on the other side of it ; the external teeth are so placed that 
they engage with the teeth of the smaller pinion, but on the side of 
the centre arbor nearest to the centre of motion of the rack. 
There is on the plate of the movement, midway between its centre 
and its edge and driven from the fusee, a wheel which turns once 
a year. This carries a crank, from which is a connecting rod 
catching hold of the double rack ; so that, as the crank re\olves, it 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Maker's. 

gives a to-and-fro motion to the racl^. To meet the varying length 
of the years from leap year to leap year, there are four pins by which 

Fig. 91. 

the position of the crank could be altered, but, so far as one could 
see, there is no provision for automatic regulation, so that, if the 

Portahlc Timekeepers,. 


reading of the scale is to be exact, the dial would have to be 
removed and the position of the crank altered once a year. 

Recessed into the under-side of the clock case is an annual dial 
engraved with the signs of the zodiac, the titles of the months, and 
the days. The index for this is fixed to the arbor of the annual 

Fig. 92. 

wheel already mentioned, and the annual dial is therefore less than 
half the diameter of the movement. 

The case is of brass, engraved and gilt. The hour band is of 
silver, divided into two periods of twelve hours each, and marked 
with Roman numerals. Within the hour ring, and separating it 
from the sun rising and setting discs, is a brass gilt ring engraved 
with a cable pattern. 

c.w. H 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

All the dial work, the striking train and the going train wheels, 
up to the fusee, are of iron or steel ; the connection between the 
fusee and barrel is by a catgut, and the balance is very light, of the 

Fig. 93. 
(Havani, Dictionnairc de I'Ameublcment.) 

old cross-bar pattern, but with weights riveted on with no provision 
for after-adjustment. There is, of course, no balance spring. The 
hours are struck on a cap-shaped or cylindrical bell. 

In the construction of this timekeeper there is not a single screw 

Poriahic Tiiuckccpcrs, 


used. All fastenings are either pins or wedge-shaped keys or 

The quaint hexagonal striking and alarum table clock shown in 
Fig. 91 is a mid-sixteenth century production from the Schloss 
collection. On the six faces of the case are engraxed allegorical 
figures representing the sun, the moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and 
Venus, corresponding to the days of the week from Sunday to 
Friday, and, on the bottom of the case, Saturn for Saturday. A 
little door seen on the face innuediately to the right of the dial 

Fig. 94. 

permits the inspection of the fusee in order to estimate the period for 
winding. The movement is arranged in stories, the striking 
mechanism below and the going part above, the hemispherical 
bell being supported from the upper plate and covered by a perforated 
dome. On the upper surface of the plinth is the maker's punch 
mark, a square shield with M.H.B. arranged as a monogram. 

The example engraved in Fig. 92 is from the Soltykoff collection. 
The case appears to be a reproduction in miniature of a mediaeval 
hexagonal fortress. It is a striking clock, probably German, dating 
from about 1560. In the Webb collection at the South Kensington 

H 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Maker's. 

Museum is a somewhat similar clock ; the bottom of the case is 
stamped " AIX* A* P" (perhaps for Aix in Provence). 

"Nef," or Ship clocks, were a peculiar fancy of the sixteenth 
century. There is one in the British Museum, by Hanns Schlott, 
dating from about 1580, which is supposed to have belonged to 
Rudolf II., and another in the Vienna Treasury. The clock 
mechanism included provision for showing various astronomical 

Fig. 95. 

movements, and was quite subsidiary to the ship and its appurtenances, 
as will be gathered from the excellent example given in Fig. 93. 

In Fig. 9-1- is shown a German octagonal clock from the Soltykoff 

Early Clock with Minute Hand. — At the South Kensington 
Museum is a clock, in an elegant case of metal gilt, in the form of a 
temple, as shown in Fig. 95. Its height is 13^ in. and its width 

Port able Timekeepers. 


8 in. It is most elaborately chased and engraved with figures and 
arabesques. The pierced dome covers two bells, and is surmounted 
by a figure standing on a globe. The base is chased with masks 

'AW J 

and cartouche ornaments, with winged horses at the angles, and a 
dial on each of the four sides showing, besides the hours and 
minutes, motions of various heavenly bodies. This choice and 
interesting timekeeper, which formed part of the Bernal collection, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

was produced at Munich, and is dated 1587. Every minute is 
ficrured from i to 60, as was the custom on early timekeepers with 
minute hands. Though the presence of the concentric minute hand 
on sixteenth century work is exceptional, there is nothing to lead 
one to suppose that it is in this case an addition to the original 
construction ; and providing the minute hand would certainly 
present no difficulty to the mind capable of devising such intricate 
mechanism as is contained in the astronomical motions of this clock. 
I recently saw another clock of very similar character, which 

was inscribed, " asmus birln b 


1577," and the letters A.B. formed 
into a monogram. 

A somewhat similar portable 
clock (Fig. 96) from the Soltykofif 
collection is about 15 in. high and 
10 in. across the base, which is 
supported by four heraldic lions. 
There are five dials, two on the 
front face and one on each of the 
others ; they mark the hours of 
the day, the day of the month, the 
phases of the moon, the signs of the 
zodiac, and the course of certain 

Til is clock bears no maker's 
name, but a very similar one, also 
in the Soltykoff collection, was 
inscribed, "Andreas Muller, Tris- 
ten." It is probably mid-sixteenth 
century work. 

The next example, from the South Kensington Museum, is an 
elegant form of medallion clock in a rock-crystal case, on a stem, 
as shown in Fig. 97. The plinth is of metal gilt, with crystal 
plaques, and contains the striking train. The remainder of the 
movement is in the upper case. The longer of the two hands, 
which at the first glance seems to be a minute hand, really points 
to the day of the month marked on a ring outside the hour ring. 
The age of the moon is shown by a revolving gilt plate behind the 
dial, which is cut away to make the moon plate visible. The total 
height is 7^ in. It is signed "j. Wolf, W'ienn," and dated 1609, 

Fig. 97. 

Portable Tiiiickccpcrs. 


but the name "J. \\'olf" appears on examination to be a recent 
addition. It was formerly in the Bernal collection. 

The table clock represented in Fig. 98 resembles one at South 
Kensington Museum, which, as already mentioned, was probably 
made by Peter Hele, except that in the present example the body 
of the case is square. It is of brass gilt, with bold mouldings as 
shown, and very nicely engraved. Rising from this is a hemi- 
spherical dome pierced to emit the sound of the bell which it 

I'IG. 9,S. 

covers, and supporting above it a horizontal dial. The arrange- 
ment of placing the bell between the movement and the dial allows 
a handsome and appropriate design with which no fault can be 
found, except, perhaps, that in order to keep the dial from over- 
shadowing the dome it is necessarily rather small. On the exterior 
of the bottom of the case is engraved the word Vallhn. The 
Roman numerals I. to XII. are engraved on a silver band, and 
within are smaller Arabic figures, 13 to 24. 

The chief plate of the movement is square and pinned to the 


old Clocks and ]]'a'chcs and their Makers. 

upper part of the square box. Running vertically inside the box 
are two feathers; these pass through notches in the lower plate of 
the movement ; two turn-buckles on the lower plate butt against 
the ends of the feathers, and so secure the box after it is placed 
over the movement. The hand is driven from a pinion on the great 
wheel by means of an arbor, which passes through the post to which 

the bell is secured. It is 
probably a late sixteenth 
century French produc- 

In Fig. gg is shown a 
table clock, apparently 
English, dating from about 
1580, in a square brass 
case, gilded and beauti- 
fully engraved. It belongs 
to Mr. J. Hall, and very 
closely resembles one by 
Bartholomew Newsam, 
which is at the British 
Museum and illustrated in 
Chapter V. 

A good example of early 
seventeenth century table 
clocks is shown in Fig. 100. 
It is in a brass case, with 
silver hour ring, divided 
into twelve, and a fciir- 
de-lis midway between each 
hour. The characteristic 
features which note the 
departure from the earliest 
specimens are the glass 
panels in the sides of the case and the bronze feet, which give a 
better effect than is obtained with the primitive flat hexagonal and 
octagonal clocks, besides allowing space for the bell to project below 
the bottom surface of the case. 

The cocks and hammer are very nicely engraved and pierced, and 
on the plate is the name Johan Scheirer. A balance spring has 
been applied subsequently to the manufacture of the piece, and as 
the original balance cock is retained, the spring is much cramped. 

Fig. 99. 

Portable Tiiiu'kcc'prrs. 


The balance appears to be the original one and is weighted with 
pieces of metal to keep the vibration sufficiently s'ow after the 
addition of the spring. A notable peculiarity is that the fly pinion 
has but four leaves. 

The handsome striking and alarum clock shown in Fig. loi is 
from the Soltykoff collection. It bears no indication of its origin, 
but the monogram G.O. engra\-ed on it leads to the conjecture tliat 
it belonged to Gaston of Orleans, son of Henry IV. 

Early Clock with Balance Spring. — The interesting clock 
shown in Fig. 102 I saw recently at Messrs. Thwaites and Reed's. 

Fig. 100. 

In the centre of the dial is a plate with the moon's age marked on it 
and carrying the hour hand ; concentric with this a disc with a 
round hole showing the phases of the moon and age. In front, and 
also concentric with these, is an alarm dial with hands. This turns 
once in 24 hours. The wheel carrying the hour hand and moon's 
age has 60 teeth, the one carrying the disc showing the phases 
and age of the moon 61 teeth, and the wheel carrying the alarm 
dial 60 teeth. The two wheels showing the moon's age and hour? 
are dri\en by a pinion of 20, and the alarm wheel by a pinion of 10, 
both fixed on same arbor, which makes one revolution in four 

The clock strikes one blow at the first quarter, two at the second, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

three at the third, and four at the hour, besides the ordinary hours 
from I to 12 ; and then repeats the hours at any interval the clock 
is set for : that is, one, two, three, or more minutes after the ordinary 

Fig. ioi. 

hours are struck. This part strikes the hours up to 24, and while 
striking the figure on the top of the clock revolves. There is a 
separate train for each part, and the chain on the fusee of the going 

Portable I'iinckccf^crs. 


part has the appearance of having been made at the same time as 
the clock. The other springs are in brass barrels screwed to the frame 

Fig. 102.- Clock with early balance spring. 

The small dial indicates quarter-hours only, and the hand makes 
a revolution in one hour. There are two hands on this •, the under 


Old Clocks and Watches and tliciv Makers. 

Fig. 103. 

Fig. 104. — Plan, showing dial. 

Portable Tiiuckccpcvs. 


one is to set the inter\'al between tlie ordinary strikint^ and the 
24-hour striking. 

The escapement is of course a verge. It has a plain circular 

i A 

^ i 


f f;'ti^B 





■*- ^syV^^^^P^^ ^^^Bl 

Fig. 105. 

balance rather large in diameter. Over the balance is a straight 
spring, one end of which is fixed to the plate, the free end being 
embraced by two pins standing up from the rim of the balance, and 
so acting as a controller. 

no Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig. ic6. 

Portable Timekeepers. 


On the bottom of the clock is engraved the following inscrip- 
tion : — 

A.D. 1634. Adam Klyzovicz Kiakonii; FilCIt Polonvs. 

Two views of an exceedingly pretty early seventeenth century 
alarum table clock of small size from the Schloss collection are 
given in Figs. 103 and 104. The case is of brass gilt, the exterior 
of the bottom and the under-side of the movement plate are covered 

I'iG. 107. 

(Havard, Dictionnairc dc I'Amcublement.) 

Fig. iCt 

with beautiful engraving, and over the body of the case is a silver 
ring or jacket with piercing so fine as to appear almost like filigree 
work. The dome, of silver, similarly pierced, covers a hemi- 
spherical bell, and supports the horizontal dial, on which are engraved 
the horary numerals in Roman characters, the time being indicated 
by a projecting ornament at the edge of the centre, which rotates 
and is figured as a guide for setting the alarum hand. 

Seventeenth Century Pendulum Clocks. — Fig. 105 repre- 
sents the front of an astronomical clock by Marcus Bohm, Augsburg. 
It is 21 in. high and 10 in. wide, engraved, chased, and gilded. 
Under the dome, which is hammered out of one piece of metal, are 
two bells, the smaller being struck at the quarters, and the larger at 


Old Clocks and ]]^atchcs and their Makers. 

the hours and as an alarum. By adjustment at pleasure the clock 
can be made to sound the hours from i to 12 or from i to 24. The 
large dial shows the time, the length of days, and a calendar of 
saints. In front hangs the pendulum, the bob being in the form of 
a cherub. The back is very similar to the front ; the main dial 
there indicates the annual course of the astral world. Some of the 










1 - .^t^ 



#1 ^ 


Fig. log. 

subsidiary dials on the front, back, and sides exhibit other motions, 
and the remainder are for adjustment and regulation of the 

At the Ashmolean Museum is a fine German astronomical clock 
22I in. high, belonging to Mr. Henry J. Pfungst. The case is of 
gilt metal with dials on each of the four sides, of which the chief one 
is seen in Fig. 106. On the opposite side to that shown in the 

Vovtablc Timekeepers 


engraving a pendulum is suspended. The dials are of silver, 
decorated with basse faille enamel red, white, blue, and green. 

During the latter part of the sixteenth and the first half of the 
seventeenth century, timepieces with horizontal dials o\er which a 
dome containing an alarum could be placed at pleasure were in 
favour. There are several in the British Museum. An early 

Fig. iio. 

example is shown in Fig. 107. Fig. 108, from the Schloss collec- 
tion, is of a rather later date. Three springy legs fixed to the alarm 
were made to clasp the outside of the dial of the timepiece in such a 
position that a wire depending from the alarm case was moved by 
the hand at the hour it was desired the alarm should be discharged. 

These timepieces must have been exceedingly useful before the 
advent of lucifer matches, when recourse had to be made to the 
tinder box in order to obtain a light ; but, apart from these and 
machines with complicated movements such as were designed by 

c.w. I 

ii4 Old Clocks and IVafchcs and their Makers, 

Fig. III. 

Portable Tiuichccpcrs. 


astronomers, regard seems to liave been more generally paid to the 
effectiveness of the exterior as a whole rather than to its fitness and 

Fig. 112. 

convenience for showing the hour. Some instances of the more or 
less grotesque conceptions then in favour are appended, most of 
them being from the Schloss collection. 

I 2 

ii6 Old Clocks and ]VatcJiLS and their Makers. 

Fig. 109 shows a crowned lion of gilt copper holding an orb in its 
right paw and supporting the dial with its left. By means of two 
wires standing up from the balance the eyes, which have bright red 
pupils, move to and fro when the clock is going. x\s the hours are 


struck the animal's lower jaw moves up and down The movement 
is contained in an ebony box, which forms the plinth. 

A dog guarding the dial with its paw, as shown in Fig. no, is of 
much the same character. 

Portable Timekeepers. 


Fig. Ill shows a splendid example of its kind, in which a boldly 
modelled figure of Bacchus sitting astride a cask is utilized as an 
automaton. As the hours are struck it opens its mouth and raises 

to its lips the bottle held in the right hand. In its left hand is a 
staff entwined with grape leaves and fruit and surmounted by a 
pineapple, the Augsburg mark. On a silver dial attached to the 
front of the cask the hours are indicated, and at the back, between a 
pineapple in a shield, are the letters C. K., which very possibly 


Old Clocks, and WatcJies and their Makers. 

stand for Conrad Kreizer, a well-known early seventeenth century 
maker. Just in front of the cask is a horizontal dial divided into 

quarter-hours for settinf^ the striking. The eyes of the figure move 
to and fro continuously while the clock is going; but instead of being 
connected directly to the balance, as in the preceding examples, they 

Portable TiincT^ccpcr^. 


are worked by a separate escapement and ingenious mechanism 
actuated by the fusee wheel which drives the train. In this way the 
motion of the eyes is slower, and the timekcepin.i,^ of the clock is not 

Fig. iiG. 

affected. The plates of the movement are gilded, and the train 
wheels are of steel. The case is of ebony. 

A peculiar early seventeenth century striking clock is shown in 
Fig. 112. As the hours are sounded the negro's head moves, and 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

the dog at his feet jumps. He indicates the time on a revolving 

band which bears the hour numerals. Another of these quaint 
conceptions is in the British Museum. 

On similar lines are Figs. 113 and 114. The one with a revolving 

Fig. 117. — Crucifix clock. 

hollow globe, on which the hours are marked, dates from about 1650; 
the female figure bearing the horary numerals on a revolving 
crown and holding a sceptre and child with an orb is a little later. 
The movement of this is inscribed " Jereme Pfaff, Augsburg." 

Porlahlc Tiutckccpcrs. 


In Fig. 115 is a clock with three horizontal band dials showing 
respecti\ely the hour, the day of the week, and the day of tlie 
!iK)nth. Below are pourtrayed Adam and Eve in the Garden of 
Eden. As the hours are struck live turns and presents an apple 
to Adam, who appears to hesitate, and then retires, refusing the 
gift. Abundance of foliage and fruit is spread over the three trees 
or columns supporting the dials, while a huge serpent gazing 
menacingly at Adam is twined around the central trunk, and 
indicates the hour with its tail. For the photograph from which 
this is reproduced I am indebted to M. Eugene W'ehrle, of Brussels. 

The flagellation of Jesus Christ forms the sidiject of the clock 
with movinj? fi<rures which is shown in Fig. 116. An hour dial is at 

Fig. iiS. 

the feet of the Captive, whose bound hands are tied to a post, sur- 
mounted by a rotating band, on which the quarter-hours are 
engraved. As the hour strikes the passive Prisoner is belaboured 
by the soldiers, their weapons rising and falling with each sound of 
the bell. The movement contained in the ebony case is signed 
" Nicolaus Schmidt der Junger." 

The crucifix clock represented in Fig. 117 belongs to Mr. Schloss. 
The drawing is one-third of the actual size of the clock, which measures 
12 in. in height and 6 in. across the widest part. The plinth is 
made of wood and gilt metal, the top being covered with cloth or 
velvet, now very much worn. The cross is of gilt metal, the figures 
and mounts of silver. The figure on the cross is most beautifully 
modelled. St. John, standing at the left of the cross, holds in his 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

hands a chalice, which he raises when the clock strikes the hours. 
The ball surmounting the structure revolves once in twelve hours, 
and on it is a band containing the Roman hour numerals, the time 
being indicated by the pointer fixed to the cross. No minutes are 
shown, and subdivisions of an hour would have to be estimated. 
The escapement is, of course, a verge. The clock goes thirty hours 

Fig. iig. 

between windings, and strikes on a bell below the plinth. Portions 
of the movement can be seen through apertures in chased metal 
gratings fixed in the front and back panels of the plinth. There is 
no maker's name, but it is probably a French seventeenth century 

The style and decoration of the late seventeenth century clock, 
shown in Fig. ii8, may be studied with advantage by those who 

Poviahlc Timekeepers. 123 

wish to bs alile to distinguish pieces of different, periods. The orna- 
ment at the sides of tlie case is in bold rehef ; tlie feet are of bronze, 
as was the usual practice, and form a contrast to the yellower metal 
of whicli tlie case is composed. The mo\ement of this clock is 
regulated by a x'cry short balance-spring, and bears the signature 
" Andreas I'ehniel."" 

Fig. iig shows a diminutive table clock by Hanns Buschman 
dating from about \(uyi. 'i'here are dials front and back, and a 
pendulum which swings at the rear outside of the case. 

Janvier speaks of the watches made between 1560 and 1590 as 
being beautifully ornamented and of all sizes, and there is no doubt 
that by the last-named date watchmaking had become in France a 
flourishing art of considerable magnitude, Blois and Rouen being 
two of the most important seats of manufacture. But I am unable 
to trace any reliable evidence of English watches having been made 
before quite the end of the sixteenth century, although German and 
French productions were doubtless imported earlier. 

Among the collection of Mr. T. Wliitcombe Greene is an early 
box-shaped, metal gilt case and dial, probably of German make. 
Around the projecting bead at the bottom of the case is engraved 
the following : " Sr. W'm Cooper to Eleanor, daughter of Sr. 
Michael Stanhope, wife to Thomas Cooper, his son, of Thurgarton, 
Co. Nots, 1539." A coat-of-arms is engraved on the cover. The 
dial is engraved with the figure of the Saviour and emblems of 
Death, with the mottoes, " \'igilate et orate quia nescitis horam," 
and "Quaelibet hora ad mortem vestigium " ("Watch and pray, for 
ye know not the hour," and " Everv hour is a step towards death"). 
If the dedicatory inscription is an authentic record, this relic 
certainly represents one of the first table watches seen in England. 
The case has no bow. Derham, in his second and subsequent 
editions, mentions an eight-day watch which, he was told, belonged 
to Henry \TII., but the context clearly shows a weight timepiece is 
referred to. Among the possessions of Edward VI., as quoted by 
Wood from a Royal Household Book, is " oone larum or watch of 
iron, the case being likewise of iron gilt, with two plummettes of lead." 
The first words of this description may seem to indicate a watch with 
a mainspring, but such an assumption is at once dispelled by the 
mention of the " plummettes of lead." 

Queen Elizabeth. — That Elizabeth owned a large number of 
watches is certain, and the following relating to her horological 
possessions will be of interest. In 1571 the Earl of Leicester gave 

124 ^^^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

to his royal mistress "one armlet or shakell of golde, all over fairely 
garnished with rubyes and dyamondes, haveing in the closing thearof 
a clocke." In the same year two other gifts are mentioned, a "juell, 
being a chrsolite garnished with rubyes and dyamondes, haveing in 
the closing thearof a clocke"; and "a juell, being a chrsolite 
garnished with golde, flagon facyon, th'one side sett with two 
emeraldes, . . . th'other side having in it a clocke." In 1573 
Elizabeth received from Margaret, Countess of Derby, "a white 
beare of gold and mother of perle, holding a ragged staffe, standing 
upon a toune of golde, whearin is a clocke, the same toune staffe 
garnished with dyamondes and rubyes." The "clock and all" 
weighed three ounces. In 1575 Mr. Hatton, captain of the guard, 
gave the queen "a riche juell, being a clocke of golde, garnished 
with dyamondes, rubyes in the bottome, and a fayre emeralde 
pendante sett in golde and two mene perles pendaunte, all ix oz. 
iii q''." In 1578 the Earl of Leicester presented Elizabeth with "a 
tablet of golde, being a clocke fully furnished with small diamondes 
and rubyes ; abowte the same are six bigger diamondes pointed) 
and a pendaunte of golde, diamondes, and rubyes very smale. And 
upon eche side losengye diamonde, and an apple of golde enamuled 
green and russet." In the same year the Earl of Russell gave to 
the queen " a ring of golde, called a parmadas, sett with vj small 
diamonds and garnished round about with small rubies and two 
sparcks of ophalls, and in the same backeside a dyall." In 1580 
the Earl of Leicester gave her " a cheyne of golde made like a 
payre of beades concayning viii long peeces fully garnished with 
small diamondes, and fower score and one smaller peeces fullie 
garnished with like diamondes ; and hanging thereat a rounde clocke 
fullie garnished with dyamonds, and an appendante of diamondes 
hanging thearat." In the same year was presented to the queen by 
Lord Russell, " item, a watche sett in mother of pearle with three 
pendaunts of goulde garnished with sparckes of rubyes, and an 
ophall in everie of them, and three small pearles pendaunte." In 
the same year Mr. Edward Stafford gave her "a little clocke of 
goulde with a cristall, garnished with sparckes of emeraldes, and 
furnished on the back syde with other dyamondes, rubies, and other 
stones of small value." There were also many humbler contributors 
to her store. In 1556 her clockmaker, Nicholas Urseau, presented 
"a faire clocke in a case cover with blake vellat"; and her "clocke 
keeper, John Demolyn, a cloke with a lambe on it of copper guilt." 
The following is from an inventory of the possessions of Queen 

Portable Timekeepers. 125 

Elizabeth: — "A watche of golde sett witli small rubies, small 
diamondes, and small emerodes, with a pearle in the toppe called 
a buckett, watinge two rubies ; a clocke of golde conteyning in 
the border four table diamonds and two very small rocke rubies, 
havinge on th'one side foure table rubies and sixe small diamondes ; 
and on th'other side eleven table diamondes, whereof the one is 
more bigger than the residue. On the one side a man sitting aslepe 
with a childe before him ; a clocke or tablett of golde garnished on 
th'one side with five faire diamondes and one faier rubie ; and on 
th'other side five faire rubies and one faire enierod garnished with 
lij little diamonds, and liij litle rubies, with a pearle pendant at it ; 
one clocke of golde curiosly wrought and fullie furnished with 
diamonds, rubies, emerodes, and opalls, havinge in middes thereof 
a beare and a ragged stafife of sparkes of diamondes and rubies; 
one clock of gold curiously wrought with flowers and beastes, with 
a queene on the toppe on th'one side; and on the other side a beare 
and a ragged staff of sparkes of diamonds, fullie furnished with 
diamonds and rubies of sundry sortes and bignes ; one emerode 
under it, a faier table diamond with a ragged stafif in the foyle 
thereof and a faier rubie under it squared, and a pearle pendaunt 
of either side of the clocke ; one clocke of golde wrought like 
deyses and paunseyes, garnished with little sparks of diamonds, 
rubies, and emerodes, and eight small pearles on the border, and 
a pendant acorn ; one clocke of gold curiously wrought with small 
sparkes of stones, having on th'one side a horse bearing a globe 
with a crowne over it ; one clocke of golde with a George on both 
sides garnished with sparkes of diamondes and a pendant of opalls; 
a litle watche of christall slightly garnished with golde ; one litle 
clocke of golde th'one side being agate with a mouse on the toppe 
and heddes round aboute it ; one litle watch of golde garnished on 
the border with very small sparkes of rubies and emerodes with 
christall on both sides, and a pearle pendand garnished with golde 
like a flesh flye ; one rounde clocke of golde enameled with a man 
on horseback, and divers colors aboute it ; a watch of golde garnished 
with three small diamondes and eight sparks of rubies, with a very 
little pearle ; one little clocke of golde enameled of the History of 
Time ; a litle watche of golde, th'one side with a frogge on the 
topp, th'other side garnished with small garnets like a pomegranite ; 
one litle clocke sett in eliotropie and garnished with golde ; a litle 
watche of golde enameled with sundry colors on both sides alike; 
a litle watche of christall slightlie garnished with golde, with her 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Ma'ties picture in it; one faier flower of golde fully garnished with 
rubies and diamonds enameled on the backside with a man and 
a scripture about him having a watch in it and a pearl pendant; 
one flower of gold fully garnished with emerods of sondrie bignes 
and sparkes of emerods and rubies, with thre antique women and 
five litle perles with a watch or clocke therein; a watch of agatte 
made like an e";"; garnished with golde ; one clocke garnished 

Fig. 1 20. — Clock-watch about 15S0. 

with golde, being round and sett with 6 table diamondes and 6 
rubies in the same border, and garnished with xvij diamondes on 
th'one side, and 8 diamonds and one rubie on th'other side, lacking 
two pearles." 

In Fig. 120 is shown a clock-watch from the Hilton Price 
collection. It is in a polygonal case, which measures nearly 4 in. 
across. On the top plate of the movement is the mark B x N, 
and the piece, which dates from about 1580, is very possibly the 
production of Bartholomew Newsam. 

l\i liable Timekeepers. 


Mr. Edward I'arr has a watch or table clock dating' from about 
1581, and probably of English make. It is in a circular case, about 
4-^ in. in diameter, as shown in I'ij^^ 121. A lar<j^e hemispherical 
bell rises from the space inside the dial rini^, and the hand is curved 
down o\er the bell to read the hour numerals. The head of ()ueen 

Elizabeth in high relief, and other chasing, ornament the side of the 
case. In a ring on the bottom of the case is the inscription : 


(I have placed God as my Helper.) 

Against one of the winding holes is the letter W, and against the 
other the letter S ; these stand doubtless for Watch and Striking, 
and strengthen the conclusion that the clock is an early English 

Skull Watches — Mary Queen of Scots. — The skull watch 
(Fig. 122) is an excellent example of the fantastic forms in which 
some of the early makers delighted to encase their work. It is from 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

the Soltykoff collection, and is said to have belonged to Henri III. 
The case is of crystal, the dial of silver bordered with chased brass 
gilt, the centre being adorned with what is called champ-leve engraving 
to a floral design. The movement is inscribed "Jacques Joly." 

Fig. 123 represents one of the ghastly productions of a larger size. 
The skull is of silver gilt, and on the forehead is the figure of Death 
with his scythe and sand glass ; he stands between a palace on the 
one hand and a cottage on the other, with his toes applied equally 
to the door of each ; around this is the legend, from Horace : — 

" Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas regumque turres." 
(Pale Death visits witii impartial foot the cottages of the poor and the palaces of 
the rich.) 

Fig. 122. 

On the opposite or posterior part of the skull is a representation 
of Time, with anotlrer inscription from Horace: — 

" Tempus edax rerum tuque invidiosa vetustas." 
(Time, and thou too, envious Old Age, devour all things.) 

He has a scythe ; and near him is a serpent with his tail m his 
mouth, being an emblem of Eternity. 

The upper part of the skull is divided into two compartments. 
On one are represented our First Parents in the Garden of Eden, 
attended by some of the animals, with the motto : — 

"Peccando perditionem miseriam asternam posteris mernere." 

(By sin they brought eternal misery and destruction on their posterity.) 

The opposite compartment is filled with the subject of the 

salvation of lost man by the crucifixion of our Saviour, who is 

represented as suffering between two thieves, whilst the Marys are 

in adoration below ; the motto to this is : — 

" Sic justitiae satis fecit mortem superavit, salutem comparavit." 
(Thus was Justice satisfied, Death overcome, and salvation obtained.) 

Portable Timekeepers. 


Running below these compartments on both sides there is an 
open work, of about an inch in width, to permit the sound to come 
out freely when the watch strikes. This is formed of emblems 
belonging to the Crucifixion — scourges of various kinds, swords, the 
flagon and cup of the Eucharist, the cross, pincers, lantern used in 
the garden, spears of different kinds, one with the sponge on its 
point, thongs, ladder, the coat without seam, and the dice that were 

Fig. 123. 

thrown for it, the hammer and nails, and the crown of thorns. 
Under all these is the motto : — 

" Scala coeli ad gloriam via." 
(The way to glory is the " ladder " to heaven.) 

The watch is opened by reversing the skull and placing the 
upper part of it in the hollow of the hand, and then lifting the 
under-jaw, which rises on a hinge. Inside, on the palate, is an 
excellent engraving of apparently a later date than the rest of 
the work. It shows the Holy Family in the stable, with the infant 
Jesus laid in the manger, and angels mmistering to Him ; in the 
upper part an angel is seen descending with a scroll, on which is 
written : — 

" Gloria [in] excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bona voluntatis." 
(Glory to God in the highest ; on earth peace to men of goodwill.) 
C.W. K 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers-. 

In the distance are the shepherds with their flocks. A representa^ 
tion of this cover is given separately* 

The works of the watch occupy the position of the brain in the 
skull itself, the dial plate being on a flat where the roof of the niouth 
and parts behind it under the base of the brain are to be found in the 
human subject* The dial is of silver, and fixed with a golden circle 
tichly carved in a scroll pattern; the hours 'are marked in large 
Roman letters, and within them is the figure of Saturn devouring 
his children, with this legend : — 

" Sicut meis sic et omnibus idem." 
There is no date, but the maker's name and the place of 

manufacture, " Moyse, Blois," 
are distinctly engraven on the 
plate. A silver bell fills the 
entire hollow of the skull, and 
receives the works within it 
when shut ; a small hammer, 
set in motion by a separate 
train, strikes the hours on it. 

The workmanship of the 
case is admirable, and the 
engraving really superb. The 
date of this relic may be taken 
to be between 1550 and 1600. 
It is stated that it belonged 
to Mary Queen of Scots, by 
whom it was given to Mary 
Seaton, one of her maids of 
honour, and much circum- 

FiG. 124. — Interior of skull watch above 
the dial. 

stantial evidence has been adduced in support thereof. I have recently 
had an opportunity of examining an almost similar Death's-head 
watch, which is also said to have been the property of the same 
royal lady and now belongs to Miss Mary Laura Browne, of Anerley. 
Except that beside the ring on the top of the skull is a screw for the 
reception of a cross, the case is an exact facsimile of the Mary Seaton 
one, with the additional inscription around the eyebrows, " Ex Dono 
FR^ R. Fr. ad. Marias de Scotorum Fr. Regina." The original 
movement has, however, unfortunately been replaced by a com- 
paratively modern one. 

These two skull watches were doubtless intended to occupy 
stationary positions ; the cross on one of them suggests a prie-dieti 

Portable Timekeepers. 


or small altar in a private oratory. At all events, they are too large 
and heavy to be worn on the person. The engravings represent the 


Fig. 125. 

l'"lG. 126. 

Fig. 127. 

Fig. 12S. 

Fig. 129. 

natural size of the relics, each of which weighs over three-quarters 
of a pound. 

In the British Museum are two Death's-head watches, much 

K 2 

132 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

smaller and with plain cases. One of these was made by Johann 
Maurer, and the other by J. C. Vuolf. A similar watch, dating from 
about 1630, which was in the Dunn Gardner collection, and is now 
in the possession of Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A., bears the 
signature of Isaac Penard. Another of these extraordinary con- 
ceptions, formerly in the collection of Mr. Robert Roskell, of Liver- 
pool, and now belonging to Mr. Schloss, is shown in Figs. 125 and 
126. The skull or case of silver, much darkened by age, is a 
startlingly excellent counterfeit and a fine example of silver work. 
The plate bears the name of the maker thus, "Johann Leudl." 
On the dial of silver is an engraving evidently intended to portray 
the day of judgment. Inside the lower jaw, which closes on to 
the dial, is roughly cut the following inscription : " Lor logeur 
francoient duducq d'aremberque a mons." This specimen dates 
from about 1625 ; but the inscription is later, as the first Duke of 
Aremberg obtained his title in 1644. 

A very diminutive Death's-head watch in the form of a seal is 
shown open in Fig. 127. The movement is furnished with the 
stackfreed, and dates apparently from the first half of the seventeenth 

Of about the same period is the example by David Habrecht, 
shown in Figs. 128 and 129. 

In the Vienna Treasury is a small skull watch of the time of the 
Emperor Rudolph II. in which the movable lower jaw strikes the 
number of hours against the upper one. 

The Rev. H. L. Nelthropp, who presented his splendid collection 
of watches to the Clockmakers' Company for exhibition in the 
Guildhall, considers the statements as to the ownership of skull 
watches by Mary Queen of Scots to be apocryphal, and says that a 
careful investigation of the catalogues of the jewels, dresses, 
furniture, belonging to Queen Mary has proved beyond doubt 
that watches were not among her valuables. I cannot say that 
Mr. Nelthropp's criticism is quite destructive of the original account, 
for if both of the watches were given away by the queen, they could 
hardly be expected to figure in any subsequent inventory of her 
property. It is certain that watches were made during her lifetime ; 
also that Blois was one of the earliest manufactories of watches, and 
that the family of Moyse flourished there during the sixteenth century. 
In face of the fact that Elizabeth had such a large number of watches, 
it seems almost incredible that the Scottish queen should never have 
possessed any of the fashionable novelties. 

Portable Timekeepers. 133 

While the probability is that Mary Queen of Scots had watches 
of some kind, it must be confessed that the statements made 
respecting her ownership of specimens which have survived will not 
always bear examination. Among others which tradition has 
assigned to the Scottish queen, Octavius Morgan examined two 
which he considered to be of the period claimed for them. One 
was a ghastly Memento Mori watch in a case of crystal formed like a 
coffin, and the other an octagonal watch. The latter, which is now 
in the British Museum, is said to have been given by Mary to John 
Knox the reformer. The case of crystal had covers front and back, 
and the movement was inscribed " N. Forfaict a Paris." A large oval 
watch made by F. Le Grand, and said to ha\e been found, immedi- 
ately after the queen's escape from her imprisonment, in Lochleven 
Castle, was exhibited to the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh in 
1850. A small circular watch by Estinne Hubert, of Rouen, pre- 
sented, it is averred, by the queen the night before her execution to 
a French attendant named Massey, was a few years ago in the pos- 
session of Rev. Mr. Torrance, of Glencross. In the Massey- Main- 
waring collection is a round rather thin watch by Moysant, of Blois, 
in a case whereon is splendidly painted, in enamel, a representation 
of the Adoration of the Magi. This watch was some time ago 
exhibited at the Bethnal Green Museum with a label stating that it 
was given by Mary Queen of Scots to the Earl of Mar, from whom 
it passed into the possession of the family of Lord Forbes. But the 
style of the watch and the enamel painting did not seem to me to be 
entirely in accord with other productions of the sixteenth century. 

In 1575, Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, bequeathed to his 
brother Richard, Bishop of Ely, his walking-stick of Indian cane 
having a " horologium " in the top. This is generally quoted as 
a watch, but is quite likely to have been a portable sun-dial. 

The possession of many watches is ascribed to James I., but such 
as he did possess do not appear to have been utilized as timekeepers 
on every occasion, for in Savile's record of a state journey to 
Theobalds in 1603, it is stated that the king stopped at the Bell at 
Edmonton, and, wishing to count the number of vehicles passing in 
a certain time, he " called for an houreglass." 

An early striking watch in a nearly spherical case of brass, chased 
and gilded, having the dial at the bottom of the sphere and a ring for 
carrying at the top, is shown on page 134. The form and arrange- 
ment of the mechanism are exceedingly rare. The movement is in 
stories, and the dial, which is seen in Fig, 131, is attached to the lowest 

134 0^'^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 


Figs. 130 — 134. — Spherical watch about 1535. 

I, plan of top; 2, dial and case partly opened; 3, elevation ; 4, movement and dial removed 
from case : 5, nioyenient showing top plate. 

Portable Timekeepers. 


plate of the movement and not to the case. Between the dial and 
the plate, besides the wheels for actuating the hand direct from the 
mainspring and not through the intervention of the train, is the 
count wheel or locking plate. Above this plate is the striking train ; 
then another plate, between which and the top plate are the going 
train and escapement. All wheels save the escape wheel are of iron 
or steel ; the pillars are of iron shaped as shown, the plates and 
balance cock are also of iron : there are no screws nor barrels to 

Fig. 135. 

Fig. 136. 

contain the mainsprings ; one of the mainsprings broken into many 
pieces is visible in the engraving (Fig. 133). The case is divided in 
the centre horizontally and fastened with a hooked catch ; it opens 
on a hinged joint exposing the movement, which occupies the whole 
of the lower half of the case and extends into the upper part of the 
sphere. Over the top plate, of which a view is given in Fig. 134, are 
the primitive stackfreed, the cross-bar balance or foliot and the 
hammer for sounding the hours on a silver bell fi.xed to the crown of 
the sphere, which is perforated as shown in Fig. 130. Through the 
case and the bell are holes for obtaining access to the winding 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

squares, and near the bottom of the case is another aperture covered 
by a shutter; this apparently was for the purpose of adjusting the 
striking of the hours in case it had been allowed to become incorrect. 
The movement is fitted to the case in a peculiar way. Inside the 
lower half of the case are projections, and the movement together 
with the dial having been pressed into position is twisted round till 
corresponding slits catch the projections and make it fast. The 
fixing is in fact what is known as a bayonet joint. This watch, I 
should judge, dates from about 1535. M. Paul Gamier has, 
I believe, a somewhat similar one, which was stolen from him a few 
years ago, and which he recovered by journeying to America and 
repurchasing it. 

Towards the end of the sixteenth century watches designed for use 

rather than to excite wonder or 
admiration were constructed with 
plain exteriors, as in Figs. 135 and 
136, which show an alarum watch 
formerly in the Dunn Gardner col- 
lection at South Kensington. The 
little hand in the centre of the dial is 
for setting the alarum, and the hour 
indicator consists of an ornament 
attached to a disc around the edge of 
which are figures from one to twelve 
marked backwards, reversely to the 
usual direction, as a guide for setting 
the alarum. The hour numerals are 
on a silvered band with an unusually prominent pin at each hour 
so that the time could be more readily estimated by feeling. The 
case is of brass with plain cover and back ; the only attempt at 
enrichment being the fine perforated work around the edge. 

Fig. 137 shows a tambourine or drum-shaptd watch from the 
collection of M. Paul Garnier. The case, brass gilt, is furnished 
with a bow% and has hinged covers back and front. The front cover 
is finely engraved and is pierced over each of the hour numerals 
on the dial. Inside the back cover is a representation of Christ 
rising from the tomb, well engraved after the design by Albert 
Diirer. The dial is of silver, finely engraved with rays and flames 
in the centre, beyond which are the hour marks with Roman 
numerals from I. to XII. on the outside of the circle, and smaller 
figures from 13 to 24 within. 

Fig. 137. 

Pari able I'iiuckcepers, 


Fig. 138. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

A striking watch in a curious octagonal case of gilded brass fixed 
to a stand is shown in Fig. 138. The plates of the movement are of 

Fig. 139. 

Fig. 140. 

iron ; it is fitted with the stackfreed, and its construction altogether 
shows it to be a mid-sixteenth century production. An interesting 

Portable Timekeeper;;. 


feature of this watch is the pierced door at the back, which is shown 
open in the ilhistration. Amid the piercing are represented the Man 
of Sorrows preparatory to the Crucifixion and around Him various 
items appertaining to His torture — a hammer, pincers, sponge, lamp, 
ladder, sword, spear or javelin, staves, lanterns, torches, cup, bunch 
of hyssop, etc. Two views of a pretty pedestal watch furnished 
with an alarum of about forty years later date are given on page 138. 
Mr. J. C. Joicey has a somewhat similar piece. 

In the British Museum is a splendid watch made by Nicklaus 
Rugendas, of Augsburg. 
The case of metal, gilt, 
with open work very 
nicely pierced, is of an 
oval shape measuring 2| 
inches by 2^ inclies and 
an inch and three 
quarters thick. It is 
mounted on a plain 
brass pillar four inches 
high. The hours are 
shown on a silver dial, 
and the minutes on a 
gilt bevelled outer rim 
which really forms part 
of the case. This 
arrangement and the 
fact that each fi\e 
minutes space is figured, 
as is the modern custom, 
may lead to the assump- 
tion that the concentric 
minute indicator was a 

later addition ; but Octavius Morgan, in whose collection the watch 
was, expressed his conviction {Archceologia, vol. xxxiii.) that it formed 
part of the original construction, and an examination of the hand-work 
which I have been allowed to make quite removed a doubt I previously 
felt as to the correctness of his judgment. The internal arrangement 
shows considerable ingenuity, every atom of the space being utilized 
to the best advantage. There are four mainsprings, but no fusee. 
Between the dial and the movement is a small bell on which the 
quarter-hours are sounded. The hours are struck from one to six 

Fig. 141. — Clock-watch. Type of early German 

Fig. 143. 

Fig. 144. 

Portable Timekeepers. 


and then over again in conformity with what was formerly an 
Italian method of computation, the hour bell being oval to suit the 
shape of the case ; at the back is a large bell on which an alarum 
may be rung. The train wheels are of brass, and the quarter part of 
steel. Mr. Morgan considered this watch to be a production of the 
second quarter of the sixteenth century, but the general style of the 
work and the construction of the movement negative such an 
assumption ; 1610 or a little later would be nearer the correct date. 
Messrs. Patek Phillipe and Co. have an octagonal calendar watch 

Fig. 145. — View of back. 

by the same maker, which, judging from a photograph of the 
movement, I should say was produced about 1630. 

In the Vienna Treasury is a clock marked "Nicklaus Rugendas 
junger," dating from the middle of the seventeenth century. 

Fig. 141 is an exterior view of a large circular clock-watch in the 
possession of Mr. Evan Roberts. It is unnamed, and is most 
probably of German or Dutch origin ; the steel dial and brass open- 
work case are very tine, as may be judged from the drawing. The 
stackfreed and the wheels are of steel, and the plates of brass. This 
watch has been pronounced to be a production of the second quarter 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

of the sixteenth century, and the construction in many respects 
agrees with that period. 

Fig. 146. — Dial with cover open. 

Three views of a splendid oval watch from the collection of 
Mr, Albert Schloss are on page 140. Fig. 143 shows the dial with the 

Portable Timekeepers. 


front cover raised. Figj. 142 shows the back cover and edge of the 
case ; and Fig. 144 the back cover raised, exhibiting the movement. 
The case is of brass, gilt and very finely chased. The front cover is 
pierced to receive a small glass, allowing the centre of the dial to be 
viewed without opening the cover. This style of glass, and the 
method of fixing it by means of a loose ring, is perhaps the most 
primitive ; and taking the date on the inside of the back cover (1607) 
to represent the period the watch was made, it may be assumed to 

Fig. 147. French astronomical watch. 

be an early instance of the application. The dial, also of brass, gilt, 
is very handsome. On looking at the movement (Fig. 144) a lever 
carrying two pins at one end and pointed at the other may be 
observed. These two pins are of stiff bristle, and by shifting the 
lever they may be caused to approach or recede from the arm of the 
balance, whose path they intercept. In this way the vibration of 
the balance and the timekeeping of the watch were controlled. The 
pointed end of the lever traverses a divided arc, and serves to 
indicate the movement given to the lever. At the top and bottom of 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

the plate are pivoted bolts, which pass into holes in the edge of the 
case to secure the movement in position. 

In the Hilton Price collection is an oval brass watch of extreme 
beauty by the same maker, dating from about 1640. It is shown in 

Figs. 149 — 151. — Sixteenth century book-watch. Outside with covers open, 
inside of front cover and dial. View of mechanism inside back cover. 

Figs. 145 and 146. Round the sides of the pierced case are a 
greyhound chasing a hare and a hound chasing a stag amidst floral 
designs. The back is finely engraved, representing figures of a 
naked shepherd with his crook and horn, a squirrel, and a monkey. 
In the centre a river scene, beneath the figure of a warrior in armour 

Portable Timekeepers. 


with a prancing horse on each side, intermixed with scrolls and 
flowers. The outside of the lid is engraved with allegorical subjects, 
one represents Abraham off'ering up Isaac ; upon the right hand top 
corner is a scroll on which is engraved, ian. iansen-bockeltz inv. 
ET scvLP. The inside of the lid, which together with the dial plate 
is brass gilt, contains a compass and a sun dial with a movable 
gnomon. The dial plate is very fine. There is a small silver dial 
with alarum dial in the centre, and also a dial for the moon, one for 
the minutes, one for months — the seasons are engraved with lenten 


Adam Thomson mentions an interesting astronomical watch of 
French make which is shown in Figs. 147 and 148. It has a silver 

Fig. 152. 

Fig. 153. 

case highly ornamented, with mythological subjects elaborately 
chased, bearing the following inscription on the inside of the back 
cover : " From Alethea Covntess of Arvndel, for her deare sone, Sir 
William Howard, K,B. 1629." It is of an oval form, the extreme 
size two inches and a half, and an inch and a half in thickness. It 
struck the hours and has an alarum ; showed the days of the week, 
the age and phases of the moon, with the days and months of the 
year, and the signs of the zodiac. On the inside of the front cover 
there is a Roman Catholic calendar with the date 1613. The watch 
movement is inscribed " P. Combret, a Lyons." A watch by Combret 
with a shell-shaped silver case is in the South Kensington Museum. 

Toy Watches. — These were occasionally shaped to imitate 
books, animals, fruit, flowers, and insects. 

c.w. L 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Of cases formed to resemble books several examples are known 
to exist. A very early watch of this kind dating from the first half 
of the sixteenth century is shown, rather smaller than the actual 
size, in Figs. 149, 150 and 151. On the back plate of the movement 
is the maker's punch mark, F.C., and another' impression partly 
obliterated, which appears to be a pineapple. There is a stackfreed 
for regulating the force of the mainspring, and sticking up from the 
longer end of a bell-crank lever is a short stiff bristle, against which 

Fig. 154. — Lion-shaped watch. 

the cross-bar balance banks. By means of its shorter arm this lever 
may be moved and its position noted by an index on the plate. 

In the British Museum is a book-shaped watch dated 1550. The 
specimen shown in Fig. 152 was in the Bernal collection which was 
dispersed by auction in 1855, and belonged to Bogislaus XIV., 
Duke of Pomerania, in the time of Gustavus Adolphus. On the 
dial side there is an engraved inscription of the Duke and his titles, 
with the date 1627, together with his armorial bearings; on the 
back there are engraved two male portraits, buildings, etc. The 

Portable Timekeepers. 


covers are of brass gilt ; the clasps and other ornaments are of silver; 
the dial is of silver, chased in relief; the insides of the covers are 
chased with birds and foliage. There are apparently two separate 
movements, and a large bell at the back ; over the bell, the metal 
is ornamentally pierced in a circle with a dragon, etc. ; the sides are 

Fig. I';';. -c- ^ 

-'•^ Fig. 156. 

pierced and engraved in scrolls. The maker's name is " Dionistus 

Fig- 153' also from the Bernal collection, is in the form of a 
padlock. It has a crystal front and ribbed crystal back ; gilt metal 
engraved mounting, dial of gilt metal ; the days of the month are 
noted on a silver circle, with a steel plate apparently for the moon's 
age. The maker's name is Gio. Batt. Mascarone, and it is probably 
sixteenth-century work. 

L 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Three views of a peculiar watch, dating probably from about 
1600, are given on page 146. The case, of sih^er, is in the form 
of a lion, the tail being looped, evidently for the attachment of a 
guard or other suspender. The movement is inscribed, "Jean 
Baptiste Duhoule." A watch by the same maker in a nut-shaped 
case forms part of the Wallace collection at Hertford House. 

Of other more quaint and grotesque designs for watch cases 
favoured by the early makers may be mentioned one in the form of 

Fig. 15^ 

Fig. 158. 

an eagle, which was in the collection of Lady O. Fitzgerald. It 
illustrated the story of Jupiter and Ganymede, and could either be 
suspended from a ring in the back of the bird or rested by its claws 
on a flat surface. In the British Museum is a watch shaped like an 
acorn, another resembling a dog, and one with silver cases made in 
imitation of cockle-shells. In the South Kensington Museum is a 
French watch resembling a pelican, and a diminutive timekeeper 
in the Mainwaring collection is concealed in one of two enamelled 
cherries with stalks connected. 

Portable Timckecpcvi^. 


Memento Mori watches in the form of a Latin cross, and usuall 
with scenes from the life of the Saviour engraved on the dials, were 
for a long period a favourite pattern, especially with French artists, 
among whom they were known ks montres d'abbcsse. Dubois says 

Fig. 159. 

Fig. 160. 

cruciform watches were probably devised b^^^rmecides, a watch- 
maker of Paris, who flourished between 1530 and 1550, and whose 
name appears on several early specimens. They appear to have 
been worn, generally, on the breast, 
and are often spoken of as pectoral 
cross watches. Of three in the 
British Museum, one, in a case of 
rock crystal, very similar to Fig. 1 55, 
was made by Jean Rousseau the 
elder about 1580; another, also a 
sixteenth-century production, is by 
Tinnelly, Aix ; the third dates from 
the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, and is cased in emerald 

The watch, Fig. 156, which is 
unnamed, seems to be late six- 
teenth century work. Fig. 161. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

In the Arcliaological Journal is mentioned a Latin cross watch by 
the celebrated Johannes van Ceulen, which has a cover of crystal 
and is enamelled in opaque colours ; on the front the Man of Sorrows 
and emblems of the Passion, and on the back the Crucifixion. 

Of three cruciform watches in South Kensington Museum, one, 
dating from about 1590, is signed " Senebier " ; another, of slightly 
later date, bears the initials " N.R." ; and the third, which forms 
part of the Salting collection, has a silver and crystal case, and 
is by Charles Bobinet, a French seventeenth century maker of 

The Maltese cross watch, Fig. 157, from Dubois' historical work, 

Fig. 162. 

Fig. 163. 

is a sixteenth-century production of French origin, and a much 
rarer form than the Latin cross. 

A very early crystal case watch by Thomas Franck, from the 
Soltykoff collection, is shown in Fig. 158. 

In Fig. 159 is shown a clock watch by Conrad Kreizer, from the 
Soltykoff collection. The case is of crystal, the dial of silver, and 
the cover of brass gilt. A peculiar feature is the oval raised pierced 
work of brass, introduced evidently to allow the sound of the bell to 
be heard more distinctly. The movement is of a primitive character, 
and the maker is said to have been contemporary with the brothers 
Habrecht. An octagonal watch in the South Kensington Museum, 
signed " Conradt Kreizer," is certainly early seventeenth century 

The crystal case watch in the form of a cockle-shell, shown in 

Portable Timekeepers. 


Fig. 160, also from the Soltykoff collection, is a late sixteenth- 
century production. It has covers back and front ; the dial is gilt, 
with silver hour band and steel hand. 

Another specimen from the Soltykoff collection, in a crystal 
escallop case, shown in Fig. 161, has very primitive mechanism, by 
Phelisot, horlogev dc la ville de Dijon. The dial, finely engraved, is of 
silver, with gilt hour band ; the hand is in the form of a lizard. 

The pear-shaped watch shown in Fig. 162 was made by Conrad 
Kreizer, of Strasbourg, and is also gathered from the Soltykoff 
treasures. A similar watch is in the British Museum. 

The circular specimen shown in Fig. 163, selected from the same 

Fig. 164. 

Fig. 165. 

repository as the preceding, has covers back and front ; around the 
band are figures typical of spring, summer, autumn and winter. 
The dial is of silver gilt, with a white band on which the hour 
numerals are engraxed. In the centre of the dial is engraved a 
representation of Christ and the woman of Samaria ; on the upper 
cover is portrayed the spectacle of Mary Magdalene washing the 
feet of Jesus, and on the lower cover another Biblical scene. The 
movement is inscribed "James Vanbroff," and it dates from about 

Fig. 164, with crystal case in the form of a bonbonniere, is from the 
Soltykoff collection. From the movement, which is inscribed 
" Denis Bordier," one may judge that it was made about 1640. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Of a little later date is the beautiful specimen by Benjamin Hill, 
a well-known London maker, which is shown in Fig. 165. 

Of all the quaint fancies exhibited in the formation of early watch 
cases, none are, I think, more charming than the various floral 
designs popular during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

The opening tulip bud, from the Soltykoff collection, which is 
shown in Fig. 168, must be admitted to be a very pretty artistic 
conceit. The dial and the covers or leaves are of silver, and so is 
the twisted stalk that forms a ring for the attachment of a chain or 
cord. The movement bears the name of Rugend of x\uch, and dates 
from the beginning of the seventeenth century. A very similar 

Fig. 166. 

Fig. 167. 

specimen by Bayr, who was, I think, a Dutch maker, is to'be seen 
in the British Museum. 

A larger counterfeit of the same flower appears in Fig. 167. The 
body of the case is of gold, and there are three bezels or covers of 
silver, each comprising a piece of rock crystal formed in the shape 
of a tulip petal. The hand is of gold, the dial of silver, with a 
landscape engraved thereon. Through one cover the dial is seen, 
and through the other two the movement is visible. It has a three- 
armed steel balance and a balance -spring. Jean Rousseau the 
younger, who is said to have died in 1684, was the maker of this 
watch. The presence of a balance-spring would therefore stamp it 
as one of his later productions. 

There is a splendid tulip watch among the Nelthropp collection 

Portable Timekeepers. 


at the Guildhall Museum, without a balance spring, by F. Sermand, 
dating from about 1650; another at the South Kensington Museum, 
and one at the British Museum by Henry Ester. 

A very pretty floral watch of an early date, from the Soltykoft 

Fig. 16S. 

Fig. 1G9. 

Fig. 170. 

collection, is shown in Figs. 168 and 169. The case is gold, adorned 
with fine floral ornaments in green and Cassius purple enamel on 
a white ground. The dial is of gold, decorated also in green and 

Fig. 171. 

F"iG. 172. 

purple enamel on a white ground. The plates and train wheels of 
the movement are of brass. It is provided with a fusee with catgut 
and a circular balance. The movement is signed "J. Jolly," and 
dates from about 1600. Fig. 168 shows the dial and edge fairly 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

well, but does not give a good idea of the elegant form of the case, 
which will be better gathered from Fig. 169, which is a back view 

with the cover open. 

Fig. 1 70, another diminutive watch 
of a later date from the same col- 
lection, is in the shape of a poppy 
bud. The case is of amber with 
mountings of gold, finely engraved 
and maintained on the amber by 
means of close gold wire running 
down the angles to the knob which 
holds the ring on which the chain is 
to be fastened. The dial is of silver 
with enamelled ornaments ; it is 
covered with a piece of rock crystal 
fitted in a bezel. 
Back and front views of a very pretty English watch in the form 


Fig. 176. 

Fig. 178. 

Fig. 175. 

of a flower bud, which formed part of the Dunn Gardner collection, 
and was purchased for the South Kensington Museum, where it may 

Portable Timekeepers. 


be seen, arc given in Figs. 171 and 172, It dates from about 1610, 
and is inscribed " Henry Grendon at y Excliange Fecit." 

Fig. iSi. 

In the British Museum are three watches in the form of insects or 
fritillary flowers. One labelled as English work, by Edward Bysse, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

is in a nielloed silver case. Another, also English, in a silver case, 
is by Thos. Sande. 

The watch case in the form of a basket of flowers (Fig. 173) is of 
gold, enamelled and studded with diamonds. 

A watch set in a finger ring is shown in Fig. 

Figs. 175 and 176 represent an olive-shaped 
watch belonging to Mr. Schloss. The case of 
gold is beautifully enamelled in green and dark 

Three views are appended, the exact size of an 
exceedingly diminutive watch. Its dial and tiny 
case of gold are beautifully decorated with 
champ Icve enamel, and the movement is fitted 

Fig. li 

with the primitive stackfreed for regulatmg the force of the 
mainspring (Fig. 177). One might with tolerable confidence 
say that this is the smallest enamelled watch of the stackfreed 

Portable Timekeepers. 


A pretty star- shaped watch, decorated with enamel and pearls, is 
shown to two-thirds the actual size in Fig. 178. 

The miniature watch surrounded by a horn or trumpet (Fig. 179) 
is engraved to the actual size. 

Front and back views of a superb specimen in the form of a 
butterfly are given in Figs. 180 and 181. It is impossible to give 
more than an idea of the choicely-enamelled back by reproduction 
iiA black and white. 
J Most of these "toy " watches are of French or Swiss origin. It 

Fig. 184. — Striking or clock-watch. 

is curious to note in eighteenth-century advertisements the references 
to the sellers of them as " toymen." 

Irregular- shaped octagonal watches are met with among the 
productions of the latter part of the sixteenth till quite the close 
of the seventeenth century. Many variations in the size and material 
of the cases were made by French and afterwards by English artists 
to suit their own tastes or the desires of their patrons ; the cover was 
often of crystal, lapis lazuli, agate, or other semi-precious stone. 
The crystal case specimen (Fig. 182) is an early one, apparently of 
French origin. Another, from the Soltykoff collection, is shown in 
Fig. 183. The covers are of silver, and by means of a second dial 
and two small apertures in the dial plate it indicated the sign of the 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

zodiac corresponding to the month, the day of the month, the day 
of the week, and planetary motions. It also struck the hour and 
provided an alarum. It is unnamed, but probably late sixteenth- 
century work. Back and front views of a striking or clock watch 
of nearly the same period are given in Fig. 184. There is a cage- 
like covering over the dial, and the back is similarly perforated. 
Very nice engraving is to be seen on the head of the hammer as 
well as on the balance cock and other fittings connected with the 
plate of the movement, which is signed "J. Boudon, a S. Flour." 
Fig. 185 is probably French early seventeenth-century work. 

Fig. 185. 

Fig. 186. —Watch by Jeremie 
East, about 1600. 

It has covers of crystal and side panels of brown topaz. The 
movement is signed "J. Dubie a Paris." 

Fig. 186 represents a watch in a case of crystal, which is in the 
possession of Messrs. Lambert, who allowed' me to examine it. On 
the plate of the movement is inscribed "Jeremie East, fecit," and it 
is, I should say, a very early example of English work, dating from 
not later than 1600. 

In Fig. 187 is shown a superb watch of large size in an octagonal 
case of crystal, with a crystal cover and gilt brass mountings. The 
movement is oval, and bears the signature of " P. Cuper," who was 
a well-known maker of Blois. The dial plate is beautifully engraved, 

Portable Timekeepers. 


Fig. 1S7. 

Fig. 188. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

and near the joint is the date 1634. It indicates the phases of the 
moon and her age, the days of the week, and days of the month. 

An octagonal crystal case watch by Henry Grendon, " of ye 
Exchange," which dates from about 1660, is shown in Fig. 188. 

It was formerly an attractive 
item in the Dunn Gardner col- 
lection and now belongs to Mr. 
F. G. Hilton Price, On the gilt 
dial plate are engravings of 
tulips ; the hour ring is of silver. 
There is an outer case of grey 
fish skin studded with silver pins, 
rosettes, hinges and clasps, which 
is shown open in Fig. i8g. 

Some time ago I saw a small 
octangular watch movement in- 
scribed " Nicasius, London," 
dating from about 1605. 

In the British Museum is a 
choice octangular watch, dated 
1620, by the celebrated Edward 
East. The body, as well as the 
cover of the case, is of crystal, 
faceted, and the exterior alto- 
gether closely resembles Fig. 1 86. 
Another, somewhat similar, but 
dated 1 609, is inscribed, "Michael 
Nouwen, London." A watch of 
this shape, said to have be- 
longed to Abbot Whiting, is 
shown in Fig. 190, which is 
copied from Warner's " History 
of Glaston Abbey." On the 
inside of the cover will be noticed 
the inscription, " Richard Why- 
tinge, 1536." Warner seems to 
have accepted the inscription, but beyond it there is really no 
evidence except a seal attached to the watch by a string ; this is 
certainly not conclusive, and I confess I do not believe such a watch 
was made so early as 1536. 

Fig. 191 is from the collection of M. Paul Garnier. The square 

Fig. ic 

Portable Tiuickecper^.. 


case has a <;rouncl of blueish steel, oxerhiid witli chased f^okl orna- 
ment, the combination producing a very striking effect. The edges 
are decorated in the same way. The dial is square, enamelled blue 
in the centre and white all round, the corners 
being adorned with motifs in red enamel. The 
movement is signed " Balthazar Martinet," 
who was horologer to Louis XIII. in 1637. 
Steel cases with gold filagree work attached 
were rather popular at the middle of the 
seventeenth century. Among others in the 
British Museum is a choice specimen by 
Benjamin Hill. 

Two views of a clock watch in a remarkably 
well pierced circular case are given in Figs. 
192, 193. The dial of brass gilt is finely 
engraved, and altogether it is a good example 
of the style in vogue about 1640. The 
" Martinet Au gros Orloge, Rouen." 


Fi<-.. 191. 

movement is sii/ned 

Fig. 19: 

Fig. 193. 

Oval Watches. — From the designation ^" Nuremberg eggs," 
which is often applied to watches of a flattened oval form, it may be 
supposed that they originated in Nuremberg. They appear to have 
been manufactured here as early as 1600. On page 162 are two 
specimens from the Schloss collection. That reproduced in Fig. 194 

c.w. M 


Old Clocks and WatcJies and their Makers. 

is a striking watch of a very early date. The movement, furnished 
with the primitive stackfreed, is fitted into a case of brass nicely 
pierced at the sides as shown. On the joint of the case is the 

signature "J. Burgis." Tne outer part of the dial is of brass, the 
centre, including the hour ring, of silver, and on the cover over it 
is fixed a circular crystal, an addition doubtless made subsequent 
to the manufacture of the watch. 

Portable Timekeepers. 


Some of these early oval watclies had covers back and trout — the 

moveinent not being hinged to the case but simply pressed into it 

and supported by tenons which projected 

from the dial. Fig. 195, an example of this 

kind, represents a watch the movement of 

wliich is signed " R. Delander fecit." It is 

in a silver case having brass mouldings at 

the edges ; the outsides of the covers are 

finely engraved with groups typical of the 

beneficial use of fire and water respectively ; 

and on the inside of the back cover is a sun 

dial with a stud for the reception of a mov- 
able gnomon. The dial is wholly of silver. 
In Fig. ig6 is shown an ov-al watch 

belonging to Mr. Evan Roberts. The dial 

is of silver, and has mounted thereon a 

brass hour ring. At each hour, near the 

exterior edge of the ring, is a slight knob 

to allow of the time being ascertained by 

feeling the hand and estimating its position 

with relation to the knobs. Over the hour 

ring is the engraved inscription, " Our time 

doth passe a way." The case is of silver. 

On the movement plate is engraved, " Thomas Aspinwall, fecit." 
The name of Aspinwall is not unknown among 
the celebrated early English watchmakers ; 
it is recorded that in 1675 Josiah Aspinwall 
was admitted as a brother of the Clock- 
makers' Company. tlis admission as a 
" brother" probably signifies that he was free 
of one of the other City Guilds. In 1863 
Lord Torphichen exhibited, at the Archaeo- 
logical Institute, a clock watch made by 
Samuel Aspinwall, of a date presumably 
about 1650 or 1660. But I should be inclined to 
place this watch as among the productions of a 
much earlier date. A few years ago I saw a 
watch very similar to the one here depicted, on 
which was engraved, "Samuel Aspinall, fecit." 
Bearing in mind the vagaries of seventeenth-century orthography, 
we may assume that this referred to a member of the same family. 

M 2 

Fig. ig6. 

Fig. 197. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Oval or egg-shaped watches were usually worn on chatelaines. 
They were apparently more popular than any other form from 1610 
to 1625, and continued in fashion with the fair sex for a long time. 
In Hollar's plates of the four seasons, dated 1641, summer is repre- 
sented by a lady having an egg-shaped watch on her left side 
depending from her girdle. The British Museum contains several 
similar specimens, most of which are assigned to the first quarter of 
the seventeenth century. One, by Nicholas Waller, is dated 1610. 
Another, almost a counterpart of the one illustrated in Fig. 197, is 

by John Limpard, and was made about 
1610. It is calculated for going sixteen 
hours between windings. The case is 
of silver, partially gilt and very ele- 
gantly chased ; on one side is a figure 
representing Hope, and on the other a 
corresponding figure of Faith. 

An exterior view of an oval watch by 
Simon Bartram is given in Fig. 197. 
The circular patch on the left is a " hit 
or miss" shutter, which covers the 
winding hole to prevent the ingress of 
dirt. This shutter is found on many 
early seventeenth-century watches. It 
had to be moved round when the watch 
was wound, and on completion of the 
operation was replaced. The dial is 
very similar to that shown in Fig. 196. 
A drawing of the movement, which is 
of particular interest, will be given later 

In the Hilton Price collection is a 
watch of the same kind by the same maker, another oval one by 
Edward East, one by Samuel Linaker, and that shown in Fig. 198, 
which is by Denis Bordier, Paris. It has a brass gilt dial prettily 
engraved and a fluted silver case. 

The small oval watch in a case of crystal which belongs to 
Mr. Max Rosenheim and is shown in Fig. 199 bears the signature, 
"Jean Nuer, A Saintes." 

Fig. 200 represents an oval watch, apparently English, in a silver 
case and with a silver dial. There are no screws used in the move- 
ment, which is signed " William Yate." Mr. Edward Parr has a 

Fig. ic 

Portable Timekeepers. 


somewliat similar watch in a brass case, the movement of which is 
signed " Wm. Nash, London." 

There is a very small oval watch in the British Museum. It 
measures but half an inch across by three-quarters of an inch 
long, and has plain silver capsule-shaped outer cases. The South 
Kensington Museum contains a still smaller one. 

Early in the seventeenth century plain circular watch cases came 
into favour, but not to the entire exclusion of more fanciful shapes. 

On page 166 are examples of some diminutive round watches of 
the period. Fig. 201, in a case of silver gilt, dates from about 

Fig. 199. 

Fig. 200. 

1630, and the movement is signed "Jacob Wibrandt, Leuwarden." 
A plainer specimen of a slightly later date bearing the name 
" Chaunes le jeune " is shown in Fig. 202. 

Front and back views of a watch bearing tlie signature, " Arnolts, 
Hamburg," are given in Figs. 203, 204. The case of silver is 
handsomely chased in repousse, with a remarkably well executed 
portrait on the back. It is a production of about 1635. 

Figs. 205 and 206 represent a watch by Jeremie Gregory, a well- 
known English maker. The outside of the case is covered with 
champ leve engraving, a style of decoration rather uncommon and 
very effective if well done, as it is in this instance. 

1 66 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig. 20I. 

Fig. 202. 

Fig. 203. 

Fig. 204. 

Fig. 205. 

Fig. 206. 

Portable Timekeepers. 167 

Holbein. — Holbein tlie painter seems to have taken a remarkable 
interest in horology. In his famous picture of "The Family of 
Sir Thomas More," painted 1526-30, is to be seen hanging on the 
wall a clock much resembling the one of Anne Boleyn which is 
illustrated on page 50. The bracket on which Anne Boleyn's clock 
now stands was probably added by Horace Walpole. 

Holbein was on very intimate terms with Nicholas Cratzer (or 
Kratzer), horologer to Henry VHI., and painted a superb portrait 
of him, which is dated 1528, and is at the Louvre, Paris. Cratzer 
is there represented at work on a sundial, with other instruments of 
the kind near him. Holbein's last dated drawing (1543), now at the 
British Museum, is a design for a combination of clock and hour glass, 
intended for presentation to Henry VHI. by Sir Anthony Denny. 
But Holbein's interest in the craft w^as quite exceptional in England 
at that period, and it must be confessed that up to nearly the end of 
the sixteenth century English horologists had but a very small share 
in the production of portable timekeepers. 

Salt Cellar Clocks. — In the early part of the seventeenth 
century it was apparently the custom to have clocks combined 
with salt cellars on the table at state banquets, to judge by the 
following curious items from an inventory of the plate in the lower 
and upper jewel rooms of the Tower, 1649 : " A salt of state with a 
clocke in it, valued att £12 o o; a clccke salt with a christall case, 
supported with 4 pillars, silver-gilt, valued at ^"4 100; an aggatt 
salt and cover garnisht with gold, enamelled, supported by 3 men, 
and a shipp on the top of the cover, p. oz. lo-j oz., valued att 
^33 o o ; two clocke salts standing upon 4 christall balls and 4 
christall pillars, each with aggatt salts on the topp, and gold covers, 
p. oz. 3 lb. 2^ oz., valued att ^368 per oz. = ^77 o o ; a christall 
watch salt garnisht with gold, and supported with 3 faces with 
several fruiteages hanging about them, p. oz. 30 oz., valued att 
£30 o o." 

( i68 ) 



Pockets were used for the reception of timekeepers in Shakespeare's 
time, for Jaques, in " As You Like It," remarks, " And then he drew 
a dial from his poke." Portable sundials, sometimes with a compass 
attached, were then made, and the reference was probably to one 
of these. 

Watches were not usually carried in the pocket for more than a 
century after the mainspring was invented. The larger ones would 
be kept on a table or cabinet, and the smaller kinds, when worn on 
the person, were originally held by a chain around the neck,- or 
attached to the dress in other ways, unless incorporated with 
bracelets and such-like ornaments, as many of Queen Elizabeth's 
seem to have been. 

The grotesque and uneven cases applied to most of the early 
Avatches clearly rendered them unsuitable for the pocket. Decker 
in 1609 (Gull's Hornbook), apostrophizing the fashionable young 
bloods idling in the cathedral, says, " Here you may have fit occasion 
to discover your watch by taking it forth and setting it to the time 
of St. Paul's." This suggests a pocket, but long after this date oval 
and round watches were made with a pointed projection dependmg 
from the bottom of the case, and these were clearly never intended 
for the pocket, nor fit for it. The fob, from the German fuppe, "a 
small pocket," was very possibly introduced by the Puritans, whose 
disUke of display may have induced them to conceal their time- 
keepers from the public gaze. This conjecture is strengthened by 
the fact that a short " fob " chain attached to a watch of Oliver 
Cromwell's, in the British Museum, is, in point of date, the first 
appendance of the kind to be found. The watch is a small oval one, 
in a silver case, and was made about 1625, by John Midnall, of 
Fleet Street, who was one of the first members of the court of the 
Clockmakers' Company, and warden in 1638. On one side of a 
silver plate at the seal end of the chain are the Cromwell arms, and 
on the other the crest of the Protector with the letters O.C. as shown 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


in the appended engraving, Fig. 207. The Cromwell crest was a 
demi-hon holding a ring in its paw, but the Protector substituted 
for the ring the handle of a tilting spear as here represented. 

This watch and chain formed part of the Fellows collection. By 
the will of Dame Harriet Fellows (relict of the late Sir Charles 
Fellows), late of West Cowes, Isle of Wight, who died in 1874, the 
testatrix bequeathed to the 
trustees of the British Museum 
her collection of watches, to be 
placed and held with Milton's 
watch, bequeathed to them by 
her late husband. 

Fig. 208 is an illustration from 
ih.e Illustrated London News, Feb. 
1850, of a clock watch which is 
said to have belonged to Oliver 
Cromwell. It is, I believe, the 
property of Mr. J. H. Fawkes, 
of Farnley Hall, and bears the 
name of Jaques Cartier, The 
outer case of leather is perforated 
and studded with silver. 

In the Gentleman s Magazine 
for December, 1808, is shown a 
small oval watch, similar to the 
one by East, Fig. 400, which, it 
is stated, Cromwell at the siege 
of Clonmel took out of his fob and 
presented to Colonel Bagwell. 

In the South Kensington 
Museum is a circular clock 
watch by Johannes Bayes, which 
probably belonged to Cromwell's 
secretary. The outer case of 
tortoiseshell bears the inscription 
A.D. 1628." 

A very handsome watch by Henry Harpur is shown in Fig. 209. 
It has a silver dial with day of the month ring and beautifully 
pierced centre ; the inner case is of silver, having on the back the 
arms of Cromwell, to whose daughter Bridget the ownership of the 
watch is assigned ; the outer case of fish skin is pique with silver pins. 

Fig. 207. — Oliver CromweH's watch 
and fob chain. 

" Johne Pyme, hes watch, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Watch Glasses. — Watch glasses seem to have been introduced 
about 1 610. At first they were flat, rather thick, and fitted into spHt 
bezels, as the containing rings are called, the opening in the bezel 
being at the middle of the joint, so that the corresponding knuckles 
of the case would keep the slit tightly closed on to the glass. Glasses 
of this kind are found on oval watches, and also on circular ones with 
dials much smaller than the cases, which were a fashion at the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century. Then followed the high, rounded 
glasses, which were cut from spheres. Afterwards came the bull's- 
eyes, with a circular flat centre ; these, wdiich were of German origin, 

Fig. 208. — Clock watch of 
Oliver Cromwell. 

Fig. 209. 

gave place to the flatter "lunettes" from France, such as to-day 
divide popular favour with the thick "crystal" glasses. 

Glasses were apparently used for table clocks some years before 
they were applied to watches. German and French table clocks, 
dating from the latter part of the sixteenth century, are occasionally 
to be met with having glasses over the dials, and some octagonal 
ones with glass panels in the sides. But the innovation did not at 
once prevail, as table clocks, either without any covering over the 
dial, or with metal covers, were made long after the first examples 
with glasses, and watches with metal covers continued in fashion till 
the middle of the seventeenth century. 

Pocket Watches, etc._ 171 

In the British Museum is an oval watch by Guy Mellin, Black- 
friars, the dial of which is covered with a glass in a split bezel ; also 
a circular watch by John Duke, Fleet Street, with a dial one-half the 
size of the case, and a glass of a corresponding size fitted into a split 
bezel. Mellin's watch is considered by the authorities to have been 
made about 1600, but I should be inclined to put the date of its 
production a few years later. Several other watches, whose manu- 
facture is ascribed to the beginning of the seventeenth century, may 
be noticed with glasses ; but these adjuncts in some instances have 
been subsequent applications. The split bezel is perhaps a tolerable 
criterion of originality, but it does not absolutely follow that such a 
bezel was originally fitted with a glass, for the frames of early watches 
and clocks were occasionally furnished with crystal. 

Another method of fixing the glass prior to the introduction of the 
present practice of springing or snapping it into the bezel consisted 
of forming three or four thin metal ears on the bezel and bending 
them over the glass when it had been placed into a suitable rebate. 
I saw this in a watch by Benjamin Hill. It was, however, but a 
survival of the mode in which crystal was held in octagonal and 
other fancy cases, and must be regarded as an inferior arrangement 
which does not seem to have been at all general, whereas the split 
bezel was used preferentially by some makers long after the custom 
of snapping the glass in was introduced. The watch shown in 
Fig. 445, and made about 1700 by the celebrated Langley Bradley, 
has a split bezel. 

Watch Cases. — The convenience of the "fob" to those who 
carried watches for use rather than for ornament was soon apparent, 
and its adoption speedily became general with men, though ladies 
continued to wear their watches suspended from chatelaines till the 
latter part of the eighteenth century. Some of the chatelaines 
were exceedingly handsome, as may be judged by an example from 
the Schloss collection which is shown in Fig. 210. The plaques are 
painted in enamel in the style of Huaud ; the mounting and painting 
are French. In 1749 Benjamin Cartwright patented a secret spring 
to secure a watch hanging by a lady's side. 

Like many other fancies, the one of wearing two watches is but a 
revival, pace the Universal Magazine for 1777, where the description of 
a " modern fop " includes — 

•' A lofty cane, a sword with silver hilt, 
A ring, two watches and a snuff-box gilt."' 

It will be observed from the preceding examples that a great 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

number of dissimilar materials were used to enclose portable time- 
keepers : wood of various kinds, precious and semi-precious stones, 

amber, metal and leather were all 
utilized for this purpose. With few 
exceptions the earliest watches had 
but a single case. Metal was the 
predominating material, the 
plainest cases being usually of 
brass, or of polished steel ; silver 
also was favoured both for smooth 
and engraved cases ; for the more 
costly coverings gold was of course 
selected, either by itself or in com- 
bination with precious stones, and 
occasionally the two precious 
metals would be used together 
with pleasing effect. 

Sometimes the watch movement, 
instead of being fastened to the 
case, was simply placed in, four 
tenons which projected from the 
edge of the dial fitting into corre- 
sponding mortices in the middle 
band of the case. The case then 
had two hinged covers, one over 
the dial and one over the back, the 
movement being rendered secure 
by the closing of the front cover ; 
the back cover had to be opened 
to wind the watch. The oval 
watch by R. Delander, which is 
illustrated on page 162 ; the one by 
David Bouquet in the Mainwaring 
collection, and another by David 
Ramsay in the South Kensington 
Museum, are examples of this 
method. But more often the 
movement was joined to the case 
by means of a hinge near the 
pendant and a spring bolt at the opposite point of the dial, four 
projecting tenons on the dial resting in notches cut from the middle 

Fig. 210. 

Pocket \]'atches, etc. 


of the case. This mode of construction is clearly shown in the 
engraving of the oval watch by Thomas Aspinwall on page 163. Till 
about 1720 the spring bolt generally projected through the dial ; after 
that the nib for unbolting was more often arranged outside the circle 
of the dial and below the surface of it. 

Enamel. — Decoration in enamel is sometimes to be found on 
watch dials and cases produced during the early part of the 
seventeenth century. An exceptionally good specimen is shown 
in Figs. 211 and 212. The outside of the cover and the back are 


Fig. 211. — Front, with cover 

Fig. 212. — l>ial and inside of 

embellished with enamel, the ground being of turquoise blue with 
white arabesques moulded thereon in relief and studded with fine 
garnets of large size. Though "jewelled watches" are referred 
to as belonging to Queen Elizabeth and in other records of the 
period, it is very rarely that so early a combination of enamel and 
gems is now to be met with. The inside of the case and of the 
cover are also painted in enamel, and so is the dial. There is no 
glass over the dial. The hand is well shaped. The plate of the 
watch is inscribed " Pierre Soret." 

Front and back views of a watch covered with the same kind of 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

enamel but of later date are given in Figs. 213 and 214. The 
centre of the dial is blue, and a portrait on an enamelled plaque 
occupies the centre of the back. A very thin name plate is engraved 
"James Coupe, London," and underneath the name plate appears 
the signature "Marc Grangier." 

In Fig. 215, by permission of Mr. Charles Shapland, I am enabled 

Fig. 213. 

Fig. 215. 

Fig. 214. 

Fig. 216. 

to give a representation of a specimen in a different style, dating 
from about 1630. On the top plate of the movement is the inscrip- 
tion " Georgius Merkell, Dantzig." The case is of gold, and is 
wholly incrusted with enamel both inside and outside ; flowers of 
various colours and kinds, as well as winged insects, are charmingly 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


Of other kinds of enamelling to be met with but rarely on early 
seventeenth-century watches may be mentioned champ levc. This 
somewhat resembles the well-known cl isonne, but, instead of the 
various sections being divided by the insertion of metal strips, the 
partitions are solid with the base, and the intervening spaces cut out 
to receive the enamel. A watch, signed " Du Hamel a Paris," 
dating from about 1635, in a gold case very effectively decorated in 
this way with cream-coloured enamel, is shown in Fig. 216. 
Another example is given in Fig. 217, which is the back of a watch 
with a peculiar notoriety, referred to in Chap. III.: the dial bears 
the inscription " Robertus Bruce Rex Scottorum," as shown in 
Fig. 217A, wliile tlie watch is a production of about 1645, the 

Fig. 21' 

Fig. 2I7A. 

movement of it being signed " Johann Kreitt Mayr." The diminu- 
tive watch on page 154 is also decorated with champ leve enamel. 

Occasionally translucent enamel was employed, and effects of 
light and shade obtained by varying the depth of a cavity which was 
cut to the required design in a metal base. 

Watches with enamel painting before about 1640 are exceedingly 
rare, and there is a marked difference in the character of such 
decorative work executed at the beginning, compared with that 
done during the later years of the seventeenth century. As examples 
of the earlier style, which presented a comparatively lustreless 
surface and subdued tints, may be taken the watches shown on 
pages 176-g. During the first quarter of the century the Holy 
Family appears to have afforded the theme for decoration in nearly 
every instance. Afterwards, though sacred subjects were not ignored, 
mythological incidents were sometimes selected by artists for repro- 

176 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Figs. 218—220. — Watch by Salomon Plairas, Blois, with enamel painting, 

about 1625. 

I, outside of cover; 2, back of case; 3, inside of cover and dial. 

Pocket ]V(itchcs, etc. 


Fig. 221. 

Fig. 222. 


Fig. 223. 

Fig. 224. 

Front and back views of watch. The movement signed 
" Barthelmy Mace a Blois." 

Pocket Watches, etc. 179 

duction, and occasionally original conceptions and portraits of 
contemporary personages were applied to watches intended most 
probably for presentation. 

On page 176 are three views of an early and very fine sixteenth 
century enamelled watch from the Schloss collection. The move- 
ment is signed " Salomon Plairas, horlogeur, A Blois." 

Fig. 221, from the collection at the South Kensington Museum, 
shows the front of a watch dating from about 1630, on which is a 
painting of the Holy Family, after Rubens. 

Fig. 222 represents the back of a watch of the same period at the 
British Museum, for which the artist has apparently taken the 
romance of Theseus and Hippolyta as the subject of his painting. 
The movement is signed " B. Foucher, Blois." 

Front and back views of a watch, the movement of which is signed 
" Barthelmy Mace a Blois," are given on page 178. Nearly all 
artists who painted watch cases up to the end of the eighteenth 
century seem to have included the " Roman Piety " in their selec- 
tions ; the representation on the back of this watch could, I think, 
hardly be excelled. 

Fig. 225, from the British Museum, shows the back of a watch 
by Jean Hebrat, of Brussels, of a slightly later date than Fig. 224 ; 
the painting is bordered with turquoises. 

Back and front views of a very beautiful watch, the enamel 
painting of which is probably English as well as the movement, are 
given in Figs. 226-227.. On the back of the case, within a charming 
floral border, is a well-painted portrait, said to be that of Henrietta 
Maria, daughter of Henry IV. of France and wife of Charles I. of 
England. The dial is finely painted to a floral design and covered 
by a glass kept into a recess in a primitive way by six pins bent 
over from the bezel. The hand is of brass, pierced and chased. 
On the plate of the movement is engraved " Simon Hackett, 
Londini." He was elected a member of the Clockmakers' Company 
on its formation in 1632, and served as master in 1646. 

An improved method of painting in opaque enamel, which 
appears to liave been discovered about 1635, is generally credited to 
Jean Petitot, who was born in Geneva in 1607, and attained much 
success as a miniature painter in France and in England. The new 
process consisted of applying to thin gold plates thick colours of 
different tints which would, after being subjected to fire, retain their 
brilliance and lustre. Petitot exercised his art on snuff boxes, but 
I have never met with enaiutl decoration on a watch which bore his 

N 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

signature. The invention of this particular kind of enamel painting 

is also claimed for Jean Toutin, a 

Fig. 225. 

goldsmith of Chateau Surr, 
who was previously distin- 
' guished for painting in 
enamels, and who certainly 
seems to have been one of 
the first to apply it to 
watches. Other French 
and Swiss artists quickly 
devoted themselves to the 
new kind of enamel paint- 
ing. Among those who 
excelled in it may be 
mentioned Henry Toutin, 
brother of Jean, a gold- 
smith and enameller at 
Blois; Dubie, a court gold- 
smith who worked at the 
Louvre ; Paul Viet, of 
Blois ; Morli^re, a native 
of Orleans, who worked at 
Blois ; Robert Vauquer, of 
Blois, a pupil of Morliere, 

Fig. 226. 

Fig 227. 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


Fig. 228. — Front of case 

Fig. 230. —Movement and inside Fig. 2ji.— Dial and inside ol 

ot case. cover. 

Watch about 1640. Movement signed " Barbaret a Paris,' 

i82 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

of pre-eminent ability, whose enamel painting has never been 
excelled either for colour or design, though specimens of his art 
are rarely to be met with on watch cases ; Pierre Chartiere, of Blois, 
who was noted for his painting of flowers ; and the brothers Jean 
Pierre and Ami Huaud (or Huaut, also spelt Hualt), of whom 
" Huaud le puisne," as he usually signed himself, was particularly 
celebrated for figure-painting. Several examples are to be found in 
the British, South Kensington and Guildhall Museums. 

Four view^s of a splendid watch in the Schloss collection, dating 
from about 1640, appear in Figs. 228, 229, 230, and 231. The 
movement is signed " Jacque Barbaret a Paris." 

Front and back of a smaller watch from the same collection, 
signed " Romieu, Rouen, Fecit," are given in Figs. 232 and 233. 

The representation of the toilet of Venus on the back of a watch 
by Robert Lochard, which is shown in Fig. 234, is an extremely 
beautiful example. 

The admirable painting of figures and a landscape shown in 
Fig. 235 is signed by " Huaud le puisne," and is on the back of a 
wa<-ch by Steven Tracy, Rotterdam, which is at the British Museum. 
Among other examples there may be cited a representation of some 
nymphs bathing, excellently executed in enamel by Jean Toutin ; 
an enamelled case, very finely painted by Henry Toutin, illustrating 
the story of Tancred and Clorinda in " Orlando Furioso " ; another 
by the same artist which treats of the " Rape of the Sabines " ; a watch 
by David Bouquet, a well-known London maker, the case being 
ornamented with flowers, in relief, and enriched with diamonds ; a 
very finely enamelled watch case, illustrating the early life of Christ; 
a very thick rounded watch by Tompion, with case splendidly 
painted in enamel by Camille Andre. 

Fig. 236 shows the case of a watch by Jean de Choudens, dating 
from about 1680, which is painted in a really charming manner and 
bears the inscription " Les deux freres Huaut pintre de son A. E. 
Berlin." It is at the South Kensington Museum. 

Of slightly later date is a watch by " F'^"'- De Miere Amsterdam," 
with a painting on the back of the Roman Piety, as shown in 
Fig. 237. This is signed " Huaud le puisne fecit," and is also to be 
seen at South Kensington. A similar painting covering a watch 
by " Pieter Paulus Amsterdam," which is in the Schloss collection, 
bears the signature " P. Huaud, P. Genius, F. Geneva." 

There were two examples in the Dunn Gardner collection which 
was dispersed by auction in 1902 : a choice piece of figure painting 

Fig. 233. 

Fig. 236. 

Fig. 235. 

Fig. 237. 

Fig. 238. 

Fig. 239. 

Fig. 240. 

Fig. 242. 

Fig. 243. 

Pocket W niches, etc. 185 

covering a watch by Lucas, Amsterdam, the enamelled case being 
signed " Huaud I'aisne pinxit a Geneue," and a watch by Julien 
Le Roy, with enamelled case, bearing the signature of G. Bouvier. 

All on page 184 are signed specimens of the Huauds' work. The 
lirst consists of front and back views of a watch by " Goullons a 
Marseille," dating from about 1670, which is signed " Huaud le 
puisne." On the front are Mars and Venus with Cupid, and on the 
back " The Hours." 

The next two bear the same signature, and are a little later. A 
pair of lovers is painted on each ; the first Apollo and Diana, the 
second possibly Mars and Venus. The former covers a watch by 
" Ofard a Gex," and the hitter one by "Johannes Van Ceulin, 

" Venus and Adonis " is signed " Le deux frere Huaut, p. d. \ . A. 
Fct, a Berlin," and is on the back of a watch by " \'anenho\e, 

The group " Susanna and the Elders," most beautifully painted, 
is signed " Les deux freres Huaud les jeunes," and is on a watch 
named " Jan Bern^ VrythofF, Hague." 

Pigments of different composition yielding colours not so superla- 
tively rich and warm as characterizes the work of what I will 
\enture to call the Huaud school seem to have been introduced 
towards the middle of the eighteenth century. Prevost (or Prevaux), 
who is described as " Peintre du cabinet de S. M." (Louis XV,), 
may be taken as one of the best exponents of the new method. He 
painted a portrait of Madame Pompadour, by command of the King, 
for which he was paid 1,000 livres. A really beautiful piece of his 
enamel painting, signed " I. Prevaux, pin. 1749," on the back of a 
watch by Pascal Hubert le Jeune, Rouen, from the Schloss collection, 
is shown at the top left hand corner of page 186, with others decorated 
in a somewhat similar style. The watch on the same level, with a 
pair of lovers and a landscape on the back, is by Julien Le Roy. 
Vulcan, \'enus and Cupid are on a repeating watch by the same 
maker. The syhan scene with a flute player and a lady holding 
the music adorns a watch signed " Raphard, London," and the 
remaining two are watches by Julien Le Roy. Naomi and Ruth are 
represented in the bottom left hand corner, and the tableau in the 
last example is founded, I believe, on a tragic incident in the romance 
of Orestes and Hermione. 

Painted groups, bordered with translucent enamel over a wavy oren- 
graved metal ground, were favoured during the last half of the eighteenth 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


century, and in many instances the surface of the painting was 
covered with a transparent flux, which gave it a glassy appearance. 

During the first half of the nineteenth century portraits and views 
in small panels attached to the backs of watch cases were popular 
and of very uneven merit. Most of them were, I think, of Swiss 

In the Vienna Treasury is a watch case finely enamelled inside 
and out by the brothers Huaud. 

Other representative examples of French, Swiss and English 
enamel are appended. 


Fig. 251. 

Fig. 250 shows the back of a watch by Henry Harper, London, of 
a style corresponding to 1670. The painting is probably Dutch, and 
of a later date. 

The beautiful painting set in an engraved gold border shown in 
Fig. 251 encloses a watch signed " Honore I^ieutand, Marseille." 

Two views of a half-quarter repeater by Rd. Gregg, London, from 
the Hilton Price collection, are given in Figs. 252-253. The centre 
of the outer case is enamelled with figures of cupids in a landscape, 
and small vignettes are painted around the edge ; the dial bears the 
arms of Herbert, second Viscount Windsor ; this title became extinct 
in 1758. The painting is signed with the initials " A.C." 

An excellent specimen of floral decoration in enamel bordered by 

1 88 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

engraving appears in Fig. 254, which represents the gold back of a 
watch signed " Jn. L^- Argand, Paris," and dating from about 1770. 

Fig. 252. 

I'l'- 253. 

Fig. 254. 

Fig. 255. 

A back view of a contemporary watch by Romilly, Paris, with pretty 
flower painting on a brown enamelled ground, is given in Fig. 255. 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


A choicer piece of flower painting on enamel than is shown in 
Fig. 256 it has never been my good fortune to see. This watch 
belongs to the Hon. Gerald Ponsonby, by whose permission it is 
illustrated. It is a souvdine repeater by Julien Le Roy ; the hands, 
bow, push piece at pendant, thumb piece and sourdine toucher are all 
set with diamonds. 

Fig. 257. Hack <>t watch by 
G. Achard et Fils, Geneva. 
Enamel painting studded 
with diamonds. 

Fig. 258. — Back of French 
watch. Enamel painting stud- 
ded with diamonds; surmount- 
ed by a bust of Louis XVI. 

As an example of English enamelling dating from about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, is shown, in Fig. 259, the exterior 
of a watch by Arl, Dobson, London, which is in the British Museum. 
I wish I could say the painting is better than contemporary specimens 
of foreign artists. 

Notwithstanding the taste for Chinese art which was so apparent 
in France during the eighteenth century, it is very seldom a watch 

I go 

Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

is met with having a back of porcelain enamel with a Chinese 
subject moulded thereon. An example covering a watch by Julien 
Le Roy may, therefore, be of especial interest, though it makes but 
a poor picture. The figures are in bright colours, and the ground a 
dark brown. 

On page igi are some fine examples of varying periods. " The 
Nativity " is a beautiful piece of painting in the incomparable 
Huaud style on the back of a watch by Gribelin, Paris, dating 
from about 1680. On the same horizontal line is a watch the 
movement of which is signed " Abraham Le Schegs, Amsterdam." 

Fig. 259. 

Fig. 260. 

The painting is doubtless also by one of the Huauds. The first of 
the middle pair is the back of a watch by the younger Caron. Any 
appearance of vulgarity in the subject of the painting is quite atoned 
for by the adjoining view of the inside of the case, where are repre- 
sented the young mother and her babe. The representation of the 
mother of Achilles dipping him in the Styx is on the back of a watch 
by Julien Le Roy. Diana and her attendant nymph, which adorns 
the last watch on the page, dates from about 1780. 

Fig. 267 shows a watch by J. Leroux, Charing Cross, which is 
said to have belonged to Viscount Windsor, whose title became 
extinct in 1758. The case is enamelled blue and white on a gold 

Fig. 261. 

Fig. 262. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

In Fig, 268 is shown a repeating watch by Lepine ; on the gold 
case in an oval medallion are finely carved figures of gold and silver 

Fig. 267. 

Fig. 26S. 

Fig. 269. Fig. 270. 

on a ground of green enamel, outside of which is a wreath carved in 
silver. This decoration is exceedingly effective. The push piece, 
thumb piece and bow are studded with diamonds. 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


Fig. 269 is a late eighteentli century French painting representing 
Cyinon and Iphigenia. 

Fig. 271. — Watch by B. Baillon a I'aris, Fig. 272. — Watch bv Gregson, Horloger 
about 1765. clu Roy, Paris, about 17S5. 


Fig. 273. — Watch by Alexander 
Patry a Geneva, about 1790, 
miniature bordered with pearls 
and coloured stones. 

Fig. 274. — W^atch by Lepaute, 
Paris, about 1790, enamelled 
portrait bordered with diamonds. 

In Fig. 270 is shown the back of what is called a " Mongolfier " 
watch, from the Hilton Price collection, on which is painted a 
c.w. o 


Old Clocks and WatcJics and their Makers. 

representation of a balloon undergoing inflation, intended, I suppose, 
to commemorate the success of Montgolfier's aerostatic machine in 
1782. The movement is signed " Vauchez, Paris." 

Fig. 275 shows the back of a thin watch by " Gregson, Paris, 
horloger du Roy." The case is enamelled on gold, the outer part 
rayed and covered with royal blue translucent enamel ; on a 
medallion of opaque enamel in the centre is a well-painted group 
with Cupid and a dog, denoting love and faith. It is characteristic 
of the Louis XVI. period, when this style of enamelling was in 

Fig. 275. — Enamelled watch by Gregson. Fig. 276. — English enamelled watch. 

fashion. Fig. 276 shows an English watch, with the London hall 
mark corresponding to 1787. The margin is of translucent royal 
blue as in the preceding example. 

Two French watches of slightly later date, finely painted in 
enamel, are shown in Figs. 277 and 278. 

Battersea enamel dates from about 1750, when Sir Theodore 
Janssen, who was Lord Mayor of London in 1754, established a 
manufactory at York House, Battersea. Horace Walpole described 
his collection as " stamped with copper plates." Transfer printing 
may have been employed for flat surfaces, but certainly not for 
watch cases, the painting on some of which was by artists of note. 

Pocket ] Witches, etc. 


A very good example is shown in Fig. 281. Back and front views 
of a very choice little watch by Hughes, London,, of a slightly later 
period, are given in Figs. 282 and 283, 

Watch dials of enamel, with pictures painted in bright colours 
inside of the hour ring, and occasionally outside of it, proved very 
attractive between 1760 and 1800. They were inexpensive, and as 
a rule of but little artistic merit, the most favoured designs being 
those in which shipping and seaports were introduced. Many 

Fig. 277. 

Fig. 278. 

thousands of these were produced for the Dutch market by English 

The miniature of Marat, " rciiiii du peuplc,'" on the back of a watch 
from the Schloss collection, which is shown in Fig. 284, is an 
admirable piece of work. 

A fine miniature of Napoleon Buonaparte on the back of a musical 
half-quarter repeater of French make, wdiich is shown in Fig. 285, 
is in the Hilton Price collection. This watch is said to have been 
given by Napoleon to Murat on the fete day after the battle of 
Marengo, 1800. No cost seems to have been spared either with the 
mechanism or the embellishment. A tune is played at the com- 
pletion of each hour ; the miniature and dial are bordered with 
pearls; the bow also is studded with them. 

o 2 

ig6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig. 282. 

Fig. 283. 

Pocket Watcher, etc. 


A pretty little watch, which in many respects is a credit to English 
mechanical and artistic work of the first quarter of the nineteenth 
century, is shown in Fig. 286. It bears the hall mark for 1813, and 
is engraved "Markwick Markham, Borrell, London," a form of 
signature induced doubtless by the regulations applied to watches 
imported into Turkey, for the dial is marked with Turkish numerals. 
It may be assumed that Borrell was the manufacturer. The move- 
ment is of admirable finish, has a verge escapement and fancy 
pillars, but the particular attraction is the beautiful gold cases. 

Fig. 284. — Marat. 

Fig. 2S5. — Napoleon. 

of which there are three. The outer one, instead of having a flat 
surface Avhere the halves meet, is scalloped all round, but still 
forming a well-fitting junction by no means easy to attain. This 
case is enamelled, with a glass in the back, through which a very 
choice bit of floral enamel painting is to be seen. The backs of the 
two cases are so well fitted together that it re(|uii'es minute scrutiny 
to detect that the enamelled centre is not part of the outer case. 
The innermost case is a plain one, but exceedingly well made. 

During the eighteenth century the cock or bridge covering the 
balance of the watch, and concealed until the mo^•ement was turned 


Old Clocks and Watches and ilicir Makers. 

out of the case, was occasionally decorated with painting in enamel. 
Fig. 287, given as an illustration, is a watch signed "Flamant a 
Paris." It has a gilt metal case, and dates from about 1710 ; over 

Fig. 2S6. 

the balance is a gold enamelled plaque with a finely-painted repre- 
sentation of Cleopatra. 

Pair Cases. — To protect the surface of the decoration watches 
with exterior ornament of enamel were generally provided with an 

additional cover, and from 
about 1640 the practice of 
adding a loose outer case to 
watches, forming what are 
called " pair cases," continued 
to the early part of the nine- 
teenth century. 

Loose cases of gold and 
silver, with designs chased in 
repousse, were at this period 
an important art in connection 
with watch-making. Chasing 
as distinguished from engraving 
and carving is the formation 
of ornament in relief by punch- 
ing or pressing, rather than 
by cutting away the material. It is a very ancient art, and chased 
ornament is to be found on some of the earliest of watch cases. 
Much of the w^ork on old clocks, which at first sight appears to 
be engraving, proves on examination to be chasing. All the 

Fig. 2S7. 

Pocket Watclics, etc. 


small numerals on Habrecht's clock at tlie British Museum are 

The silver chased work applied to the edges of English oval cases 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century is said to have been 
imported in strips from France. 

An excellent piece of fiat chasing, incUuHng the liead of Charles II., 
with the Royal Crown and supporters, on tlie case of a watch by 
Daniel Le Count, dating from about 1680, is shown in Fig. 28S. The 
case is a single one, and on the right is a little catch, by pressing 
which a disc on the left springs on one side, exposes a round liole in 

Fig. 288. — Flat chasing on single case 
watch by Daniel Le Count about 1680. 

Fig. 289.— rial chabing on outer 

case of watch by William 


the case, and thus allows access to the winding square. The dial of 
this watch is shown on page 216 and the movement on page 526. 

The same style of decoration of a later date on the outer case of 
a watch, by William Scafe, may be seen in I'^ig. 289. 

In repousse chasing the material is punched or pressed up trom 
the back, whereby the design is obtained in higher rehef than is the 
case with the ordinary method of punching from the face. Some 
very choice specimens of repousse work, marked " H. Manley " in 
very small characters, are in the British Museum. An outer case 
at the South Kensington Museum is signed " H. Manly fee," and a 
watch by EUicott, bearing the hall mark for 1767, in a fine repousse case, 
which appears to be signed " Manby," is in the Guildhall Museum. 


Old Clocks and ]]'aicJics and their Makers. 

Among the signatures on other good examples may be mentioned 
Parbury, Cochin, and Moser, but as a rule decorative work of this 
kind bears no indication of the producer. 

Occasionally cases decorated in repousse a jour are to be met with, 
some of the best of them being the work of Dutch artists, but this 
form of ornament is hardly suitable for watch cases, as it affords 
no protection against the ingress of dirt, unless a separate lining is 

Fig. 290. — I'air case I'epeating 
watch by Paul Dupin, about 
1700, showing repousse outer 
cover. TJie chasing is of excep- 
tional fineness. 

Fig. 291. — Repeating watch 
by Paul Dupin, showing 
pierced work of inner case. 

employed. For striking watches, apertures of course serve a useful 

Sometimes, and particularly with a Jour cases, the ornament is in 
high relief, and to obtain the best possible effect the metal con- 
stituting the case is not only worked in repousse, but the figures, or 
parts of some of the figures standing up farthest from the ground are 
soldered on, considerable skill and judgment being displayed. Illus- 
trations of repousse chasing are given on pages 201-3, but bright gold 
cases embellished in this way do not, it must be confessed, lend 
themselves kindly to reproduction by photography. Incidents from 
English History were occasionally pourtrayed, but mythological 

Vockcl Watches, ck. 


and lUhlical subjects appear to have been more favoured. Among 
the examples may be recognised " King John signing Magna 
Charta," "Alexander and Roxana," "The Conversion of Saul," 

Fig. zg;^.— Repousse chasing on gold 
Fig. 292. — Silver repousse signed D. Cochin. out-case. 

Fig. 294. — Gold repousse chasing. 


Fig. 295. — Gold repousse chasing. 

"The Judgment of Paris," "Rebecca at the Well," ".Eneas and 
Dido," &c. 

Fig. 303 is an exceptionally late and fine specimen, covering a 
watch by James Murray, London. It has an oval pendant, and 

202 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig. 300. 

Fig. 301. 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


the date mark corresponding to 1810. On the outside of the inner 
case is engraved " Francisco Joseph, 181 1.'' 

A combination of chasing and engraving was also effectively 
employed in the embellishment of gold cases ; some of the choicest 
specimens of early eighteenth-century work which survive being the 
work of George Michael Moser, R.A. 

What is called champ Icve engraving, in which the ground is cut 
away, leaving the design in relief, was often adopted for decorating 

Fig. 302. — Half-quarter English 
repeater with silver out-case. 

Fig. 303. — Silver out-case of watch by 
J. Murray, hall marlc 1810. 

English dials and inner cases from about 1640 to 1680. The 
watch by Jeremie Gregory (Fig. 206) is an instance of this work. 
Many French watches and clocks of an earlier date were so 

In the Nelthropp collection is a watch by Thomas Windmills 
the cases of which are engraved in an exceptional style, corre- 
sponding to the Italian niello work, where the effect of light and 
shade is produced by rubbing in a preparation of lead and sulphur. 
On the outer case is a view representing the yard of an inn with 
the sign of a pitcher. In the yard is being played the game of 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Pale Maille, popular in the time of Charles II., and from which the 
thoroughfare of Pall Mall takes its name. Under the title of Croquet a 
pastime bearing some resemblance to it was introduced in recent years. 
The watch shown in Fig. 348 has an outer case of steel, dama- 
scened, and Fig. 304 represents a steel out-case of a watch by 
" Flower, London," decorated with engraving ; such cases are, 
however, quite exceptional. The dial of this watch is also of steel, 
blued and having gilt figures. A watch by Wdliamy, having a 
steel pendant and steel out-case pierced, is shown in Fig. 305. The 

Fig. 304. — Watch by " Flower, London,' 
with out-case of steel. 

Fig. 305. 

monogram (C. A. R., Charles Albert Rex) refers to the King of 
Sardinia, for whom the watch is said to have been made. He was 
father of \'ictor Emmanuel, first King of United Italy. 

Occasionally, during the latter part of the seventeenth century 
and early in the eighteenth century, outer cases were made of gold 
filagree work. An example is shown in Fig. 307. 

As a curiosity may be mentioned an outer case of carnelian which 
is to be seen in the British Museum. It belongs to a watch made 
by Strigner for James II., and by him given to his daughter, 
Catherine, Countess of Anglesey and Duchess of Buckingham, 
about 1687. In the Hawkins collection was a magnificently clothed 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


repeater by John Ferron, London, dating from about 17 10. The 
watch now belongs to Mr. James W. Usher, of Lincohi. It has a 

Fig. 306. — Out-case of fish skin piqiii- 
with gold pins, about 1690. 

Fig. 307. — Gold filagree out-case. 

pierced and engraved inner case of gold ; the second case, also of 

gold, is chased with flowers and arabesques, inlaid with plaques of 

moss agate, and set with numerous brilliants and coloured stones. 

A view of this is given in Fig. 308. 

There is also a shark-skin outer 

case. Fig. 309 shows a watch by 

Cabrier which is furnished with 

an outer case of gold, carnelian 

and mother-of-pearl, and Fig. 310 

another, by the same maker, with 

an out-case of gold, studded with 

large garnets. Mr. George Carr 

Glyn, at the Guelph Exhibition, 

showed a watch by Jas. Hubert, 

which had an agate case studded 

with diamonds. 

In Fig. 315 appears a water 
scene and landscape very finely 
carved in ivory and applied under 
a glass to the back of a watch 
case, which is coated with royal 
blue enamel. The carving is enclosed in an oval frame of pearls, 
outside of which is a floral design also executed in pearls. Around 
the edge of the case at both back and front is a leaf border 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

enamelled green, and within it a ring composed of pearls and 
garnets alternately. This watch dates from about 1790, and though 
the case is Swiss, the movement bears the signature " Jaquet Droz, 
London." The mechanism is marked by one or two interesting 
features. The mainspring is wound by pushing in and with- 
drawing a shaft passing through the pendant, a device known as 
"pumping keyless" of which this is an early example. Jaquet 
Droz was a well known Swiss mechanician and he may possibly 
have at one time resided in London. The cap, balance cock and 
other pieces are quite in the English style. The dial is furnished 
with a centre seconds hand, which is placed between the hour and 

Fig. 309. — Watch by Cabrier, with 
outer case of carnehan and mother- 
of-pearl set in gold. 

Fig. 310. — Watch by Cabrier about 

1750. Out-case repousse and studded 

with large garnets. 

minute indicators. At this period such an adjunct was not at all 

Outer cases of horn and of tortoiseshell, either plain or pique 
were not uncommon, and the semi-transparency of these materials 
was sometimes utilized for a superior kind of decoration. A thin 
disc of tortoiseshell having been moulded to the metal foundation, 
a landscape or other design was either etched or painted on the 
under side and a row of pins inserted around the edge of the 
tortoiseshell to secure it to the metal. The picture could be clearly 
seen through the tortoiieshell and appeared to be covered with a 
kind of glaze. Strong and inexpensive outer cases of metal, covered 
with some kind of skin, were also made. Among these coverings 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


shagreen was perhaps the most popular. The true shagreen is a 
remarkably tough kind of leather, made chiefly at Astrachan from 

Fig. 311. — Out-case of watch by Tompion, 
about 1695. Tortoiseshell with silver 
inlaid as shown. 

Fig. 312. — Tortoiseslu'll (uit-case, decor- 
ated with silver in the Chinese style, 
about 1730. 

Fig. 313. — Leather covered out-case 
studded with silver pins. 

Fig. 314. — Leather, pique with gold pins, 
back of watch by L Mornand, Paris. 

the strong skin that covers the crupper of the ass or horse. In its 
preparation a peculiar roughness is produced by treading into the 
skin hard round seeds, which are shaken out when the skin has been 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

dried ; it is then stained green with copper filings and sal-ammoniac, 
and the grains or warts are then rubbed down to a level with the 
rest of the surface, which thus presents the appearance of white dots 
on a green ground. 

The skin of the shark and of various other fishes, when properly 

prepared, formed an excellent covering, being thin and durable. 

This if dyed green was also known as shagreen. It was left with a 

slightly matted face, whereas the true shagreen bore a high polish. 

The pique surface on outer cases of leather or shagreen obtained 

by pins, usually of silver, passing 
through the covering and the 
inner metal case, had a good 
effect and afforded considerable 
scope for the skill of the produ- 
cer, see Figs. 306-13-14. Besides 
an ornamental border there was 
usually a central design which 
in some instances embodied the 
crest or initials of the owner. 
These outer cases had of course 
to be removed when the watches 
were wound, and many of them 
left in coaches and other places, 
were advertised for in the London 
Gazette during the latter part of 
the seventeenth and beginning 
of the eighteenth centuries. 
Where considerable cost had 
been lavished on the decoration 
of the removable case, covering 
the box or watch case proper, a third case would be provided to 
protect the second one. 

In some instances two second cases would be fitted to the " box," 
or inner case. A leather or tortoiseshell one for everyday use, and 
a more elaborate and costly one to be worn on gala days or other 
special occasions, when the watch, hanging from a chatelaine, could 
be displayed on the person. 

As both the box and the loose case of striking watches and 
repeaters were pierced to emit the sound, something further was 
required to prevent the ingress of dirt or other obstructive matter, 
and a thin metal cap to cover the movement was invented almost 

Fig. 315. — Watch by Jaquet Droz. 

Pocket WiilcJu's. etc. 


Fig. 316. — Tortoiseshell with silver 

Fig. 317. — Tortoiseshell with silver 


Fig. 318. — Clock-watch by Abraham 

Beckner, Pope's Head Alley, with finely Fig. 319.— Pierced case of clock- 
pierced inner-case, about 1670. watch, " Louis Arthaud a Lyon." 



Old Clocks and \Vatches and their Makers. 

contemporaneously with repeating watches. These caps were 
sometimes of silver but more generally of brass ; they performed 
their office of keeping dust and dirt from the movement very 
efficiently, and have remained a feature of the English full plate 
watch to this day. 

" Bull's eye," also known as " Ram's eye," cases, introduced 
about 1780, were the last variety of pair cased watches; they 
derived their titles from the form of the bezel of the outer metal 
case, which from the groove to the outer edge followed the curve 

of the glass. In many of the later 
"Bull's eyes" the usual round 
form of pendant was abandoned 
in favour of a broad flattened-oval 
shape which was much stronger. 
A good example on a case decor- 
ated with Prince of Wales' plumes, 
etc., in gold of various colours, is 
given in Fig. 320, which repre- 
sents a watch made by James 
^IcCabe and bearing the hall 
mark of 181 1. 

After the introduction of pair 
cases it gradually became the 
custom to insert in the outer case 
a thin pad consisting of a circular 
piece of velvet, muslin, or other 
material, adorned with fancy 
needlework, a favourite form being 
a piece of white cambric having 
the initials of the owner as well as a fancy border worked in gold 
thread, or hair ; in the latter case hair from the head of the fair artist 
would presumably be used for the purpose. The following lines were 
very neatly executed in needlework on a silk pad in a watch dating 

from 1780: — 

" Take this token which I give thee, 
It is one from friendship's shrine, 
Place it where thou'lt think upon me, 
When it meets those eyes of thine — 


" Watch papers " formed an alternative pad. Some of these were 
cut to geometrical designs more or less intricate and covering the 
whole surface or leaving a central space either circular or oval on 

Fig. 320. — Back of watch by Jas. 

McCabe, decorated with gold of 

various tints. 

Pocket Wiitclics, etc. 


which a miniature or sketch 
could be painted. Papers of 
this kind had a backing of 
bright coloured silk or satin 
to give the best effect to the 
perforations. Some time ago 
I saw in a watch by Isaac 
Alexander, Nottingham, a 
paper, in the centre of which 
was an excellent coloured 
portrait of Charles Stuart and 
the following rhyme arranged 
in a circle round it : — 

"O'er this loved form 
Let every British breast, 
With conscious joy 
Its gratitude attest, 
And hail ye Prince 
In whom ye nation's blest." 

In very tiny characters was 
the signature "J. June," and 
the date 1 745. The paper had 
probably been transferred, for 
the watch dated from about 
1760. Papers having printed 
thereon a likeness of the Duke 
of Cumberland were issued 
in 1746, and in 1821 a superior 
pad of white and pink satin 
bearing a portrait of Queen 
Caroline was produced and 
speedily became popular 
among admirers of the Royal 
Lady. Two examples from 
the Ponsonby collection giving 
really fair portraits of Queen 
Charlotte and Queen Victoria, 
the latter when she ascended 
the throne, are illustrated in 
Figs. 321 and 323. 

Papers printed on the frozen 
Thames during the prolonged 

Fig. 321. 

Fig. 322. 

Fig 323. 

P 2 

212 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

frost of 1 8 14 were a cheap novelty which commanded a ready sale. 
Most commonly watch papers contained an advertisement of the 
watchmaker, and sometimes an equation of time table for comparing 
the watch with the sun-dial, as in Fig. 322 ; and occasionally 
admonitory or sentimental verses in addition. 

'■^Memento Mori''' formed the text of many rhymes; the following, 
often met with, may be taken as examples : — 

" Onward perpetually moving, 
These faithful hands are ever proving 
How quick the hours fly by : 
This monitory, pulse-like beating, 
Is oftentimes, methinks, repeating, 
'Swift! swift! the moments fly.' 
Reader, be ready, for perhaps before 
These hands have made one revolution more 
Life's spring is snapped — you die ! " 

The next example was printed around the edge of a paper by 

John Herron, Cowpen Quay, Blyth : — 

"Behold O mortal man, 
How swift thy moments fl}-, 
Thy Life is but a Span, 
Prepare, Prepare to die." 

Another from the Ponsonby collection is as follows: — 

" Time is, thou hast, employ the portion small. 
Time past is gone, thou can'st not it recall. 
Time future is not, and may never be. 
Time present is the only time for thee." 

Another admonitory verse equally popular runs : — 

" Time is — the present moment well employ ; 
Time was — is past — thou canst not it enjoy ; 
Time future — is not and may never be ; 
Time present — is the only time for thee." 

The next I take from a watch paper by T. Humphreys, Barnard 
Castle : — 

" Could but our tempers move like this machine. 
Not urged by passion nor delayed by spleen. 
And true to Nature's regulating power. 
By virtuous acts distinguish every hour 
Then health and joy would follow as they ought 
The laws of motion and the laws of thought. 
Sweet health to pass the present moments o'er, 
And everlasting joy when time shall be no more" 

These lines appear on papers of many other makers. They are 
from the pen of " Dr." J. Byrom, and appeared in the Scots Magazine 
for October, 1747. 

An apposite but more uncommon inscription for timekeepers is 

Pocket Watches;, etc. 


Tciiipus met it HI' oiiinia scd iiictior ipsuin : " Time measures all things, 
but I measure it." 

Loose outer cases are troublesome, and, after being endured for 
two centuries or so, they gave place gradually to the more compact 
modern styles, with ornament of a different character. 

A series of wavy curves cut into the material and known as 
" Engine turning," which is said to have been introduced as a 
decoration for watch cases about 1770 by Francis Guerint of Geneva, 
was long in fashion. It has a good effect, does not readily show 
scratches, and will doubtless again return to favour. The earliest 

Fig. 324. — Early engine-turned case. 



specimens were cut very deep into the metal, leaving' coarse 
" barleys," as the projections are called, and could only be applied 
to a considerable thickness of metal. Finer divisions with shallower 
cutting, applicable to lighter cases, speedily became the rule, and an 
early specimen of coarse cut engine turning is now rarely tO be met 
with. The example shown in Fig. 324 is on a repeating watch by 
Terroux I'Aine, Geneva, and is very httle later than 1770. 

Shortly after the middle of the eighteenth century a very beautiful 
art was utilized to enhance the effect of chasing and engraving as 
applied to watch cases and dials. A subject having been selected 
and drawn upon the gold or other metal ground, pieces of gold of 
various colours were formed to represent the parts in relief and 
soldered to the ground. A good artist was then able to produce a 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

fine effect with the chasing tool and graver. As a specimen is shown 
in Fig. 325 a watch signed Gudin a Paris, dating from about 1760. 
Here the chased decoration with gold of green, yellow, copper and 
silvery tints is very effective, but its whole charm cannot, of course, 
be justly conveyed in a black and white engraving. Lepine seems 
to have been fond of this coloured gold decoration, for it appears on 
the cases of many of his watches. Whatever the number of tints 
employed, this style of decoration is generally spoken of as a quatre 

Dials.— With few exceptions the earliest clocks and watches had 

Fig. 326. — Watch by Nathaniel Barrow. Fig. 327. — Watch by V. Costontin. 

the hours marked with Roman numerals placed radially with the 
bottom of each numeral towards the centre of the dial, so that the 
v., VI., and VII. appear to be upside down. Another peculiarity is 
that the fourth hour was denoted in a very primitive way, thus ; 
nil., instead of by I\^, which was then the more orthodox manner. 
And it is somewhat remarkable that these features have been 
continued to the present day almost unnoticed, as may be proved 
by asking anyone to sketch the figuring of his watch without looking 
at the timekeeper, for in most instances such a sketch would be 
incorrect. But the fact is, we do not read the figures when looking 
at a watch or clock, but judge the time from the position of the 
hands. Lord Grimthorpe was instrumental in having the hours of 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


the turret clock at the dining-hall of Lincoln's Inn marked each by 
a short thick radial stroke instead of figures, and it is rarely that 
passers-by notice anything unusual, except that the dial seems 
particularly clear. 

Some of the very earliest portable timekeepers had incised figures 
cut in the dial plate, but more often the numerals were engraved on 
a separate belt, which was generally of silver, the inner ground of 
the dial being of brass gilt (or gold) and matted or engraved. In 
addition to the numeral, many early watches were furnished with a 

i- K 

Fig. 329. 

knob at each hour, for the convenience of estimating the position 
of the hand by feeling. The first noticeable departure from this 
construction took place about 1600, when watch dials wholly of one 
metal were introduced, with landscapes and other views engraved on 
the centre. These dials were usually of silver and recessed into 
what is now called a "brass edge," that is, a ring independent of the 
plate of the movement, and to which the dial was attached. The 
dial was rather smaller than the movement, and a narrow margin of 
the brass edge, which appeared outside of the dial, was engraved, 
the contrast of the silver and brass having a good effect. A fine 
example by Nathaniel Barrow is shown in Fig. 326. The watch by 
Edward East, said to have been given by Charles I. to Mr. Herbert, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

and engraved on page 261, had a very similar dial. Instead of a 
landscape a floral design sometimes occupied the centre, while 
occasionally it was engraved to a geometrical pattern and filled in 
with coloured enamel or wax, as in a watch by Vincent Costontin, 
Dieppe, which is shown in Fig. 327. 

Illustrations have already been given of the painted dials on the 
costly enamelled watches in vogue during the seventeenth century. 
The single hand of the earliest of these was usually of brass, and, except 

Fig. 330. — Daniel Le Count, about 1680. 

Fig. 331.- r. Dupin, about 17C0. 

for watches with cases and dials painted in enamel, gold and silver 
dials with long figures in relief came into general use in "England 
shortly after the middle of the seventeenth century. On a watch 
by Henry Harper, shown in Fig. 328, the outer part of the dial is 
of metal, the centre being filled by an enamelled painting, which 
is, however, of a later date than the movement. A still more 
exceptional and somewhat grotesque treatment of the dial is shown 
in Fig. 329, representing a watch made about 1665 by Richard 
Jarrett, who was master of the Clockmakers' Company in 1685. 
The centre of the dial is of brass matted, and the ring, on the inner 
edge of which is engraved quarter-hour spaces, of silver, finely 
matted, with polished plaques for the hour numerals, 

Pocket WaicJica, etc. 


With the introduction of the minute hand, the minute circle and 
figures to indicate each five minutes appeared outside the hour 
numerals. These additions, with the long hour numerals, allowed 
of but a very short hour indicator, and this occupied a slightly 
recessed centre, as shown in Fig. 330, which represents a watch by 
Daniel Le Count, dating from about 1680. Shortly afterwards the 
hour numerals were shortened and the hour hand lifted out of the 
recess and lengthened, as in the watch by P. Dupin, represented in 
Fig. 331. In this the outlines of the hour numerals are polished, 
and the bodies filled in with black wax, tlie small ornament between 
the numerals being polished 
and the minute figures en- 
graved on polished plaques. 
Except that the inner circle, 
marked with sub-divisions of 
an hour, was discontinued, 
dials of this kind, with slight 
variations, remained in favour 
for many years. The central 
disc was a separate piece 
recessed into the brass edge, 
and was as a rule nicely 
chased and engraved. It 
usually bore two tablets for 
the name of the maker and 
the place of origin of the 
watch. An excellent example 
is the watch by Langley 
Bradley, shown in Fig. 445. 
Sometimes the lower label was 
omitted and a day-of-the-month aperture substituted therefor. Dials 
of this description had a very handsome appearance, and must have 
been costly, for cutting out the ground work to leave the plaques for 
the minute figures, the outline for the hour numerals and the ornament 
between the numerals in relief involved considerable labour. In 1 729, 
engravers petitioned the Clockmakers' Company to debar one Griliat 
from proceeding with a project he had for producing dial plates by 
stamping. Nevertheless, many later ones were embossed in this 

Painted enamel dials of the Huaud period had often an outer 
ring of white enamel for the reception of the numerals, and towards 

Fig. 332. — Pink and white enamel dial 
on Tompion watch. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

the end of the seventeenth century dials with a gold centre and 
outer ring of enamel were favoured by some French makers. Plain 
white enamel dials seem to have been introduced in France and 
Switzerland about 1690, but Avere not used in England for at least 
ten years afterwards. 

A pink and white enamel dial, w^ith angels in the centre, on a 



Fig. 334- 

Fig. 335. 

Fig. 336. 

watch by Tompion, from the Hilton Price collection, and dating 
from about 1700, is shown in Fig. 332. 

Though English watches of the seventeenth century are occa- 
sionally to be met with having dials of white enamel, it will 
generally be found that they are subsequent applications, the 
original dials having probably been discarded owing to the superior 
legibility of the white enamelled discs. 

So far as my observation goes, the earliest plain enamelled dials 
on English watches are those of a bluish tinge, the enamel of which 
is generally spoken of as Venetian. They date from about 1705, 
and have the nib for unlocking the movement projecting through a 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


slit at the \'I. numeral, as in some of the older and contemporary 
metal dials. The visible margin of the brass edge was usually 
either engraved or knurled, and the hands were of steel. An 
example, given in Fig. 333, has hands of the "beetle" pattern, a 
kind very popular then and onwards to tlie middle of the century. 
Dials with the minute band formed in a series of wavy curves were 
made here during the eighteenth century chiefly for the Dutch 
market. They usually had hands of gold or of brass, nicely pierced, 
as in Fig. 334. 

The bold minute figures which occupied so much room outside 

Fig. 337. 

Fig. 338. 

the hour circle were gradually discarded. On a Avatch by Cabrier, 
dating from about 1740, and shown in Fig. 335, there are small 
minute figures at the quarter-hours only, and a little later came into 
favour dials with small and stumpy hour numerals, as in Fig. 336, 
the minute figures being entirely omitted. The hands of the Cabrier 
watch are of gold. Owing to the character and arrangement of the 
figures, the hour indicator, which is beautifully pierced, appears to 
be rather short. If it were a solitary example one might suppose 
the hands or the dial to be not original, but I incline to the belief 
that a certain proportionate length of hand was as a matter of course 
selected for a certain size of dial, The French and, I think, the 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Swiss, adhered longer to the large minute figures than did English 

Fig. 337 shows a French watch dating from about 1770, which is 
a good example of the period, with a hole for winding cut through 
the dial, a plan much favoured in France for fifty years or so from 
that date, but not so popular in England. Lepine, who reconstructed 
the movements of watches, was, I believe, responsible for the 
systematic adoption of this feature, though winding at the dial was 
occasionally resorted to for watches having painted enamel cases 

Fig. 339. 

Fig. 340. 

a century before his time and for the thick French watches with 
porcelain enamel hour figures, in some of which the unsightly holes 
in the dial were avoided by planting the winding square at the centre. 
Many French and Swiss watches made towards the end of the 
seventeenth and at the beginning of the eighteenth centuries had 
the hour numerals on enamelled plaques, though they do not seem 
to have been favoured here. A dial of this sort is on the alarum 
watch shown in Fig. 338, made about 1680 by Dumont Freres, 
Besan9on. The body of the dial is of brass gilt. Another specimen 
of about ten years later, by I. Mornand, Paris, is shown in Fig. 339. 

Pocket Watches, etc. 221 

Watches of this class were very thick, and had cases of brass gilt 
and engraved to a fine pattern. 

Watches made for the Dutch market were often fitted with silver 
dials having raised numerals filled with wax, and ornamental centres 
of various designs engraved and pierced. Occasionally a figure of 
Time was introduced, the Destroyer being represented with a flag 
in his hand, on which the name of the maker was engraved. A 
watch with a silver dial by John Van Ceulen, of The Hague, having 
the wavy minute circle already mentioned, and dating iVom about 
1700, is shown in Fig. 340. 

Dials of metal, with polished hour numerals of a different tint 
soldered on, introduced during the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, were for some time popular ; a specimen of this style, on 
a watch by James McCabe, is shown in Fig. 341. But though 
considerable skill has been expended in the enrichment of metal 
dials by chasing and engraving as well as by variations of colour, 
enamel has practically ousted all other materials, except for scientific 
purposes, where extreme accuracy of division is desired. 

In modern dials the hour numerals are too long, the position of 
the hands being more easily discerned with the stumpy figures used 
in the earliest timekeepers. The fact is, the dialmaker has been 
allowed to regard his work without reference to the hands, and he 
has adopted a rule to make the " chapters" in length equal to two 
and a half minutes of the circle, because they are more obtrusive 
than the shorter ones previously used. The most effective hands 
were those seen in clocks and watches of the eighteenth century. 
The chief fault of most varieties now used is that the spade or heart 
or other enlargement of the hour hand is too close to and overlaps 
the numerals. It should be of good size and nearer the root of the 
hand, the tip of which, though closely approaching, should in its 
sweep just clear the numerals. 

People who are used to reading a dial with but one indicator can 
estimate the time with astonishing closeness, and it is pretty certain 
the two hands did not meet with general favour for a long period. 
Although we are, from long practice, able to instantly note the 
minute and hour from the position of the two indicators, it is an 
acquirement. Children and other tyros seem to go through a slower 
process by separating the functions of the two and deciding upon 
the position of each singly. In fact, there can be no doubt that it is 
at first difficult to decipher the double indication together. Many 
devices were tried during the latter part of the seventeenth century 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

to give the accuracy of the separate minute circle without the 
confusion of two similar hands. Of these may be mentioned dials 
with revolving centres, having a finger to point to the hours. In 
another plan representations of the sun and moon were utilized 
for the purpose. Sometimes figures corresponding to the current 
hour were shown through an aperture in the dial, and warriors 
with swords as pointers are among the most familiar of other 

Fig. 342 represents a watch by Tompion, from the collection of 
Mr. Schloss. It is in an enamelled case and dates from about 1705. 
Though the concentric minute hand was introduced certainly thirty 

Fig. 341. — Watch by Jas. McCabe. Fig. 342. — Curious Tompion watch. 

years before this date, the specimen here shown has only one hand ; 
but the chief peculiarity in connection with the dial is its division 
into six hours. Here the idea is evidently to give with one hand a 
longer space than usual for more nearly estimating small fractions of 
an hour. Quare adopted the same method, as will be seen from the 
following advertisement, quoted from the London Gazette for March 
25-29, 1686: "Lost, on 2nd inst., a Silver Pendulum Watch, the 
name Daniel Quare, London; it had but six hours upon the dial- 
plate, with six small cipher figures within every hour, the hand 
going round every six hours, which shows also the minutes between 
every hour. Whoever gives notice of it to Daniel Quare, at the 

Pocket ]Vatches, etc. 


King's Arms, in Exchange Alley, London, shall have a guinea 

Early Minute-hand Watches. — Fig. 3.1.3 shows the front and 
Fig. 344 the movement of a watch dating from about 1665, which is 
a particularly interesting specimen, and affords evidence that the 
maker of it was far in advance of his time. It shows hours, minutes, 
and seconds, and has a long train -containing the same number of 
wheels and pinions as modern watches, the minute hand being 
attached to the centre pinion. The dial is of silver, and the middle 

Fig. 344. 

FiG. 343. 

portion of it, driven by a pinion on the great wheel arbor, revolves 
once in twelve hours, a figure of Time engraved thereon pointing to 
the hour ; the seconds dial is a silver plate on the back of the 
mo\'ement, the seconds hand being carried by the contrate wheel, 
which rotates once in a minute. On the plate is engraved "John 
Fitter, Battersea." There is no balance-spring. It has a nicely 
pierced and engraved silver balance-cock and arched top harp pillars. 
The potence is peculiar, being carried by a pivot into the top plate ; 
the side view of it is very wide, nicely pierced, and engraved to a 
floral design. On the back of the inner case is engraved a kind of 
calendar remembrance shown overleaf. It appears to be a key for 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

finding at a glance the days of the month upon which any 
particular day of the week will fall. The outer case, covered with 

Mar Nov 






A iigus 








































leather pique with silver pins, is snapped together without a bolt — a 
most unusual construction. This watch was formerly in the Roskell 

On a watch by David Lestourgeon, shown in Fig. 345, there are 

Fig. 346. 

Fig. 345. 

two narrow rotating rings between the centre of the dial and the 
hour numerals ; one of these carries a very short and the other a 
longer pointer, the former for indicating the hour and the latter for 
the minutes. 

Pocket Watches, etc. 

The handsome key for this watch is shown in Fig. 346. For 
winding or setting the hands it is used as a crank ; the squared 
extremity at the bottom is for altering the regulator, which may be 
done without opening the inner case, an aperture being made in 
the back of the case for the purpose. 

Perhaps the very best method of indicating the hour and minutes 
with one hand only is tliat shown in Fig. 347, which represents a 
watch by Peter Garon, illustrated by favour of Mr. Henry Levy, to 
whom it belongs. The central disc on which the hour numerals are 
engra\ed rotates, but its speed of progression is one-twelfth less than 
that of the minute hand. 
Starting together on the 
completion of any particular 
hour, the minute hand would 
stand exactly over the 
numeral corresponding to that 
liour : by the time half an 
hour had elapsed the minute 
hand would stand mid-way 
between the aforesaid numeral 
and the next succeeding one, 
and at any other point the 
relation of the hand to the 
hour numerals would corre- 
spond to the fraction of the 
hour, while the tip of the 
hand would mdicate the 
minutes. In the sketch the 
indication is twenty - five 
minutes past seven. Both parts of the dial are of silver, the annular 
space between the hours and minutes being engraved as shown. 
Though but little is known of Peter Garon, he was elected to the 
freedom of the Clockmakers' Company in 1694, ^^^ appears to nave 
been a maker of repute at the end of the seventeenth century and 
until 1706, when his bankruptcy was noted in the London Gazette. 

Watches with Seconds Hands. — The watch by Fitter dating 
from about 1665, which, as shown in Fig, 244, has a seconds dial on 
the back of the movement, seems to have been quite an exceptional 
application of a seconds indicator for watches. Sir John Floyer, a 
physician, in 1707 speaks of the " Physician's Pulse Watch," which 
he had invented to take the place of the " common sea minute glass " 

c.w. g 




Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

with which and "common watches " he had been in the habit of trying 
pulses. The pulse watch which he caused to be made ran, he said, 
for sixty seconds. Harrison's timekeeper with a centre seconds hand 
was tested in 1760, and seconds hands were not usually applied to 
watches till after that date. 

Sun and Moon Hour Indicators. — Two examples of a peculiar 
method of indicating the hour which obtained some popularity at the 
end of the seventeenth century are shown in Figs. 348 and 349. 
A semicircular piece is removed from the upper part of the dial, and 

Fig. 348. 

Fig. 349. 

through it is seen one half of a disc which rotates underneath once in 
twenty-four hours. On one half of the disc is engraved the sun, 
which points to the hour from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., and on the other the 
moon, which performs the same office from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. The 
minutes are indicated in the usual way by a hand travelling round 
the dial in an hour. 

Fig. 348 is an early specimen. On the lower portion of the dial 
is an engraving, possibly representing Venus in a car drawn by 
Cupid. The movement is furnished with tulip pillars, and on the 
plate is engraved "Jo Holoway, Newbery." The balance-cock is 
of floral design with a narrow waist and foot of irregular out- 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


line following the curve of the plate. The outer case is of steel 
damascened with silver. 

Fig. 349, of a slightly later date, is inscribed " Harns Smit, 

Changing Hour Figures. — In this ingenious arrangement, 
which is said to have been designed by Prince Rupert, and applied 
by Joseph Knibb to a clock, hands are dispensed with altogether, 
and numerals corresponding to the last completed hour caused to 
appear through a hole in the dial, a principle favoured in recent 
years by several inventors, who liave devised various means of 
accomplishing this end. As an example of the contrivance is shown 

Fig. 350. 

Fig. 351. 

a watch by M. Logg, of Vienna, from the TNIarfels collection. It has 
an upper silver dial on which is chased a group, representing Saturn 
dragging the car of Helios. As may be seen by the illustration 
Fig. 350, there is above the group on the silver dial a semicircular 
slit, through which is visible a second dial lying under it. This 
second dial is gilt, for contrast. Above the opening of the silver dial 
are engraved the minutes from i to 60, and underneath it the 
quarter-hours I. to IV. The lower dial is movable, revolving once 
in two hours, and has two circular openings exactly opposite each 
other, through which the hour chapters appear upon a silver disc. 
A pin is fixed upon and near the edge of the front plate, over which 
the dial revolves. The dial passes freely by it, while the projecting 
teeth of the two numeral wheels in turn meet the pin, and are each 

Q 2 


Old Clocks and WatcJies and their Makers. 

time advanced one hour (see Fig. 351' 

Fig. 352. 

Fig. 353. 

Suppose, in the opening 
under which is located the 
disc with the even figures, 
we see the number II., as 
in Fig. 35Q. This number 
has entered from the left 
into the semi-circular slit 
of the silver dial, through 
which it slowly passes in 
one hour, while the other 
numeral wheel (which is 
during the same time 
under the Saturn group 
and therefore invisible), 
with the odd figures, passes 
by the stationary pin, and 
is by it turned one tooth, 
or from I. to III. When 
the number II. has passed 
its course through the 
semicircle it disappears to 
the right under the Saturn 
group, and the number III. 
enters from the left into 
the semicircle, in order to 
pass through its course in 
the same manner. The 
disc with the hour II. 
meanwhile keeps on its 
way invisibly, passes the 
stationary pin, and is also 
turned one tooth further 
on, so that at the next 
hour it enters again with 
the number IV. from the 
left into the semicircle of 
the silver dial. This pro- 
cedure is repeated with all 
the succeeding numerals. 
The number of minutes 
which have elapsed since 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


the last completed hour is indicated by the position of the revohang 
hour chapter with relation to the figures which are engraved on 
the fixed dial plate. 

Fig. 352 shows another watch of this character, taken from the 
catalogue of the Geneva Exhibition, i8g6. It is by Paul Lullin, and 
most probably French. In the lower portion of the fixed dial is an 
enamelled medallion, with portrait, said to be that of Louis XIV. 
when a youth, 

Mr. Henry Levy has one of these curiosities by Fronianteel, which 
may be either English or Dutch. On the lower part of the fixed 


Fig. 355- 

dial is a late seventeenth century design, with birds, etc. A 
peculiarity of this watch is that the fusee may be turned either way 
to wind it, a device advertised by Thomas Moore, of Ipswich, in 
1729, and illustrated by Thiout in i7-|i. 

In Fig. 353 the arrangement is varied, and the whole of the 
actuating mechanism is visible. On a carriage which revolves once 
in three hours are three crosses, each carrying four hour numerals on 
enamelled discs. These in turn pass over an enamelled arc on 
which every minute is marked 

"Fencing Soldiers'" Watch.— Figs. 354 and 355 show a 

230 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

watch of very peculiar construction from the Marfels collection, 
dating probably from about 1760. The metal dial plate has a blue 
enamelled ground, with thin white lines, and upon it are fastened two 
quadrants. The hours from I. to XII. are marked upon one, and 
upon the other the minutes from i to 60. It also bears two chased 
figures of soldiers in a fencing attitude, one on each side of the 
quadrants. By pressing upon the pendant, the soldiers draw their 
swords, the one to the left pointing with his sword to the hour, while 
the one to the right points to the minute upon their respective 
quadrants. The construction is shown in Fig. 355, which is the 
movement without the dial. Upon the arbor of the wheel, which is 
usually in the centre, is the cannon a, upon which is fixed the snail 
used for determining the minutes. The cannon drives in the 
ordinary manner a minute wheel, the pinion of which depths in a 
wheel located to one side, which it rotates once in twelve hours. 
Upon the latter wheel is fastened a snail for determining the hour. 
When the pendant is pressed down, the two levers h b are first 
unlocked, which unlocking actuates the four racks c c and e e, each 
two of which depth together into pinions//. Upon the arbors of 
the two pinions / / are placed the arms of the soldiers. By the 
unlocking of the levers b b, the racks e e (situated abo\e the centre of 
the plate), freed from the arm d d, are then moved upward by springs 
operating on them. The pinions / /, into which the racks depth, 
turn an appropriate distance, and with them the arms of the soldiers, 
which are located on the pinions, and thereby carry with them 
downward at the same time the lower stationary racks c c. These 
racks c c are provided with projections, which in their downward 
motion finally strike upon the snails, the one to the left lying upon 
the hour rack, and that to the right upon the minute rack. When 
the pressure upon the pendant is removed, all the parts of the 
motion work, and with them also the arms of the soldiers are by a 
spring brought back into a position of rest. The cannon pinion a, 
fitting with gentle friction upon the centre wheel arbor, is provided 
with a setting square passing through the dial, for the purpose of 
setting the motion work mechanism. 

Pendulum Watches. — A curious fancy which obtained some 
popularity at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the 
eighteenth centuries is shown in Fig. 356. The balance was placed 
under the dial and its arms weighted. A semi-circular slit in the 
dial allowed one weight of the balance to be seen, and this as it 
vibrated somewhat resembled a pendulum in motion. It was, how- 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


ever, an inconvenient arrangement, by reason of the difficulty of 
getting at the balance for regulation, and it appears to have been 
abandoned in favour of a pendulum balance at the back of the watch. 
The watch here illustrated is 
by " Mitzell, London," and 
dates from about 1700. 

Musical Watches of 
large size with moving 
figures were a favourite con- 
ceit among French and Swiss 
makers during the latter 
part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The appended ex- 
ample (Fig. 357) is from the 
collection of Mr. James W. 
Usher. It is mounted on 

Fig. 356. 

both sides with fine pearls 
and chased gold. The 
back is enamelled with a 
landscape in colours ; in 
the foreground is a 
pa\ilion (supposed to 
represent a place at 
Versailles) and figures, 
in gold of different 
colours: inside are small 
figures (couples of lady 
and gentleman) in the 
dress of the Louis Seize 
period, which dance 
when the mo\'ement is 
wound. The ladyseated 
outside the pavilion plays 
the harp, and the gentleman seated opposite beats time with his baton. 
Inside the pavilion are walls of burnished steel, which reflect and 
multiply the dancing figures in a remarkable manner. The escapement 

Fig. 357. — Musical watch with moving figures. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

is a cylinder one with brass scape wheel. The going part is 
driven direct from the barrel. The musical box and figures are 

driven by one main- 
spring, the train passing 
beneath the pavilion and 
revolving the centre of 
the floor upon which the 
dancers stand ; smaller 
wheels being employed to 
revolve each pair of 
dancers three times for 
every one dance round 
the room ; the conductor 
and harpist being worked 
by pins and levers between 
the plate and the dial. 
A musical watch with 

Fig. 35S. 

moving figures of a man 
playing a violoncello and a 
lady a dulcimer is shown in 

Fig. 358. 

Fig. 359 is a repeating 
watch of French make. The 
hours and quarters are really 
struck on gongs curled 
around the inside of the case 
in the usual way, but, when 
the pendant is pushed in to 
repeat, the hammermen in 

the recess at the upper part -pio. 359. 

of the dial appear to strike 

on the bells showm there, and the woman below works a spinning- 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


In Fig. 360 the arrangement is a little diflferent. Here the upper 
rectangular space is vacant till the pendant is pushed in for repeat- 
ing. Then the figure on the 
right bearing a huge gong 
advances, and the one on the 
left comes forward and ap- 
pears to strike the hour on 
the gong. The quarters are 
repeated by the figures below, 
and during that operation 
the figures abo\e slowly 
retire out of sight. 

The projected invasion of 
England by Napoleon 
Buonaparte is treated as an 
accomplished fact on the dial 
of a watch from the Schloss 

Fig. 360. 

collection which is shown 
in Fig. 361. A large 
mo\ing ship in full sail 
just appearing above the 
horizon occupies the 
centre, in the foreground 
many ^•essels are por- 
trayed, and armed men 
are marching up the 
shore undeterred by the 
firing of some apparently 
very primitive cannon. 
Above is the inscription, 
"Descenteen Angle- 
Another arrangement of moving figures is shown in Fig. 362. 
Here the sails of the windmill are constantly moving while 
the w^atch is going, and seen through the round aperture is 

Fig. 361. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

part of a rotating disc with figures of horses and men painted 

Many of the metal watch dials of the seventeenth century which 
were devoted to other purposes than the indication of the hour or 
other subdivisions of a day well repay examination. Here are some 
representative specimens from the Schloss collection. Fig. 363 
represents a silver single-cased watch which doubtless dates from 
about 1640 On the back of the case is the characteristic circular 
shutter over the winding hole and the owner's name engraved thus, 
" Richard Bailie, at the Abbay." The maker's name is Henry 

Fig. 362. 

Fig. 363. 

Arlaud. There is a spring to control the balance, but there are 
unmistakable indications that this was an addition made subsequent 
to the manufacture of the watch. The dial is prettily arranged, 
gives a calendar, the age and phases of the moon, the signs of the 
zodiac, &c. A similar watch by "Jean Rousseau" is to be seen at 
the South Kensington Museum. 

A double-cased watch by N. Bouquet, of which a front view is 
given in Fig. 364, is of about half a century later date ; though 
attractive and of broadly the same character as the preceding 
example, the execution is comparatively coarse. 

Towards the close of the century there set in a taste for pendulum 

Pocket ]]'atchcs, etc. 




^ I / 


/ -A - / , 

I'lG. 364. 

li... _V 

Fig. 366. 


Old Clocks and WatcJies and their Makers. 

watches such as the one shown in Fig. 365. The balance was 
planted immediately under the dial, and one of two weights on the 
rim was visible through a curved slit in the dial, so that it bore a 
resemblance to .a pendulum. At the back of the watch, in place of 
the balance, was often an enamelled plaque, occasionally exhibiting 
painting of artistic merit. This fashion seems to have been intro- 
duced by some of the Dutch makers, but it was decidedly an incon- 
venient arrangement, which necessitated an inferior method of 

Fig. 367. 

Fig. 369. 

regulation from the front, besides crowding the hour division into a 
smaller circle. The name on this watch is Hilderr. 

At first sight the large astronomical watch, dating from about 1690, 
which is represented in Fig. 366, appears to be of English make, for 
it bears the name plate of " Willing, London " ; but on removing 
the name plate the signature " Ferdinandus Zehng, Hamburg," is 
revealed. The dial is really excellent ; the engraving shows it was 
prepared for use in Germany. Such a watch at that period would 
doubtless be made to order for presentation to some person of 

One of the finest calendar watches of late eighteenth century pro- 
duction it has been my privilege to examine is shown in Figs. 367, 

Pocket ]\'atchcs. etc. 


368 and 369. It is by Samuel Ruel, 
Rotterdam, and stamps him as a horo- 
logist of the first rank. Besides the 
age and phases of the moon and the 
title of the month, it shows through 
apertures over the XI. and I. the day 
of the month according to the old style 
and the new style. The cases bear the 
English hall mark of 1788 with the 
duty head ; on the back of the inner 
case is " A.S." arranged as a monogram. 
The outer case has a diamond thumb 
piece. There is a rim cap (as seen in 

Fig. 371. 

Fig. .570. 

Fig. 368) of silver, having per- 
forations covered with horn. 
The cock, as seen in Fig. 369, 
is a fine piece of chased work. 

A souvenir watch, such as is 
shown in Fig. 370, was deserving 
of more popularity than it seemed 
to have attained. The surface 
enclosed by the large circle was 
reserved for inscriptions, mono- 
grams or other personal refer- 
ences. Underneath is the 
mechanism of the watch, whose 
motion is conveyed to the hands 
by means of a small rod con- 
cealed in the connecting neck. 
On the movement is engraved, 
" Inventio Johannis Holtmann 
in Wienns No. 25." This speci- 
men, which belongs to Mr. 
Schloss, dates from about 1780. 

A curious little timepiece, 
supported by a winged Mercury, 


Figs. 372 and 373. 

Pocket Wntchcs, etc. 


Fig. 374. 

Fig. 375. — Side view of inner case. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

shown in Fig. 371, is fitted with a pendulum arranged to swing in front 
of the diaL Altogether it is six inches in height. Around the arch of 
the dial is engraved, " Cito Perevnt et Impvtantvr " (They 
pass quickly and are reckoned). On the dial are two labels bearing 
the words " Chasseur, London " ; these appear to be of later date 
than the structure, which is probably a German production. 

Large travelling watches introduced at the end of the seventeenth 
century continued in favour till the advent of railways. They were 

Fig. 376. — Back of outer cover. 

thick and heavy, with dials ranging from three inches to nearly seven 
inches in diameter, and seem to have been manufactured more in 
France and Germany than in England. As a rule they struck the 
hour on a bell inside the case, many of the earlier ones being in 
addition furnished with an alarum. Afterwards, a repeating motion 
took the place of an alarum, so that by pulling a string which passed 
through a pipe at the edge of the cover the number of blows last 
struck would be again sounded on the bell. They had generally 
two cases, an outer one covered with leather or fish skin and an 
inner one of silver, which latter material was also used for the dial. 

Pocket ]]'iitclu-s, etc. 


The pendant was sometimes in two pieces connected by a loose 
thimble, an arrangement which allowed of sufficient movement 
to enable the watch to adjust itself to an adjacent surface when 

Fig. 377. 

it was hung from the bow. Front and edge views of an excellent 
example in a remarkably well pierced and carved silver case dating 
from about 1680 are given on page 238. The central portion of 

C.W. R 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

the dial rotates, indicating the age of the moon and exhibiting her 
phases. Through sUts near the outer edge are shown the day of the 
week, the day of the month and the title of the month in French. The 

Fig. 378. 

movement is signed " Samuel Michelin a Langres." This or a very 
similar instrument was illustrated in Dubois' historical work. 
Another example by Tompion is illustrated in Chapter V. In 
Figs. 374, 375 and 376 are shown a rather smaller clock and alarum 
watch, which strikes the hours and half-hours. The inner and outer 

Pocket Watches, etc. 


cases as well as the dial are of silver. On the movement is the 
inscription, " Philip Graet, Lintz." It is of slightly later date than 
the preceding one. 

Fig. 377 is a back view of another hne specimen by " Anthony 
Bradl, Augsburg," which dates from about 1710: the inner case is 

Figs. 379—387. 

of silver splendidly pierced and chased, with representations of 
hunting scenes, flowers and birds, as shown ; there is an outer case 
of fish skin. The number of blows last struck may be repeated at 
pleasure by pulling a string depending from the case as already 

244 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Back and edge of a beautifully pierced and engraved specimen 
signed, " David Buschmann, i\ugusta," and dating from about 1680, 
are given in Fig. 378. 

Sedan Chair Watches. — During the eighteenth century watch 
movements having plain silver dials from three inches to four in 
diameter were fixed in circular frames of wood, polished and with a 
moulded edge. They were called " Sedan Chair Watches," though 
I cannot aver that they were as a rule carried in those useful but 
obsolete conveyances. Occasionally one may yet be seen hung on 
the wall beside a chimneypiece or at the head of a bedstead. I 
have heard timekeepers of this sort spoken of as " Post Chaise 

'Watch Keys. — Before the advent of the most common variety 
of watch key which had a circular ring to afford the necessary 
purchase in winding and a smaller swivelled bow for attachment to 
the guard or chain there must have been a considerable number of 
keys used by our grandmothers and grandfathers and by their pro- 
genitors, on the design and construction of which much consideration 
and labour had been bestowed. M. Paul Garnier, M. Planchon and 
Mr. Arthur F. Hill are among the few collectors of such interesting 
adjuncts, of which a few examples are here given. Several of them, 
it will be noticed, are formed to give a crank action for winding the 
watch, and a separate straight pipe, at right angles to the first, for 
the purpose of setting the hands. Keys of this kind appear to have 
been very generally used from the middle of the seventeenth to the 
end of the eighteenth century. The first of the lowest row seems to 
have been intended as a winder for a table clock, while the remain- 
ing two, with swivelled bows, recall the days of chatelaines and-fob 
chains. Indications are not wanting that hanging chains, as guards 
or accessories of timekeepers worn on the person, have in part 
returned to popular favour, even though watch keys may not be 
numbered among their appendages. 

In 1 76 1 George Sanderson, of Exeter, patented a lunar and 
calendar watch key, which, when daily pressed on to the winding 
square of a watch, caused the mechanism in the key to advance one 
day. Etienne Tavermer, a Paris watchmaker who devoted particular 
attention to keys at the end of the eighteenth century, made some 
on this plan. Eardley Norton, a well-known London maker of 
musical clocks, obtained in 1771 a patent for a striking arrangement, 
v/hich he said could be conveniently contained in a key, seal or 

( 245 ) 



Nicholas Cratzer, "deviser of the King's horologies and 
astronomer" to Henry \'HI., was a Bavarian, born in 1487, who, it 
is said, resided for thirty years in this country without being able to 
speak English. In the second part of the facsimiles of the National 
Manuscripts, photographed by Colonel Sir Henry James, there is a 
letter from Cuthbert Tunstal, Master of the Rolls, who was then in 
Germany, to Cardinal W'olsey. It is dated October 12th, 1520, 
and contains the following : " Please it your Grace to understand 
that here, in these parts, I met with a servant of the King's, called 
Nicholas Craczer, a German, deviser of the King's horologes (who 
showed me how the King had licensed him to be absent for a 
season, and that he was ready to return into England), whom I 
desired to tarry until I luight write to the King's Highness, to know 
his pleasure whether he would suffer him to be in company with me 
for a season, until the assembling of the electors were past." In a 
Book of Payments by the Treasurer of the Household from 
Candlemas-day, 29 Henry VIII., to Midsummer, 33 Henry VIII., in 
the Arundel Manuscripts (No. 97), among the discharges of the former 
year (1538) is the entry " Nicholas Cratzer, Astronomer, received 
five pounds as his quarter's wages." 

Cratzer's connection with Holbein was mentioned on page 167, 
and there is no doubt that Holbein assisted Cratzer by designing 
cases and decoration for clocks and sun dials. Horace Walpole 
purchased at Mons. Mariette's sale a water meter which had been 
designed by Holbein as a new year's gift to Henry VIII. On its 
summit was a clock driven by wheel work, below were fore and 
afternoon dials showing the time by shadows, and beneath these a 
clepsydra indicating the quarters of an hour. 

Bartholomew Newsam. — Bartholomew Newsam was one of 
the earliest English makers of portable clocks whose work survives. 
It is conjectured he was a Yorkshireman, but he must have attained 
some position in London before 1568, for in that year he secured a 
30 years' ^crown Jease of premises in the Strand, near Somerset 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

House, where he resided till his death. In the British Museum is a 
very fine example of his skill, which proves Newsam to have been 
a master of the craft. This is a striking clock, in a case of brass, 
gilded and engraved, about 2^ inches square and 4 inches high, 
exclusive of an ornamental domed and perforated top, which brings 
the total height to 6^ inches. The centre of the dial as far as the 
hour ring is below the surface of the case, so that on removing the 

base the movement, together 
with the centre of the dial and 
hand, may be drawn out. The 
hours are engraved on a broad 
bevelled ring, which extends from 
the sunk part of the dial to be- 
yond the front of the case. An 
exterior view of Newsam's clock 
is appended (Fig. 388). The 
movement is arranged in stories, 
there being three plates held in 
position by four corner posts. 
Above the top plate is a semi- 
circular bell ; between the upper 
and middle plates is the going 
train, and between the middle 
and lower plates the striking 
train, the locking plate occupying 
a position below the lowest plate. 
The arbors are placed vertically, 
and the winding holes are at the 
bottom of the case. The wheels 
are of steel or iron, the fusees very 
long, and with but little curve in 
their contour ; they are connected 
with the barrels by means of cat- 
gut. The plates, posts, and barrels 
are of brass, the barrel covers of iron held in by a number of tenons 
around the edge. The hand is driven from the great wheel of the 
going part by a contrate wheel. The escapement is, of course, the 
verge. The workmanship, unusually fine for the period, is remark- 
ably free from subsequent interference. There is a very small hinged 
door on each side of the case, giving, when open, a view of the 
fusees to estimate the period for winding. No screws are used in 


. — Clock by Bartholomew 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 247 

the construction of the movement, wliich is inscribed " Bartihiiewe 
Nevvsiun." A l;ir<,^e clock watch very possibly by him is illustrated 
in Chapter III. In vol. Iv. oi Archaologia is illustrated a fine casket 
by Bartholomew Newsam. 

In the " Calendar of State Papers " of the time of Queen Elizabeth 
is a record of a f^rant in 1572 to B. N. (who no doubt was Bartho- 
lomew Newsam) of the office of clockmaker to the queen in 
reversion after the death or surrender of N. U. (probably Nicholas 
Urseau). In tlie same calendar is a letter dated August 5th, 1583, 
from Bartilmew Newsham to Sir Francis Walsyngham. This letter 
probably refers to a renewal of Newsam's lease, and it desires Sir 
Francis to faxour the writer's petition to Her Majesty for the 
augmenting a certain term of years, wherein he had moved Sir 
Philip Sidney to speak for him. He was clock-keeper to the queen 
prior to 15S2, and on June 4th, 1583, under Privy Seal was paid 
32s. 'id. for " mending of clocks during the past year." Under date 
1590 is a grant to Bartholomew Newsham of the office of clock- 
maker to the queen, in place of Nicholas Urseau, deceased. 
Newsam appears then to have combined the offices of clock-keeper 
and clock-maker, which had previously been kept distinct. 

His tenure of the double appointment was a brief one, for he died 
in 1593. By his will, dated in 1586, he bequeathed to his apprentice 
his " seconde clock"; to John Newsam, clockmaker of York, his 
" best vice save one, a beckhorne to stand upon borde, a great fore 
hammer, and to (two) hand hammers, a grete longe beckhorne in 
my backe shoppe ; and all the rest of my tools I give unto Edward 
Newsom, my sonne, with condicion that he become a clockmaker 
as I am, yf not I will the foresaid tooles to be sold by my executors." 
He gave to a friend "a sonne dyall of copper gylte " ; to another, 
" one cristall Jewell with a watche in it, garnished with gould " ; to 
another, "one watch clocke, in a silken purse, and a sonne dyall to 
stande upon a post in his garden " ; and to another, " a chamber 

J clocke of fyve markes price." 
Bull. — Rainulph or Randulph Bull appears to have been an 
English horologist of some note. In the British Museum is a rather 
large oval watch by him, dated 1590. It has on a shield the arms 
of the owner and his name, " W. Rowley." Bull was also keeper of 
the Westminster great clock. In Devon's Issues of the Exchequer 
there is an entry under date 1617, ist of April : "By Order, dated 
29th March, 161 7. To Ranulph Bull, keeper of his Majesty's great 
clock, in his Majesty's palace at Westminster, the sum of ^56 135. 4^,, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

in full satisfaction and discharge of and for divers sums by him 
disbursed for mending the said clock, in taking the same and other 
quarter clocks all in pieces, and repairing the same in the wheels, 
pulleys, hammers, weights, and in all other parts, and in new 
hanging, wiring, and cordings of the same clock, and other necessary 
reparations thereunto belonging, the charge whereof, with his own 
workmanship and travail therein, doth amount to the sum aforesaid, 
appearing by a note of the particular demands, delivered upon his 
oath, taken before one of the Barons of his Majesty's Exchequer, 

without account or imprest 
to be made thereof. By 
writ dated 27th March, 

1617, £5^ 135- 4^-" 

In an account of the 
household expenses of 
Prince Henry, in 1610, 
"Emanuel" Bull, the 
" clocke-keeper," is men- 

At the South Kensington 
Museum are two watches 
inscribed " Edmund Bull in 
Fleet Street fecit " ; one is in 
an oval case of brass and 
silver, and the other in an 
octagonal case ; both are 
early seventeenth century 
productions ; a watch, simi- 
larly inscribed, in a small 
jbval pair of cases of silver, is in the Guildhall Museum. 
J Nouwen.- — The w^atch shown in Fig. 389 is by Michael Nouwen, 
who was referred to on page 51 . It is from the Schloss collection, and 
dates from about 1 590. The very handsome dial is of brass, as is also 
the case, finely pierced as shown. The movement is furnished with 
the stack freed and a straight bar balance. There are no screws 
used in the construction of the watch. Inside of the case is a bell 
on which the hours are sounded. 

Of perhaps slightly later date is a watch by him in the British 
Museum, which has an irregular octagonal -shaped case of crystal ; 
the plates of the movement are enamelled. In the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford is an oval watch with a gilt metal case. The 

Fig. 3S9. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


dial is engraved with a figure subject, and at each of the hour 
numerals a pin projects. The movement is signed " Michael 
Nouwen, fecit, 161 3." 

Garret. — Among other watches which Octavius Morgan exhibited 
to the Archceological Society in 1840 was an early English one in 
the form of a Tudor rose. The dial he described as elegantly 
engraved and gilt, with an hour circle of silver. There was no 
ornament on the balance cock and the movement was imperfect. 
The watch was made about 1600 by Ferdinando Garret. In the 
British Museum is an o\al watch by the same maker in a case of 
metal gilt, of the same period. Another watch by him is mentioned 
in the Loudon Gazette for March agth-April ist, 1680, as follows: 
" A small eight square Watch, the edges Brass, and the Cover and 
Bottom silver, made by Ferdinando Garet." 

Grinkin. — Appended is a view of an oval 
watch by Robert Grinkin, London, which dates 
from about 1605. The case is of silver. In 
the British Museum is a still smaller oval watch 
of the same period by him, but beyond the 
specimens of his work which remain no par- 
ticulars of Grinkin appear to be obtainable. 

Henche. — In Devon's Issues of the Exchequer, 
under date 1605, loth of October, occurs the 
entry, " By Order the last of September, 1605, to 
Uldrich Henche, clockmaker, or to his assignee, 
the sum of 100/. for a clock in manner of a branch 
made by him and set up in his Highness's at 
Whitehall." And under date 1607, 5th of July, another entry 
runs — 

Flood. — " To Humphrey Flood, goldsmith, or his assigns, the 
sum of ^120, in full satisfaction and payment for a clock covered 
with gold, and set with diamonds and rubies and l)y him delivered 
to his Majesty's use, at the price of ;^22o, whereof received £"100." 

North. — As an example of oval astronomical watches of English 
make, such as were popular in the early part of the seventeenth century, 
may be taken one in the British Museum, inscribed " William 
North, Londini," and of which an exterior view is given in the 
subjoined engraving. It shows the hours on the lower and day of 
the month on the upper circular band. There are, in addition, four 
apertures in the dial. Through the largest of these, on the left, are 
sho-vyn the days of the week, with the corresponding allegorical 




Old Clocks and Wafches and their Makers. 

figures : Apollo for Sunday, Diana for Monday, Mars for Tuesday, 
Mercury for Wednesday, Jupiter for Thursday, Venus for Friday, 
and Saturn for Saturday. Through the three openings on the right 
are seen the phases of the moon, the quarters of the moon, and its 
age in days. These three subjects are all engraved on one circular 
plate below. Symbols representing six planets appear in rotation 
below the small square on the right, just outside and lower than the 
centre of the hour ring. It may with tolerable certainty be affirmed 
that the movement of this watch was made about 1615, although 

the case is probably of a later date. 
William North was admitted as a brother 
of the Clockmakers' Company in 1639, 
and the fact of his being noted as a 
brother would indicate that he had then 
been established for some time, and was 
free of another company. 

Crayle. — In the South Kensington 
Museum is a particularly diminutive 
watch in a plain oval case, which 
measures outside but half an inch in 
length and three-eighths of an inch across, 
by Richard Crayle, London, and said to 
have belonged to Lord Hussey, who was 
beheaded in 1537. I am not aware what 
evidence exists to warrant this state- 
ment, but 1537 is rather an early date 
for a watch of this character to be in 
existence, and I should be inclined to 
think it was the production of the Richard 
Crayle who was a member of the Black- 
smiths' Company before the existence of the Clockmakers' Company, 
and who signed the petition for its incorporation. 

Two views of a large oval alarm watch signed " Richard Crayle 
Londini fecit,'' and not later than 1610, are given in Figs. 392 and 
393. The first shows the front cover closed, and the second exposes 
the whole of the dial. On the back plate are two small rotating 
dials of silver, one engraved with the days of the week, with a 
mythological figure corresponding to each, while the other, divided 
into months, contains also the signs of the zodiac. 

In the British Museum is a round watch movement inscribed 
*' William Crayle, in Fleete Street, London," a production of about 

Fig. 391. — Watch by William 
North, London, about 1615. 

Records of Early Maker;;, etc. 


Fig. 392 

Fig. 393. 

1620. William Crayle, who in 1676 carried on business in Fleet 
Street, and afterwards at the 
Black Boy in the Strand, 
neat the Savoy, was probably 
a descendant of Richard. 

Alcock. — Mr. Edward Parr 
has a very fine circular calen- 
dar watch by Thomas Alcock, 
as shown in Fig. 394. The 
dial is really superb ; it indi- 
cates the age and phases of 
the moon by means of the 
central rotating disc, and the 
day of the month by a rotating 
ring outside the hour circle. 
The movement is very well 
made and in good order ; it 
dates from about 1635. The 
case is of brass, curiously 
engraved, and though old, of 

252 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

later date than the movement. Thomas Alcock was one of the 
petitioners for the incorporation of the Clockmakers' Company in 
1630. In Kingdom's IntcUigcncev, February 4th, 1661, was advertised 
as lost " a round high watch of a reasonable size showing the day 
of the month, age of the moon, and tides ; upon the upper plate 
Thomas Alcock fecit." 

David Ramsay. — One of the earliest British watchmakers of 
particular renown was David Ramsay. 

Among the Salting collection at South Kensington Museum is a 
very early watch by him in a small irregular octagonal case of gold 
and silver. It has hinged covers over the front and the back, and is 
decorated with engravings of the Annunciation and the Nativity. 

In the British Museum is an oval watch of his make, with a gold 
case in the French style. The period assigned to this watch is 1600 
to 1610. It is inscribed " David Ramsay, Scotiis, me fecit." 

There is an entry in the account of money expended by Sir David 
Murray, Kt., keeper of the privy purse to Henry Prince of Wales, 
who died in 1612. "Watches three bought of Mr. Ramsay the 
Clockmaker Ixj li " (£^61). In the same account, among the list of 
" Guyftes and Rewards," is the item, "Mr Ramsay the clockmaker 
xjs" (lis.). 

An oval calendar watch, showing the age of the moon, which is 
supposed to have belonged to James I., is described in the Archao- 
logical Journal, vol. vi. p. 415. It had a plain outer case of silver, 
the inner one being beautifully engraved ; on one side was repre- 
sented Christ healing a cripple, also the motto used by James, " Beati 
pacifici," and on the other side the Good Samaritan with the 
inscription, " S. Lucas c. 10." Inside the cover was a well-executed 
engraving of James, with his style and titles. Under a small shield 
which concealed the hole for winding was the name of the engraver, 
" Gerhart de Heck." Around the edge of the case were the Rose, 
Harp, and Thistle, and the initials J.R. On the plate of the watch 
was engraved, as before, " David Ramsay, Scot its, me fecit," and 
these inscriptions, together with the fact that he had a grant of 
denization in 161 9, prove that he was a native of Scotland. 

Mr. J. Sancroft Holmes had another watch by Ramsay, which was 
found seventy or eighty years ago behind the tapestry which then 
covered the wall of the dining-room of Gawdy Hall. With the 
watch were two apostle spoons and papers relating to the troublous 
times of Cromwell. The case of the watch is of silver and shaped 
like a star or heraldic mullet of six points, 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


The engravings appended show a splendid clock-watch with 
alarum by him, from the collection of Mr. Evan Roberts, dating 
from about 1615. It has the three wheel train usual in early 
watches, and Mr. Crewe, in describing the movement, remarks that 
the fusee is cut for twelve turns, and the end of the great wheel 
arbor, which goes through the pillar plate, is fashioned into six pegs 
or leaves, identical with a lantern pinion in its action. These leaves 
work in a wheel pivoted into the centre of the pillar plate, having 
sixty teeth, and carrying the single hand of the watch. Thus ten 
turns of the fusee are equivalent to an entire circuit of the hand on 
the dial, and so the watch would require to be wound twice a day. 

Fig. 395.— Front view. Fig. 395.— View of edge and back. 

Clock-watch and alarum by David Ramsay. 

The ratchet wheel, which sets up the mainspring, is on the top plate, 
and the stop work is identical in principle with that in modern 
fusee watches. The stop for the alarum part is effected by a wheel 
and pinion, the wheel having a portion the size of two teeth left 
uncut, and which serves as a block to the pinion after it has been 
wound three turns. The wheels and pinions have a wonderfully 
smooth action, though they appear to be cut by hand rather roughly. 
The count or locking wheel of the striking portion is made of silver, 
and the notches have been certainly made with a file. The alarum 
part has a verge escapement with counter and crown wheels. 
Attached to its verge is a V-shaped piece of brass with an arm, and 

254 C>!d Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

this pressed by a spring drops into a notch made in the edge of a 
brass disc on the hand or hour wheel, and so Hberates the verge and 
lets off the alarum. Between this disc and the hour wheel, and 
working concentrically with them, is a star wheel having twelve 
teeth, which by lifting up a brass arm connected with the count 
wheel causes it to strike. The potence is a rather slender piece of 
square brass, and is riveted to the top plate, and the banking is 
made by steps cut in it. These riveted potences are found in nearly 
all watches made before 1700. The balance cock is a slender piece 
of work, and is pierced throughout, and the neck very narrow, so 
different from specimens of Tompion and other later masters. The 
case is very elegant in design, and is pierced in the back and band, 
the bezel being engraved, and in every respect it will compare 
favourably with any work of the kind. Curiously enough, the band 
is silver, and bezel and back of bronze, and the whole case gilt. 
On the margin of the top plate, in tiny characters, as if almost to 
escape observation, is engraved, " David Ramsay inv' Fecit," the 
et having been obliterated. 

R. B. P., in the Dictionary of National Biography, says David 
Ramsay belonged to the Ramsays of Dalhousie, and quotes 
Ramsay's son William to the effect that " when James I. succeeded 
to the crown of England he sent into France for my father, who 
was there, and made him page of the bedchamber and keeper of 
his Majesty's clocks and watches." In 1613, James gave David 
Ramsay a pension of ^"200 per annum, and in the same year a 
further pension of /"50 per annum. In the grant he is styled 
" Clockmaker Extraordinary." In 1616 a warrant was signed to 
pay him ^'234 105. for the purchase and repair of clocks and 
watches for the king. On November 26th, 1618, he was appointed 
to the office of " Chief Clockmaker " to his Majesty, with fees and 
allowances for workmanship. On September 30th, 1622, he received 
^232 155. for repairing clocks at Theobalds, Oatlands, and West- 
minster, and for making a chime of bells adjoining the clock at 

In 1625 James I., his patron, died, but Ramsay appears to have 
retained his appointments, for on January 25th, 1626, a warrant to 
pay to David Ramsay ^150 for coins to be given by the king, 
Charles I., on the day of his coronation, was signed. Again, 
"March 17th, 1627, is a warrant to David Ramsay, Page of the 
Bedchamber and Clockmaker, £^{^1 35. 4^. for work done for his 
late Majesty, and /'358 16s. Sd. in lieu of diet and bouche of Court." 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 255 

In 1628, July 13th, a warrant was signed to pay him /'415 for clocks 
and other necessaries delivered for the king's service. 

Among the State Papers Dom. 1653 are two receipts taken from 
the Jewel House at Whitehall soon after the death of Charles I. 
The first is as follows: " 18 die Feb. 1649. Reed, one clocke with 
divers mocons, two globes, one case for a clocke, and a glassee, one 
Bullet Clocke, one clocke with five bells, and one other clocke, all 
which were lying at Whitehall late in the charge of David Ramsay." 
The second is merely a subsidiary receipt of the same date for "one 
other clocke in a Bow received from Ramsay." 

Sir Walter Scott introduces Ramsay as a character in " The 
Fortunes of Nigel," as the keeper of a shop a few yards to the east- 
ward of Temple Bar, and in a note to that novel he is described as 
"Constructor of Horologes to His most Sacred Majesty James I." 

That Ramsay was the most celebrated watchmaker of the day 
may be inferred from the fact that w^hen the clockmakers obtained 
their charter of incorporation, he was therein appointed to the office 
of master. He does not appear to have taken a \ery active part in 
the management of the company. During his absence in the country, 
Mr. Henry xA.rcher was appointed deputy master. William Ramsay 
dedicated " Vox Stellarum " to his father in 1652, and in a postscript 
dated 1653 remarks, " from my study in my father's house in Holborn, 
within two doors of the 'Wounded Hart,' near the King's Gate," and 
there David Ramsay probably died. The exact date of his death is 
uncertain, but it occurred about 1654, ^^^ though his age is not 
stated, he was then certainly very much past the meridian. 

He is known to have been an inventor or schemer from the 
beginning of the century, and between 1618 and 1638 he took out 
no less than eight patents, none of which, how'ever, seemed to be 
connected with horology ; they related to raising water, draining 
mines, making saltpetre, separating gold and silver from the base 
metals, smelting iron, constructing furnaces of various kinds, dyeing 
fabrics, etc. He was a friend of James Lilly the astrologer, who, in 
his autobiography, relates that he accompanied Ramsay to West- 
minster at night to make some experiments w'ith a view to discover 
treasure by means of the divining rod. 

William Partridge. — In the "Calendar of State Papers" 
(Domestic Series), under date May, 1660, there appears the 
following petition to the king from Captain William Partridge, 
setting out "that hee was sworne servant to yo"' Royall father of 
blessed memory, and to yo' Ma"' in the yeare 1645, to attend ye 

256 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

in the qualitie of a Clockmaker, and did officiate in that place, 
all the time of his Ma"^' being at Oxford, And did likewise serve 
his Ma''^ a yeare and a halfe in his life Guard of foote ; And afeterwards 
did raise a Company att his owne charge ; And hath bene a great 
sufferer by Plundring Imprisonm'' and expulcons. Hee most 
humbly prayeth that yo' Ala''* will vouchsafe unto him the like 
grace and favo"" as to others of yo' servants is extended, That hee 
may bee restored unto his said place of Clockmaker to yo' Ma"* w'"' 
all such priviledges and Impunities as belong unto it according to 
his warrant." 

On the same page there is also a petition from Sarah his wife, 
begging that her husband's place may not be filled up until he has 
been heard for himself ; that he was bred under Mr. Este (? East), 
spent much time in improving himself in his trade in France and 
Flanders, and only discontinued it when in arms or in prison for His 
Majesty. At the foot of the petition is the note, " To succeede Da. 
Ramsay." But nothing further is known of Partridge, and he may 
be passed over. The king's clockmaker, after Ramsay, really seems 
to have been Edward East, of whom more will be said hereafter. 

The Clockmakers' Company. — In 1627 a proposal to grant 
letters patent authorising French clockmakers to carry on their trade 
within the city appears to have occasioned an agitation among the 
London craftsmen in favour of incorporation as a trade guild. Prior 
to that date, individual freemen had been associated with one or other 
of the existing companies, that of the blacksmiths having been most 
favoured. In 1630 a committee of clockmakers was formed, funds 
were raised to defray expenses, and petitions were addressed to the 
king, with the result that a charter was obtained from Charles I. on 
the 22nd of August, 1 63 1. 

In this document, " the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the 
Arts or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London " had very 
comprehensive powers for ruling and protecting the rights of the 
craft. They were entitled to make bye-laws for the government of 
all persons using the trade in London, or within ten miles thereof, 
and for the regulation of the manner in which the trade should be 
carried on throughout the realm. And in order to prevent the 
public from being injured by persons " making, buying, selling, 
transporting, and importing any bad, deceitful, or insufficient clocks, 
watches, larums, sun-d^als, boxes, or cases for the said trade," powers 
were given to the company " to enter with a constable or other 
officer any ships, vessels, warehouses, shops, or other places where 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 257 

they should suspect such bad and deceitful works to be made or 
kept, for the purpose of searching for them " ; and, if entrance 
should be denied, they might effect it by force. Any such works as 
were faulty or deceitfully wrought they had power to seize and 
destroy, or cause them to be amended. Every member of the 
fellowship paid fourpence a quarter to meet the necessary expense of 
these searches. In 1708 this quarterage produced over £28. 

By the charter, David Ramsay was appointed to be the first 
master; Henry Archer, John Willowe, and Sampson Shelton were 
the first wardens ; and James Vantrollier (or Vautrollier), John 
Smith, Francis Foreman, John Harris, Richard Morgan, Samuel 
Linnaker, John Charlton, John Midnall, Simon Bartram, and 
Edward East, assistants of the said fellowship of the said art or 

The charter also declared that future masters and wardens must 
be, or have been, professed clockmakers, an important regulation, 
which certainly appears to have been contravened in late years. 
The right of search was exercised regularly till 1733, when it was 

On the incorporation of the company, stringent by-laws were 
made regarding apprentices. No person was to take an apprentice 
without leave of the master, and then to have but one, until he shall 
be called to bear the office of master, warden, or assistant, and after 
that, not to exceed the number of two apprentices at any time 
whatsoever. But when his first apprentice had served five years, 
any member of the fellowship might take another, but not sooner, 
under a penalty of £10. And in the early history of the company 
several of its members were brought to account and fined for 
disobeying this regulation. Among them were several eminent 
members of the craft, including Thomas Loonies and Ahasuerus 

Then it was ordained that after an apprentice had servedh is time 
he should serve his master or some other member of the fellowship 
for two years as journeyman, and produce his " masterpiece " of 
work before he was allowed to be a workmaster. This period of 
probation might, if the company saw fit, be commuted to one year 
on payment of a fine. 

Those craftsmen who had joined the Blacksmiths' and other 
Companies prior to the incorporation of the Clockmakers', were from 
time to time admitted as " brothers " of the Clockmakers' Company. 

As provided by the charter, the " court " or directorate consists 

c.w. s 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

of the master, three wardens, and ten or more assistants. The 
assistants are chosen for Hfe from among the freemen, and the usual, 
but not invariable, course is that the assistants fill the higher offices 
in succession, according to seniority ; each one being elected first as 
junior warden, the next year as renter, the next year as sfenior 
warden, and the following year as master. After his retirement as 
master, he resumes his seat as an ordinary member of the court. 

Occasionally members were transferred from and to other com- 
panies. In 1636 Mr. Richard Masters was transferred from the 
Clothiers' at a cost to the Clockmakers' Company of ;^io 95. 6d. A 
lesser sum sufficed for the transference, in the same year, of Mr. 
Dawson and Mr. Durant from the Imbroderers'. In 1724 Mr. John 
Shirley gave a bond to pay the Clockmakers' Company ;^2o for 

being transferred to the Vintners'. On 
Mr. James Masters applying in 181 1 to be 
transferred to the Goldsmiths', a little 
haggling appears to have ensued. The 
Clockmakers' Company at first demanded 
^"50 for consenting ; Masters offered /"30 
in 1 81 2, and this amount was accepted. 
George Russell, in 1844, had to pay the 
Clockmakers' Company /'30 for permission 
to be transferred to the Salters', and an 
additional £^ for a special meeting of the 
court to attend the Court of Aldermen with 
the Salters' Company. 
In 1656 Ahasuerus Fromanteel and 31 other members complained 
to the court that, in spite of members having to pay xii''- a quarter, 
the meetings were held in taverns. They also objected to the 
presence of Frenchmen among the ruling body, and recounted other 
grievances. A counter-petition traversed the allegations, and 
asserted the confidence of the signatories in ^-he management of 
the company. 

In 167 1 the company obtained the right to bear arms, and in that 
year letters patent were granted for this distinction. They recounted 
" that whereof at present Nicholas Coxeter is Master, Samuel Home 
and Jeffery Bailey are Wardens, as also Edward East, the only 
persons now living of those mentioned in the said Letters Patents 
of Incorporation, John Nicasius, John Pennock, Edmond Gilpin, 
Jeremie Gregory, Thomas Taylor, Thomas Clayton, John Freeman, 
Evan Jones, Isaac Daniell, John Browne, Nicholas Payne, Richard 

Fig. 397. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 259 

Ames, and Benjamin Bell, are Assistants, and to the rest of the 
Fellowship and Company thereof, and to their successors for ever. 
The Armes, Crest, Supporters and Motto hereafter mentioned, 
viz'- Sable, A Clock y"-' 4 Pillars therefore erected on four lyons, and 
on each capitall a globe with a Crosse, and in the middest an 
Imperial Crowne all Or, and for Their Crest upon an helmet Proper 
Mantled Gules Doubled Argent and Wreath of their Colours a 
Spheare Or, The Armes Supported by the Figures of a Naked Old 
man holding a Scithe and an Hour Glasse representing Time, and 
an Emporour in Roabes Crowned holding a Scepter, Their Motto — 


As in the margent they are all more lively Depicted." 

In 1677 Mr. George Deane, engraver, a member of the company, 
" having by the hands of Henry Jones presented to this court the 
company's coat of arms engraved on a copper-plate fit to be used 
for tickets and divers other occasions of the company which was \'ery 
well liked, this court did kindly accept it, and returned him thanks." 

During the latter part of the seventeenth century the suitability 
of watchmaking as a profession for women was recognized, and in 
1 715 the company sanctioned the taking of female apprentices. 
The names of several will be found in the list at the end of this book, 
where also is recorded the admission of a few female members of the 
company. The employment of female labour in watch work does 
not, however, seem to have made much progress in England till 
watch factories were established in quite recent years. 

In 1 78 1 it was decided to elect leading members of the trade as 
honorary freemen. This course, politic as it probably was, seems to 
indicate tliat at this period the prestige of the company in the horo- 
logical world was insufficient to induce distinguished craftsmen to 
take up the freedom in the ordinary way. 

The company has never risen to the importance and comfort of 
possessing a hall of its own for meetings and other business. For 
brief periods during its history it had the use of a hall belonging 
to a more favoured guild, but most of its meetings were held in 
taverns, more than forty of these establishments having been so 
favoured. Its last meeting before the Great Fire of London was 
held on August 20th, at the Castle Tavern, in Fleet Street ; and the 
first meeting after, on October 8th, 1666, at the Crown Tavern, m 
Smithfield. Later still the Devil Tavern, near Temple Bar, was 

s 2 

26o Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Only a certain number of freemen from certain of the companies 
is oermitted to take up the Hvery or freedom of the City, the 
whole matter being in the discretion of the Court of Aldermen. 
The claims of the Clockmakers' Company were not recognized in 
this respect till 1766, when it was allowed to select 60 of its 
members for the privilege ; this number was upon petition increased 
to 120 in 1786, a still further increase to 200 was sanctioned in 1810, 
and in 1826 the present limit of 250 was reached. 

No. 2 of the by-laws provided " that every person of the said 
Fellowship chosen in the said Livery shall accept and take upon 
him to be of the said Livery, and shall within fourteen days after 
notice of such election take such oaths as by these ordinances shall 
be appointed for him." 

The honour of election to the livery does not seem to have been 
always appreciated, for in 181 3 " William Mansell, of Rosoman St., 
Clerkenwell, Watch casemaker, who was summoned to take the 
Livery on the 19th August, 1812, again on 7th September, 1812, and 
repeated on the nth October last, was peremptorily summoned 
to be at this court, and being now in attendance for the first 
time, refused to take the Clothing, and the penalty of Fifteen 
Pounds being awarded against him for such refusal, he paid 
the sum in Court, and his Election to the Livery was thereupon 

"William W'elborne, of Leather Lane, Holborn, has been sum- 
moned to take the Livery in November, 181 1, and also in January, 
February, and July, 181 2, but having failed so to do, was again 
summoned for that purpose to the last Quarter Court, when he 
attended and requested until this day, promising either to take the 
clothing or pay the penalty for refusal. He being now present and 
declining to take the same, the penalty of ^15 was ordered to be 
enforced, which being paid in Court, his election to the Livery was 
likewise thereupon discharged." 

The fine on taking up the livery was then fixed at ;^2i. 

In 1820 it was resolved to allow the quarterly payments or 
quarterage from members in support of the company to be com- 
muted by an immediate payment ; the amount to be paid being 
dependent on the age of the member availing himself of the arrange- 
ment. The tee to be paid on taking up the freedom of the company 
by purchase was in 1876 increased to £^.0. 

As already stated, the company does not possess a hall of its own. 
Its business is transacted at the Guildhall, where, by permission of 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


the Corporation, its library is kept and its reniarkalily fine museum of 
timekeepers displayed so as to be accessible to the public. 

Edward East. — Edward East, watchmaker to Charles I., was a 
true horologist and a worthy successor to David Ramsay. He at 
onetime resided in Pall Mall, near the tennis court, and attended the 
king when tennis and other games were being played in the Mall, his 
Majesty often providing one of East's watches as a prize. Edward 
East seems to have removed to Fleet Street, for it is related that at 
a later period the king's attendant, Mr. Herbert, failing in the 
punctual discharge of his^duties in the morning, his Majesty 

Fig. 398. 

Vu.. j99. 

provided him with a gold alarum watch, which was fetched from the 
king's watchmaker, Mr. East, in Fleet Street. He was in Fleet 
Street in 1635, for a correspondent of Notes and Queries had in 1900 
a MS. Return of Strangers within the ward of Farringdon Without 
wherein East is referred to as of Fleet Street, in the parish of St. 
Dunstan's in the West, and as the employer of one Elias Dupree, a 
Dutchman. The locality of a presumably still later residence is indi- 
cated by a reference to " Mr. East at the Sun, outside Temple Bar," in 
the Loudon Gazette, January 22-26, 1690. A very large silver alarum 
clock-watch by Edward East, which was kept at the bedside of 
Charles I., was presented by the king on his way to execution at 
Whitehall, on January 30, 1649, to his faithful and attached servant, 

262 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Mr., afterwards Sir, Thomas Herbert. It was illustrated in " Sussex 
Archgeological Collections," 1850, and in the AvchcBological Journal, 
vol. vii., from which Figs. 398 and 399, two-thirds the size of the 
watch, are reproduced. I presume its history is well authenticated. 
The owner of it, Mr. William Townley Mitford, was quoted as 
saying, " It came into possession of my family by intermarriage with 
the Herberts about a century ago, and since that time has remained 
with us," and the Society of Antiquaries seemed to be quite satisfied 
with their examination. Still, from the engravings, it is rather a 
perplexing watch. The dial and pierced back are of Charles I. 
period, and though a minute hand at that date would be very 
unusual, it would not be an impossible adjunct ; presumably there 
was also an hour hand, but I can see no alarum disc or indicator ; 
the centre of the dial may, of course, have been turned to set the 
alarum, but there is no sign of its having been so utilized. Amongst 
the collection of autographs and manuscripts in the possession of 
Mr. Alfred Morrison, of Fonthill House, Wilts, is a warrant, dated 
June 23rd, 1649, from the Committee of Public Revenue to Thomas 
Fauconbridge, Esq., Receiver- General, authorizing him to pay 
" vnto Mr. Edward East, Watchmaker, the so'me of fortie pounds 
for a ^Vatch and a Larum of gould by him made for the late King 
Charles by directions of the Earle of Pembrooke, by order of the 
Committee, and deliuered for the late King's use the xviith of January 
last." In the Fellows collection at the British Museum is a 
splendid octangular crystal-cased watch, a recumbent female figure 
holding an hour-glass being engraved on the dial ; 1620 is mentioned 
as the probable date of this specimen of East's work, (^f about the 
same period is the small oval watch by him shown in Fig. 400. 
Another example of his work is the pretty little watch of slightly 
later date having an outer case and with a faceted crystal over the 
dial which is represented in Fig. 401. Two views of a clock-watch 
by East in a finely pierced and engraved case and also with a crystal 
covering for the dial are given in Figs. 402 and 403. These three 
watches are from the Schloss collection. 

In the Hilton Price collection is the little watch by East which is 
represented in Fig. 404. The dial of silver has a view engraved on 
it, and the case, of the same metal, is fluted ; the channels which 
broaden radially from the centre of the back extend over the edge 
and are finely engraved. 

Wood refers to another watch by him with a silver case in the 
form of a cross, the dial being engraved with the Crucifixion and 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


^^ V<^^-^-^^>'"•* 

Fig. 401. 




' / 

Fig. 402. 

Fig. 40J. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

angels. In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford is a watch by East 
with gold case in the form of a melon, studded all over with 
turquoises, the pendant being enamelled blue to match. Two other 
undoubted specimens of this master's work are in the Guildhall 
Museum. One, a watch movement, inscribed, " Eduardus East, 
Londini," was thus described by E. J.Thompson: " The fusee of 
ten turns is cut for gut. There are great second and contrate wheels, 
and a left-handed cut balance wheel, the verge being of course left- 
handed. The end of the verge is driven into the balance, which has 
one straight bar or arm. The cock is secured on a stud by a pin. 

There is no provision for a balance spring, 
and the regulating must have depended 
upon the setting up or down of the main- 
spring by the endless screw. It had one 
hand only. The fusee is hollow, having 
the cap and winding square solid ; it is 
fitted on to an arbor riveted on the great 
wheel. The great wheel has fifty-five, 
the second forty-five, the contrate forty, 
and the balance-wheel fifteen teeth ; the 
second, contrate, and balance pinions 
being all of five leaves." 

The second example is a watch in a 
silver oval case with hunting cover, 
having a crystal centre, which E. J. 
Thompson described as finely worked in 
to suit its shape. The dial is of silver, 
and is traversed by an hour hand only. 
The movement is inscribed, as in the 
first instance, "Eduardus East, Londini." There is a twelve-turn 
fusee cut for catgut. The mainspring is white and no doubt original. 
In the British Museum is a watch by East with a tortoiseshell 
case, dating from about 1640. South Kensington Museum also 
possesses a specimen of his work. Mr. George Carr Glyn exhibited 
at the Guelph Exhibition a clock-watch by him in silver pierced 

Among the Wetherfield collection are four long-case clocks and 
one bracket clock by East. Illustrations of some of these will be 
given in Chapter VII. 

Edward East was one of the ten original assistants named in the 
charter of incorporation of the Clockmakers' Company, and at once 

Fig. 404. 

Rccorch of Early Makers, etc. 265 

took a leading part in its proceedings, and after serving in the 
subordinate capacities was elected master in 1645, a post he again 
occupied in 1652. He was the only treasurer ever appointed, and 
the creation of the office came about in a curious way. In 1647, the 
renter warden, Mr. Helden, refused to give the usual security for the 
stock of the company, and in this dilemma the office of treasurer was 
created, Mr. East and Mr. Hackett being nominated thereto, and the 
former chosen. On the death of Mr. East the office was allowed 
to lapse. 

Edward East lived to a good age. There is no record of his 
death, but it probably occurred not long after 1693. In 1692 his 
([uondam apprentice and friend, Henry Jones, who was then Master 
of the Clockmakers' Company, acquainted the court that Mr. East 
desired during his lifetime to make a gift of ^100 to the company 
for the benefit of the poor. Mr. Jones added that he would also 
contribute a like sum for a similar purpose. In the following year 
Mr. East gave the /^loo, and it was ordered " that the master and 
wardens do go to Mr. East and give him hearty thanks for his 

Taking into account that Edward East at the time of the incor- 
poration of the Clockmakers' Company in 1631 must have been a 
man of considerable standing in the trade, it seems probable that 
during the seventeenth century there were two of the name, one 
succeeding the other. In the " Calendar of State Papers (Domestic)" 
is an entry of a grant in 1662 to Edward East of the office of " chief 
clockmaker and keeper of the Privy clocks, fee i2d. per day and 
;^3 65. 8^. livery." 

Under date April 4th, 1662, is an entry of a warrant for an order 
to swear in James East, the King's servant, as clockmaker to the 

Henry Jones. — Henry Jones, already referred to, was apprenticed 
to Edward East on August 22nd, 1654. He was made free of the 
Clockmakers' Company in 1663, and served as master in 1691-92. 
He resided near the Inner Temple Gate, and attained a considerable 
reputation, which was quite justified judging from what remains of 
his work. Charles II., according to tradition, gave to Mrs. Jane 
Lane a clock, in memory of her services after the battle of Worcester. 
On the clock was engraved, " Henricus Jones, Londini." In Overall's 
"History of the Clockmakers' Company" is a record which just 
possibly refers to this clock. It states that, on January 19th, 1673, 
" Mr. Henry Jones, clockmaker, acquainted the Court of the 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Company that he had made for the King (Charles II.) a clock of the 
value of ^"150, whereon was engraven ' Henricus Jones, Londini,' 
and which stood in His Majesty's closet for about seven years, but 
being by His Majesty given unto a lady it came into the hands of 
Robert Seignor, clockmaker, of Exchange Alley, to be repaired, and 
he caused Edward Staunton, clockmaker, or some other person, to 
take out the maker's name and insert his own." 

In North's " Life " it is stated that barometers were first made 

and sold by one Jones, a 
noted clockmaker in the 
Inner Temple Gate, at 
the instance of Lord 
Keeper Guildford ; and 
\ery probably Jones was 
the first Englisliman who 
constructed a Torricel- 
lian tube, as the baro- 
meter was originally 
called, after its inventor, 
Evangelista Torricelli, 
who propounded its 
theory about 1650. 

In the London Gazette 
for October 21st to 24th, 
i68g, was the following 
advertisement : " Lost on 
the 2 1st Instant, between 
the Hay Market near 
Charing Cross and the 
Rummer in Queen St. 
near Cheapside, a round 
Gold Pendulum Watch 
of an indifferent small size, showing the hours and minutes, the 
Pendulum went with a strait Spring, it was made by Henry Jones, 
Watchmaker in the Temple, the Out-Case had a Cypher pin'd on 
it, and the Shagreen much worn. If it comes to your hands, you are 
desired to bring it to the said Mr. Jones or Mr. Snag, a goldsmith in 
Lumbard Street, and you shall have two Guineas Reward." 

In the Guildhall Museum is one of Henry Jones's watches, which 
Mr. E. J. Thompson speaks of as having very fine pillars. Another 
watch by the same maker is in the collection of Mr. Evan Roberts. 

Fig. 405. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


Fig. 405 shows an early bracket clock by Jones, which belongs to 
Mr. A. Riley. The case of oak, veneered with fine pollard oak, is 
about 15 inches high and 11 inches broad, has the usual glass 
door in front and back, and glass panels at the sides. At the top is 
a narrow band or frieze of rosewood fretwork. The signature " Henry 
Jones in the Temple " is engraved on the bottom of the dial just 
under the circle, but concealed when the door is closed. 

The bracket clock with basket top " scjuat " case shown in Fig. 406 
was sketched from an ^ - 

example by Henry Jones, ^©^©5* 

by favour of Mr. Percy — ^* »^ 

Webster. The cliased 
open basket-work and 
corner ornaments are 
particularly choice. 

Mr. Holden,of ^'eadon, 
has an eight-day long 
inlaid case-clock with a 
brass dial, inscribed 
"Henry Jones in ye 
Temple," which is a later 
production than any of 
those already quoted. 

Henry Jones, who was 
the son of William Jones, 
vicar of Boulder, South- 
ampton, died in Novem- 
ber, 1695, aged 53 years, 
and was buried within the 
precincts of the old 
church of St. Dunstan's in the West, Fleet Street, where a monument 
was erected to his memory by his widow. 

Edward Barlow (Booth). — This talented man was born near 
\\'arrington in 1636. He was ordained in the English church at 
Lisbon, and took the name of Barlow from his godfather, Ambrose 
Barlow, a Benedictine, who suffered at Lancaster for his religion. 
Edward Booth devoted considerable attention to horological instru- 
ments. He was undoubtedly the inventor of the rack repeating 
striking work for clocks, which was applied by Tompion about 1676. 
He also devised a repeating-watch on the same principle, and made 
application to patent it in 1686. His claim was successfully opposed 

FUr. 4OG. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

by Daniel Quare, who was backed by the Clockmakers' Company. 
The king, James II., tried both watches, and gave his preference to 
Quare's, which repeated the hours and quarters with one push from 
a pin near the pendant, whereas Barlow's watch was furnished with 
a pin on each side of the pendant and required two distinct operations 
to attain the same end. 

Booth invented the cylinder escapement, and patented it in 
conjunction with William Houghton and Thomas Tompion in 1695 
(No. 344). The invention is described as a " ballance wheele either 
iiatt or hollow, to worke within and crosse the centre of the verge or 
axis of the balance with a new sort of teeth made like tinterhooks to 

move the balance and the pallets 
of the axis or verge, one to be 
circular, concave, and convex." He 
died in 1716. 

Betts. — Fig. 407 shows a watch 
by Samuel Betts remarkable for its 
particularly handsome dial of silver 
and brass. The central leaf orna- 
ment of silver polished is partly filled 
in with crimson enamel or hard wax, 
the pretty effect of which is enhanced 
by a dull matted surface between it 
and the hour band, which is also of 
silver. On a nicely chased revolving 
brass ring outside the hours is a 
fleur-de-lys to indicate the day of the 
month on a fixed silver band, divided 
into thirty-one and figured as shown. 
An outer chased margin of brass completes the arrangement. At 
the end of the short months the day of the month ring has to 
be moved by hand. The boss of the hour indicator is oval, and 
although but one limb now exists, there was probably a trident tail, as 
may be seen on other specimens of the period. The case is of silver 
with a hit-and-miss shutter over the winding hole ; the glass is nearly 
one third of a sphere and exceedingly thick. Betts carried on busi- 
ness at the back of the Royal Exchange, and appears to have died 
prior to 1673, when "Mr. Marquet" (Markwick?) advertises himself 
in the London Gazette as the successor of " Mr. Samuel Betts, deceased," 
In 1656 Betts attested the genuineness of Jas. Lello's masterpiece to the 
Clockmakers' Company. The watch here shown dates from about 1 645. 

Fig. 407.- 

-Watch by Samuel Betts, 
about 1640. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


Tompion and Graham. — Thomas Tompion, "the father of 
Enghsh watchmaking," was born at Northhill, Bedfordshire, in 1638. 
It is said that his father was a farrier, and that he was brought up 
to the same trade ; but the first reHable record shows him to have 
been in business as a clockmaker at Water Lane, Blackfriars, when 
quite a young man. 

Water Lane was a long, tortuous thoroughfare, the western 

Fig. 40S. — Thomas Tompion, 163S — 1713. 

portion of which is now Whitefriars Street, and Tompion's shop, 
known by the sign of the Dial and Three Crowns, was at the Fleet 
Street corner where the offices of the Daily News are. His advent 
marks a distinct epoch in the history of the horological art. 
Throughout his career he was closely associated with some of the 
leading mathematicians and philosophers of his time. The theories 
of Dr. Hooke and the Rev. Edward Barlow would probably have 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

remained in abeyance but for Tompion's skilful materialization of 
them. He soon became the leading watchmaker at the court of 
Charles II., and Avas everywhere welcomed as an artist of command- 
ing ability. When he entered the arena the performance of time- 
keepers was very indifferent. The principles on which they were 
constructed were defective, and the mechanism was not well 
proportioned. The movements were as a rule regarded as quite 

subsidiary to the exterior cases, 
and English specimens of the 
art had no distinctive individu- 
ality. By adopting the inven- 
tions of Hooke and Barlow, and 
by skilful proportion of parts, he 
left English watches and clocks 
the finest in the world and the 
admiration of his brother artists. 
Of course he did not reach 
finality ; improvements continued 
under his immediate successors. 
Indeed, some of the most remark- 
able and progressive horological 
conceptions emanated from the 
mind of his favourite pupil, 
Ciraham, whom he inspired, and 
who continued the work which 
Tompion began. Of the few 
horologists of Tompion's time 
who can be admitted as his peers, 
Daniel Ouare was perhaps the 
most notable example. Asa clock- 
maker Joseph Knibb may perhaps 
be admitted to rank with these. 
x\mong others above medio- 
crity who made watches before and after the introduction of the 
balance spring, Nathaniel Barrow is worthy of mention. 

Tompion was primarily a clockmaker; in the records of the Clock- 
makers' Company he is referred to as a "great clockmaker" 
when he was associated as a brother in 1671 ; and it is doubtful if 
he made watches in the early part of his career. I have never met 
with a specimen not furnished with a balance spring, and those with 
but an hour hand are exceedingly are. 

Fig. 409. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


The portrait on page 269 is from mezzotint produced in 1697 
after a painting by Sir Godfrey Kneller. 

One of Tompion's earlier clocks, which belongs to Mr. Norman 
Shaw, is shown in Fig. 409. It has a light pendulum six inches in 
length fixed to the verge ; the escapement for the alarum is behind 
the going train, and wlien the alarum is let off the hannner strikes 
the bell which forms the domical top of the clock. In the British 
Museum is another chamber clock by Tompion, as well as a very 
thick watch by the master in a case superbly painted in enamel by 



-Watch by Tompion in gold 

Fig. 4 II. —Tompion watch in sil\ei" inner 
case ; out case, tortoiseshell. 

Camille Andre. In the same repository is a curious universal pocket 
sun-dial with compass, all of gold, also by Tompion. 

In 1675, he made for Charles II. a watch with two balances and 
balance springs as devised by Hooke. Derham says, " This watch 
was wonderfully approved of by the King ; and so the invention 
grew into reputation and was much talked of at home and abroad. 
Particularly its fame flew into France, from whence the Dauphin 
sent for two, which that eminent artist Mr. Tompion made for him.'' 

The introduction of the balance spring involved a reconstruction 
of the watch movement. The disc or dial for indicating the adjust- 
ment of the mainspring was discarded as no longer necessary, and a 
somew^hat similar one introduced for showing the movement of the 
curb pins round the balance spring. This disc was placed upon a 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

pinion with a squared extremity for the reception of a watch key to 
actuate the curb pins, which were carried by a toothed segment or 
circular rack gearing with the pinion. The tangent wheel and screw 
for mainspring adjustment were placed beneath the plates. The 
balance was considerably enlarged and covered with a circular cock. 
In Tompion's early watches there is a kind of bevelled fringe around 
the edge of the cock for the more effectual protection of the balance, 
as in Fig. 413, but after 1688 or 1690 he adopted the now well- 
known form with a broad base curved to suit the edge of the plate, 
a circular table the same size as the balance, and just where the 
table narrows to join the base a cherub's head or a grotesque mask 
engraved between projecting ears or streamers. 

Fig. 412. 



His watch movements were deep, top plates exceedingly thin, and 
near the edge was usually engraved, " Tho. Tompion, London." 

He was, I believe, the first manufacturer to number his watch 
movements consecutively in plain figures for the purpose of identifi- 
cation. His early ones were not so marked, and I should judge he 
commenced the practice about 1685. 

Fig. 410 shows a watch by him in plain gold cases, bearing the 
hall mark corresponding to 1685 ; the dial is of gold with raised 
numerals. The hands are very fine, the hour indicator being of the 
tulip pattern. A watch with silver dial, about ten years later, from 
the Hilton Price collection, is shown in Fig. 411. 

As an example of the versatility of Tompion's genius is appended 
a drawing of a watch from the collection of Mr. Evan Roberts. The 
distinctive feature of this watch is that, although a verge escapement 
is used, the fusee has been discarded ; the mainspring being sur- 
rounded by a handsomely pierced guard which is fixed to the plate ; 
and to this the outer end of the mainspring is attached. In order 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


Fig. 414. 

that tlie watch nii<j^ht have a coil of mainsprinj^ of the largest 

possible dimensions, what is .usually the centre wheel is planted out of 

the centre ; the cannon pinion rides loose on a stud planted in the 

centre of the frame ; and to get the proper 

motion for the minute-hand without the intro- 
duction of an intermediate wheel in the motion 

work, the train rotates reversely to the usual 

direction. The movement is not numbered ; 

this fact, together with the style of the 

engraving and the form of the balance cock, enables one to fix the 

date of its production at about 1680. 

Before September, 1695, Tompion produced a watcli in which the 

teeth of the horizontal escape wheel dropped on to the cylindrical 

body of the verge, as shown in the 
appended drawing, thus avoiding the 
recoil incidental to the usual verge con- 
struction; and in September, 1695, he, 
in conjunction with Booth and Hough- 
ton, patented the cylinder escapement. 
In the account of Barlow the wording 
of the description is given. 

One of the boldest of Tompion's 
conceptions was a small clock to strike 
the hours and quarters, driven by main- 
springs and yet requiring to be wound 
but once a year. The successful em- 
bodiment of this is show'n in Fig. 415. 
The clock was made for William III. 
at a cost of £i,^co, and was in his 
bedroom at Kensington Palace when 
he died. It was left by him to the 
Earl of Leicester, and now belongs to 
Lord Mostyn, in whose family it has 
been for over 150 years. It is still in 
going order, and Lord Mostyn has the 
name of nearly everyone who has wound 
it during the last 100 years. 

The total height to the top of the 
spear is thirty inches ; the body or 

plinth below the dial is ten inches in width, seven inches in height, 

and six inches from front to back. 

Fig. 415. — One year clock by 

274 ^^'■^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

The case, of ebony with silver mounts, is a fine piece of work in 
one piece, forming really a hood or cover, for it slides down over the 
movement and rests on the metal feet. 

The movement is in three portions ; the lower part below the dial 

Fig. 416. — Travelling striking and jilarum watch by Tompion, actual size. 

is attached to the heavy scroll feet, and contains the two mainspring 
barrels, the two fusees and the larger driving wheels. The middle 
portion behind the dial contains the smaller wheels and pinions ; 
while the verge escapement above is held separately, so that it may 
be easily detached. The pendulum, six inches long, is in front of the 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


movement just behind the dial,. and its action may be seen through 
the glazed door below the dial, which is removed when winding or 
regulation is needed. Regulation is effected by raising or lowering 

Fig. 417. — Travelling striking and alarum watch by Tompion, actual size. 

the chops which embrace the pendulum spring, very much in the 
way adopted for modern clocks ; the sliding chops are actuated by a 
tangent wheel and screw, and there is on the front plate a micrometer 
index for noting the amount of adjustment made. 

T 2 

276 Old Clocks and Watches and tlieir Makers. 

The hours are struck on a bell attached to the front plate, the 
ting-tang quarters being sounded on this and on a smaller bell, 
which surmounts the movement. On each side of the case is a 
pull-repeating arrangement. 

The splendid travelling clock-watch, of which two views are given 
in Figs. 416 and 417, is in the Hilton Price collection, and dates 
from about 1695. The case and dial are of silver. 

During the building of St. Paul's, it was frequently reported that 
Tompion was to construct a wonderful clock for the cathedral ; and 
in " The Affairs of the World," published in October, 1700, the follow- 
ing announcement appeared : " Mr. Tompion, the famous watch- 
maker in Fleet Street, is making a clock for St. Paul's Cathedral, 
which it is said will go one hundred years without winding up ; will 
cost ^3,000 or ^"4,000, and be far finer than the clock at Strasburg." 
Though this statement seems to have been unwarranted, it is quite 
possible he would have been entrusted with the construction of a 
timekeeper of some kind, but, after unremitting application to his 
profession for more than thirty years, he was at this time, it may be 
assumed, just beginning to indulge in well-earned leisure; during the 
last years of his life he allowed himself considerable relaxation, and 
was absent from London for extended periods. In the course of his 
migrations he visited Bath, possibly to derive benefit from the healing 
properties of the hot mineral water which wells up in the Queen of 
the West, as the chief Somersetshire city is called. In the Grand 
Pump-room there is a splendid example of Tompion's later work, 
which he presented to the city, as is thus recorded on a tablet 
adjacent to the timekeeper : " The Watch and Sun-dial was given 
by Mr. Thos. Tompion, of London, Clockmaker. Anno Dom. 1709." 
In Fig. 418, which is taken from a photograph by Mr. Ernest Lambert, 
I am enabled to give an engraving of this stately timekeeper. 
Mr. Olds has kindly furnished some description of the movement. The 
dial is of brass, with ornamental corner pieces and silvered rings, 
the minute circle being fifteen inches in diameter ; the day of the 
month is shown through an aperture. On a high arch above is an 
equation index and scale, o being in the centre, and the variation to 
a maximum of fifteen minutes shown on each side ; on the right, 
" Sun faster," and to the left, " Sun slower." The months and days 
are engraved on a silvered ten-inch circle, of which an arc is shown 
through an opening. The date is indicated by a small point in the 
centre of the opening. The number of minutes shown by the index 
gives the difference between sun time and mean time ; this ten-inch 

Records, of Early Makcn;, etc. 


circle has o\er 2,000 finely cut teetli, and makes its annual circuit by 
means of an endless screw and pinion, worked from the dial wheel, 
which makes one revolution per hour. 
The index is kept in position by a small 
counterpoise with a pulley fitted to its 
arbor ; the pulley is attached by a fine 
chain to a cranked arm, which rises and 
falls with the indentations and protube- 
rances of a properly shaped plate or cam 
attached securely to the ten-inch circle. 

The train and frame of the timepiece 
are in remarkably good order, considering 
its age. The driving- power is a lead 
weight of 32 lbs. hung on a 3-inch 
pulley, having a fall of six feet. It is 
wound monthly on to a 2j-inch barrel ; 
the great wheel of 94 teeth, and 4^ inches 
in diameter, dri\es a pinion of 16 leaves ; 
thereon is a 3-inch wheel of 80 teeth, and 
this drives the centre pinion of 10 teeth ; 
the centre wheel is 2^ inches of 72 teeth, 
driving the third pinion of nine teeth ; 
on this is a 2|-inch wheel of 60 teeth, 
driving the escape, pinion of eight teeth ; 
on this is a 2-inch escape wheel of 30 
teeth, shaped as in a recoiling escapement. 
The pallet staff is 2^ inches above the 
escape arbor, and carries pallets of the 
anchor pattern, having inclined planes 
to allow recoil. The one-second pen- 
dulum rod is of steel, of a flattened oval 
section, with 6-inch bob of lenticular form. 
The amount of oscillation, being only 
2f°, causes the recoil of the escapement ^1 
to be barely apparent. 

The day of the month circle is moved 
by an extra wheel from the hour wheel. 
Maintaining power while winding is given 
by a spring-propelled click through a steel arm on an arbor between 
the plates, acting on the teeth of the centre wheel, which is put into 
action by lifting the sliding cover of the winder hole in the dial. 

Fig. 418. — Clock by Tompion 
at the Pump-room, Bath. 

278 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

The case is of solid unpolished oak, nine feet high to the top of the 
arched head which is surmounted by brass ball ornaments. The 
body of the case is seventeen inches wide and about six inches 
narrower than the head and base, with a semi-circular door eight 
inches across and five feet in length. As will be seen from the 
drawing, the case has much the appearance of a pillar rising from a 
substantial base. 

The clock is in a recess at the eastern end of the room, and it 
occupied a similar position in the old Pump-room, the erection of 
which was finished in 1706. As the spot is particularly suited for 
the reception of a clock, it may be conjectured that Tompion was 
in Bath when the old Pump-room was being built, and that the 
ever-vigilant " Beau " Nash obtained from him a promise to present 
a timepiece when the building was completed. 

At first sight the phrase " watch and sun-dial " on the tablet 
recording the gift seems to include a gnomon of some sort for 
regulating the timekeeper from observations of the sun. There 
would be nothing far-fetched in this surmise, because sun-dials to 
check the going of public timekeepers were not at all an unusual 
adjunct. But I am inclined to think that in this instance sun-dial 
meant the equation dial over the ordinary one. 

Fig. 419 shows another example of Tompion's work, which is 
almost a facsimile of the Bath clock. It belongs to Mr. Philip T. 
God sal, of Iscoyd Park, Whitchurch, Shropshire. 

A long case chiming clock by Tompion to go a month between 
windings which is at Windsor Castle is shown in Fig. 624, and at 
Buckingham Palace is a very similar one. At the Guildhall Museum 
is a Tompion clock with a square dial, one hand, and in a long black 
case, which may be accepted as an indubitable example of his early 
work. In the same collection is a more modern specimen which goes 
four months between windings, has an arch dial, and maintaining 
work similar to that in the Bath Pump-room clock. It is inscribed 
" Thomas Tompion, London," a form of signature rather unusual. 
In the Wetherfield collection are no fewer than eighteen Tompion 
clocks. Some of these and others I propose to illustrate in 
Chapter VII. 

The Royal Society possesses a paper in Hooke's handwriting, 
imperfect and undated, showing that Tompion and Hooke were in 
communication on the subject of the barometer, which is of interest 
as evidence of the estimation in which Tompion was held by Hooke. 
It occurs about the middle of a parchment-bound volume lettered 

Rt'cords oj Early Makers, etc. 


Fig. 419. 

28o Old Clocks and WatcJics and their Makers. 

" 20 Hooke's Papers," and is headed " Aerostatick Instruments." 
In it Hooke states that a form of his barometer, in which the height 
of the mercury was indicated by a column of water, " was tryed at 
Mr. Thomas Tompion's, a person deservedly famous for his excellent 
skill in making watches and clocks, and not less curious and 
dexterous in constructing and handworking of other nice mechanical 
instruments." A barometer by Tompion is at Hampton Court Palace. 

The extent of Tompion's business may be judged from the fact 
that in the advertisements for the recovery of lost watches during 
the period he was in business timekeepers of his make largely 
preponderate. Trivial though some of them may be, I venture to 
submit a selection from these announcements, as the quaint 
descriptions in the words of the owners are interesting and convey 
a very good idea of the various styles in favour at the time : — 

" Lost on Wednesday 20th of this Instant September at night in 
or about St. James's, a Gold Pendulum watch of Mr. Tompion's- 
making, having three motions a shagreen case, a cipher on the Back 
Side and marked within the Box 277, with a Gold Chain and three 
seals viz. one Figure and two Heads. Whoever give notice thereof 
to Mr. Nott a Bookseller in Pall Mall or to Mr. Loman at the Lord 
Cavendish's House in St. James's Square shall have 13 Guineas 
Reward" (London Gazette, September 22, 1682). 

" Lost on Monday the 25th Instant in the Fields betwixt Islington 
Church and Newington Green, a gold watch with a Shagreen Case, 
with a cipher studded in gold on the Bottom. Made by Thos. 
Tompion, London. Whoever brings the said watch to Mr. Robert 
Halstead, Goldsmith at the Crown in Fleet St. shall have three 
Guineas Reward" (London Gazette, January 25, 1685-6). 

" Lost out of a gentleman's Pocket, the 19th past, betwixt Lyme 
St. end in Fenchurch St. and the end of the Minories, an indifferent 
small size gold pendulum watch, going without string or chain, 
showing the hours of the day, and day of the month, the name 
Tompion, in a shagreen case, pinned with a Cypher in the bottom of 
the case, wound up on the dial plate, at the hour of 12, a straight key 
with a Steel Nose. Whoever brings it to Mr. Tompion, Clockmaker, 
at Water Lane, and in Fleet St., shall have one guinea reward, or, if 
bought, their money again with reasonable profit " (London Gazette, 
November 10-13, 1690). 

" Lost, the 3rd inst., between the Sun-Dial, in St. James Park, and 
Man's Coffee House, a silver Minute Pendulum watch, made by 
Tho. Tompion, in a Shagreen studded case, on the bottom of the 

Rccoych of luirly Makers, etc. 281 

inner case the number 43<S ; with a j^old Rin<^ hani^ing upon the 
silver chain, with the Effigies of their Present Majesties " (London 
Gazette, March 3-7, i6gi). 

" Lost on the 24th instant, about Kingston-on-Thames, a Gold 
Minute and Second Chain Pendulum watch, with a Stop, the hours 
seen through a hole in the Dial plate, and in a plain Shagreen Out- 
Case, the name Tho. Tompion, London, a number in the bottom of 
the Box, 0201. Whoever gives notice of it to Mr. Tho. Tompion, 
Clockmaker, at the corner of Water Lane, in Fleet St., shall have 
3 guineas reward ; or if bought already, your money again with 
reasonable profit " {London Gazette, June 25-29, i6gi). 

" Lost on the 23rd instant a Gold Pendulum Watch made by Tlios. 
Tompion, Fleet Street, in a Shagreen Studded Case with a Steel 
Seal set in gold tied to it, bearing a Coat quartered with the arms 
of the Crown battoned ; the Box numbered 422 and the maker's 
mark [II] " (London Gazette, July 23-27, i6gi). 

" Lost on the 21st instant, from the Duke of Richmond's in 
St. James's Square, a gold striking watch with a Shagreen case 
studded round, with little holes between, having 3 links of plain gold 
chain, made by Thos. Tompion, in Fleet St. Whoever brings it to 
Mr. Compton, Goldsmith, in Duke St., near Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
shall have 6 Guineas" {London Gazette, February 21-23, ^694). 

" Lost, some time in November last, at Oxon, a Gold Minute 
Pendulum watch in a plain gold case ; the names on the upper 
peak, Tho. Tompion, Edwd. Banger, London ; and on the Dial 
Plate, Tompion, Banger, London, with this number, 3428, on the 
bottom of the Box within side, and likewise upon the upper plate. 
Whoever give notice of it (so as it may be had again) to the 
Reverend Dr. King, of Christ Church College, at Oxon, or to Tho. 
Tompion, Clockmaker, at the Dial and Three Crowns, at the Corner 
of Water Lane, Fleet St., London, shall have three guineas reward ; 
or if bought or pawned, your money again with reasonable profit " 
{London Gazette, December 4-7, 1704). 

Tompion was associated as a brother of the Clockmakers' Company 
in 1671 ; admitted as a freeman by redemption in 1674; chosen as 
assistant in i6gi, as warden in 1700, and master in 1704. He died 
on the 2oth November, 1713, and was buried in W'estminster Abbey. 
In the same grave were interred the remains of Graham, and 
particulars of their tomb had therefore better be left till after the 
brief notice of Graham which follows. 

Little is known of Tompion's domestic life, but he appears to have 

282 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

been unmarried. His will, executed on the 21st October, 171 3, 
was proved on the 27th November, in the same year, by George 
Graham, who was one of the executors. By this document he 
bequeathed to his nephew Thomas Tompion, son of his brother 
James, his land and property at Northhill, Bedfordshire, and the 
interest on ;^ioo. To his niece Margaret Banger, wife of Edward 
Banger, clockmaker, and daughter of his late sister, Margaret Kent, 
he gave a life interest in ;^5oo, which at her death was to revert to 
Elizabeth Graham, wife of George Graham, daughter of his said 
brother James. Another daughter of his sister Elizabeth Kent is 
mentioned, and a cousin, Thomas Finch. George Graham and his 
wife were residuary legatees. Tho. Tompion, junr., was apprenticed 
to Charles Kemp in 1694 ^^^ admitted as a member to the Clock- 
makers' Company in 1702, presumably when he had completed his 
apprenticeship. A " Mr. Tompion, watchmaker," attended the 
funeral of Daniel Quare, in 1724. Watches by Tho. Tompion, junr., 
are to be met with occasionally, and I have examined two or 
three inscribed " Tho. Tompion, Edw. Banger, London." Edward 
Banger was apprenticed to the Tompion in 1695, and it may there- 
fore be fairly assumed that he was in partnership with Tompion 
junr. At Buckingham Palace is a one year clock inscribed 
" T. Tompion, Edwd. Banger, London." In the Wetherfield col- 
lection is a long case clock, with an oval label just below the centre 
of the dial, on which is engraved " Tho. Tompion and Edw. Banger, 
London." I saw a watch for sale but a few months ago inscribed 
" Tompion, London," the hall mark in the case of which corre- 
sponded to the year 1745. But Tompion bequeathed his business to 
Graham, who, it is pretty certain, secured the best of the trade on 
the demise of his patron and friend. 

George Graham. — George Graham, " Honest George Graham," 
who was born at Kirklinton, or Rigg, Cumberland, in 1673, tramped 
to London at an early age, and in 1688 became apprenticed for seven 
years to Henry Aske. He w^as admitted a freeman of the Clock- 
makers' Company on completing his indentures in 1695, ^^^ 
immediately entered the service of Thomas Tompion, thus beginning 
a life-long friendship, severed only by the death of Tompion in 1713. 
The following announcement appeared in the London Gazette for 
November 28th to December ist, 1713 : " George Graham, Nephew of 
the late Mr.Thomas Tompion, who lived with him upwards of seventeen 
years, and managed his trade for several years past, whose name 
was joined with Mr. Tompion's for some time before his death, and 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 283 

to whom he left all his stock and work, finished and unfinished, 
continues to carry on the said trade at the late Dwelling House of 
the said Mr. Tompion, at the sign of the Dial and Three Crowns, at 
the corner of Water Lane, in Fleet Street, London, where all persons 
may be accommodated as formerly." 

In 1720 Graham relinquished Tompion's old premises, as will be 
seen by the appended official notification from the London Gazette 
of March 22-26, 1720: "George Graham, watchmaker, is removed 
from the corner of Water Lane, in Fleet Street, to the Dial and 
One Crown on the other side of the way, a little nearer Fleet 
Bridge, a new house next door to the Globe and Duke of Marl- 
borough's Head Tavern." Here in tlie rooms over the shop Graham 
resided till his decease. The quaint little shop had two plain bowed 
windows, with the doorway between them, and with but little altera- 
tion in appearance remained as a watchmaker's for many years, 
being occupied first by Mudge, who succeeded Graham, then by 
Mudge and Dutton, and afterwards by the younger Duttons. It is 
No. 148, and now the ofiices of the Sporting Life. Graham was 
elected as a member of the Royal Society in 1720, and was chosen 
as a member of the council of that body in 1722. He contributed 
twenty-one papers on various subjects to the " Philosophical 

After the expiration of Booth, Houghton, and Tompion's patent, 
Graham devoted some thought to the cylinder escapement, which 
in 1725 he modified to practically its present form, and introduced 
into some of his w^atches. Securing to himself the monopoly of any 
of his discoveries was foreign to his disposition. The reputation 
which English horology acquired on the Continent during the 
eighteenth century was due in no small measure to Graham's candid 
treatment of his brethren in the art in other countries. In answer 
to inquiries, Julien Le Roy received from Graham one of his 
cylinder escapement watches in 17 28, and the French horologist's 
generous avowal of its superiority is worthy of his acknowledged 
greatness. But it must be admitted, after examination of surviving 
specimens, that the wheel teeth in Graham's cylinder escapement 
had too much shake in the cylinder, and were wanting in the 
necessary closeness of construction afterwards attained by Ellicott 
and others ; and as Ciraham continued to use the verge escapement 
till his death, it may be assumed that he was not oblivious of the 
constructional difficulties presented by the cylinder. In his younger 
days he would undoubtedly have pursued the matter with his usual 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

acumen and patience, till nothing was left for later artists to improve ; 
but now his mind was taken up with astronomy and astronomical 
instruments, and the production of a perfect clock as an aid to the 
astronomer absorbed him, as I venture to suggest, almost to the 
exclusion of horological instruments for the pocket. 

In all Graham's work his first consideration was to make every 
part most suitable for its purpose. Judicious embellishment in its 
proper place was not wanting, but it was quite subsidiary to useful- 
ness. This trait is apparent in many little details of a splendid 
repeating watch shown in Figs. 420 and 421, made by him in 17 14, 

when he was in the zenith of his power as 
a watchmaker, which belongs to Mr. Paul 
E. Schweder. Thus the pillars are of a 

Fig. 420. 

Fig. 421. — Back of outer cover. 

plain cylindrical form with turned bases and caps, whereas Tompion 
before and Ellicott, Mudge, and other distinguished horologists after 
him, were lavish in shaping, decorating, and piercing these passive 
items, w^hose characteristic of strength and holding power was 
certainly not less apparent by Graham's more simple treatment. A 
little addition I have not noticed in the watches of any other maker 
is a light spring jumper or click on the under-side of the cap, for 
securely locking the cap spring. It has a fine enamelled dial and 
jewelled balance cock. The piercing of both the gold cases and the 
repousse chasing of the outer one are perfect. On the movement and 
on both cases is the number 445. On the back of the inner case are 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


the letters M.P. arranged as a monogram. The lock spring is 
beyond the edge of the dial. 

Attached to this repeater is also a useful little adjunct which 
appears to have been invented by Graham, and, though not much 
seen in English work, became very popular with French makers. 
Projecting from the case is a small nib, or "pulse piece," called by 

l-'iG. 422. — George Graham, 1673 — 1751. 

the French sourdine, or " deaf piece," which upon being pressed keeps 
the hammer off the bell and receives each blow. It not only enables 
those who have defective hearing or sight to ascertain the time by 
touch, but persons whose organs are perfect, who may desire to 
know the hour at night without disturbing an adjacent sleeper, can 
do so by pressing the pulse piece and counting the beats. 

Graham used stout proportionate-looking bows for his watch cases 
in place of the thin wiry lings previously in vogue, but by a curious 


Old Clocks mid Watches and their Makers. 

obliquity Ellicott seems to have reverted to the former style. The 
difference in the two " handles " is very marked in specimens of the 
two makers I have before me. 

With the introduction of the pendulum, and more exact workman- 
ship and consequent improvement in the performance of timekeepers, 
^ the errors arising from expansion and contraction of metals 

in varying temperatures became manifest. Graham there- 
fore turned his attention to the best means of preventing 
irregularity in the going of clocks when exposed to thermal 
changes, and invented the mercurial pendulum. His paper, 
communicated to the Royal Society in 1726, on "A Con- 
trivance to avoid Irregularities in a Clock's Motion by 
the Action of Heat and Cold upon the Pendulum," demon- 
strated the suitability of mercury as a compensating 
medium after observations extending over a lengthened 

The form of Graham's mercurial pendulum is shown 
in the sketch. Fig. 423. a is the rod, h the stirrup contain- 
ing the glass jar of mercury, 0. For regulating the time, 
Graham employed a sliding weight, d, upon the rod. 

Another of Graham's inventions applicable to clocks of 
precision, and which is still unsurpassed in the opinion 
of many leading horologists, is the dead-beat escapement. 

In the ^^'etherfleld collection is a month regulator 
timepiece by him which has a dead-beat escapement with 
jewelled pallets, a gridiron pendulum, bolt and shutter 
maintaining power, and is in a mahogany case. 

An elegant bracket clock by him, dating from about 
1740, is in the possession of Mr. J. Rutherford, Jardington, 
Dumfries, to whom I am indebted for the annexed repre- 
sentation of it. The case of oak measures 15I inches in 
height, and the dial 8^ inches by 4I inches. On the back 
plate is engraved a Cupid surrounded by scroll work. 
The regulator hand on the right of the dial raises or 
lowers the pendulum through the intervention of a snail-shaped 



Graham's mode of living was distinguished by its simplicity. As 
already stated, his later years were chiefly occupied with astro- 
nomical work, which he carried on as the valued coadjutor of 
Halley and Bradley till his death, which occurred in November, 
1 75 1. By his will, executed in 1747, he left to his wife one-half of 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 287 

his personal estate. He also bequeathed £20 to the Clockmakers' 
Company, of which he was made free in 171 5, and after filling the 
subordinate offices served as master in 1722-3. The grave of 

Fig. 424. 

Tompion, in Westminster Abbey, was opened to receive his pupil, 
and the exceptional honour of their interment in that place is the 
best testimony that can be adduced as to the estimation in which 
these eminent horologists were held. Appended is a reduced facsimile 

288 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

of the stone placed to mark their resting-place by an appreciative 


OF M^ Tho Tompion 





also the body of 

George Graham of London 

Watchmaker and F.R.S. 

whose curious inventions 

do honour to y british genius 

WHOSE Accurate Performances 

ARE Y Standard of Mechanic Skill 

HE died y x\t of November mdccli 


In 1838 this slab was removed, and small lozenge-shaped stones, 
with the name and date, as in the sketch on p. 289, were substituted. 
In a little work, " Time and Timekeepers," published in 1842, Adam 
Thomson, a Bond Street watchmaker, wrote : " Who would suppose 
that a small lozenge-shaped bit of marble is all that is left to indicate 
where lie the bodies of the ' Father of Clockmakers,' Thomas 
Tompion, and honest George Graham, greater benefactors to man- 
kind than thousands whose sculptured urns impudently emblazon 
merits that never existed ? " To this outspoken, indignant protest, 
and the good feeling of the late Dean Stanley, is due the reinstate- 
ment of the original memorial, for which English horologists will be 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


ever grateful. " The passage was pointed out to me by a friend," 
said the Dean, " in consequence of the strong irritation expressed on 
the subject by an obscure watchmaker in a provincial town. The 
gravestone had not been destroyed, and was restored in 1866." Let 
us hope future generations of clock and watchmakers will jealously 
guard this tribute to the work of their fellow craftsmen against any 
further attempt at desecration. 

Fig. 425. 


Fig. 426 

The position of the tomb is marked by the two parallel lines on 
the accompanying plan of the Abbey Church (Fig. 426). E is the altar 
floor; W, the nave and western entrance; N, north transept; S, 
south transept and Poets' Corner. 

Daniel Quare. — This worthy contemporary of Tompion was 
born in 1648. I had a clock- watch by him, inscribed "Daniel 
Ouare, St. Martin's le Grand, London." From its construction, one 
could with tolerable certainty decide that it was made about 1676, 
and I am therefore inchned to think St. Martin's le Grand was his 
first business address. It is said he afterwards carried on business 
at the " Plow and Harrow," in Cornhill, but all the authentic records 
I have been able to consult refer to him from 1680 to the time of his 
death as of the " King's Arms," Exchange i\lley. 

About 1680 he produced repeating watches of his own design, and 
when the Rev. Edward Barlow, in 1687, made application to patent 
a repeating device, Quare successfully opposed the monopoly sought 
for by his rival. In Quare's arrangement a single push on a pin 
projecting from the case near the pendant sufficed to sound the hour 
and the quarters, while Barlow's required a distinct action for each. 
The king, after a trial of both repeating watches, gave the preference 

c.w. u 

2go Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

to that of Quare, which fact was notified in the Gazette, This watch 
was, in 1823, in the possession of Mr. John Stanton, of Benwell, near 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, from whose description of it in the Morning 
Chronicle the following is taken : " The outer case, of 22-carat gold, 
is embossed with the king's head in a medallion. The dial is of gold, 
with black Roman numerals for the hours and figures for the 
minutes. In the centre is a piece of pierced work in gold upon blue 
steel, representing the letters J.R. R.J. combined so as to appear like 
an ornamental scroll, above which is the royal crown. The box is 
pierced with scroll-work intermixed with birds and flowers. About 
the joint is engraved a landscape. On the back of the box two 
circular lines are drawn, between which is the following inscription : 
^ James II. gloria Deo iu cxcelsis sine pretio redinii mini mala lege ablatum 
bno. Regi restituitur.'' The watch is considerably thicker than, but 
otherwise not much above, the common size." 

Quare afterwards made another and more highly finished repeating 
watch for William 111.; it appears probable that in this, as in all 
subsequent repeaters by Quare, the pendant was thrust in to set the 
mechanism in action, instead of having a separate pin in the edge of 
the case for the purpose. 

There is in the British Museum a small lantern alarum clock of 
Quare's make, which has, above the bell, a perforated dome sur- 
mounted by a handle for carrying. A fine bracket clock by him in 
Windsor Castle is shown in Fig, 427, and a little clock, six inches in 
height, illustrated in Fig. 428, is said to have been the favourite 
timekeeper of W^illiam III., and was brought to England by him. 
This also is at Windsor Castle. There are seven of Quare's clocks 
in the Wetherfield collection ; some of these I shall be able to 
illustrate in Chapter VII. 

As splendid specimens of horological work of this period may be 
mentioned one-year clocks, of which at least three or four bear Quare's 
name. One of the most celebrated of these is at Hampton Court 
Palace. The case is of oak veneered with burr walnut or some similar 
wood, and, including a stand of gilt brass work, is 10 feet high, the 
plinth being 22 inches, the waist 48 inches, the hood 24 ; the dome, 
io| inches high, is surmounted by a gilt brass figure 12 inches high. 
Four other well-modelled gilt figures occupy the corners of the hood, 
as showm in Fig. 429, which is from a photograph lent to me by 
Messrs. Gaydon, of Kingston. The dial plate is 16 by 14 inches, 
and along the bottom of it are three subsidiary dials ; one shows the 
rising and setting of the sun, the middle one has an index and a 

Recoi'ds of Early Makers, etc. 


scale for latitude ; the 
index for the third is 
removed, but it was 
evidently for the purpose 
of disconnecting certain 
equation work, the circle 
being engraved on one 
side " Tempus appavcus " 
and on the opposite 
"■Tcinpiis (Cqiin/c." In iHjh 
\'ulliainy substituted a 
dead beat escapement and 
a new pendulum for the 
original ones, but until 
1898 the clock had not 
been going for some years. 
In the Philosophical 
Transactions for Novem- 
ber and December, 1719, 
is a paper by Joseph 
Williamson, claiming the 
invention of equation 
mechanism for clocks, 
and in it he mentions 
havins: made for Mr. 

Fig. 428. 

Fig. 427. 

Ouare, among other twelve-month 
clocks, the one at Hampton Court, 
which, by means of a cam moving in 
a slit in a piece of brass at the top of 
the pendulum spring, raised or lowered 
the pendulum as required in order to 
show apparent time. As this claim 
appears to have remained unchallenged 
it may be accepted. Doubtless the 
reputation of many manufacturers 
then, as in later years, was acquired 
in great measure through the ingenuity 
and excellent workmanship displayed 
by the chamber masters and other 
assistants whom they employed. Still 
it would be idle to attempt, now, to 

u 2 


Old Clocks and IVatches and their Makers. 




apportion the merit ; the world-wide reputation of Ouare remains as 
evidence of his individuahty. He is mentioned 
in a comedy by Carlo Goldoni as the fore- 
most of English horologists, then considered 
the first in the world. 
_^_ _ Thirty years ago one of Quare's twelve- 

in J7j W^Sl <- »!tf- month clocks was in the possession of Mr. 

fkmmi nmomn , ^1 S j_ H. Arkwriglit, of Hampton Court, near 

Leominster, where it probably is still. Many 
stories have been told of the structure of this 
remarkable production, and in 1873 I obtained 
the following very precise details concerning 
it from Mr. Palmer, a clockmaker of Leomin- 
ster. The hour hand, beautifully pierced, fits 
tight on to the hour socket with a square ; 
the minute hand is pinned on to a square with 
a collet as usual ; it has a counterpoise, and 
is not so elaborately pierced as the hour hand. 
The dial is fourteen inches square, the centre 
being matted and gilt ; the spandrels are also 
gilt, but left plain to show up the silver 
fretwork corner pieces. The hour circle is of 
brass, silvered ; it is divided into minutes on 
the outside and into quarters of hours on the 
inside. The name "Dan Quare" is engraved 
between the hour figures 7 and 6, and 
"London" is engraved between the 6 and 
the 5. On the dial plate just below the 
figure 6, the name is again inscribed in full, 
" Daniel Ouare, London." The numbers of 
the teeth of the wheels in the train are as 
follows : — 

Great wheel ... 

... 96 teeth. 


... 96 ,, 

pinion 12 leaves 


... 90 ,, 

10 ,, 

Centre ,, 

... 60 ,, 


Third ,, 

... 56 .. 

8 ,, 


... 30 ,, 

7 .. 

Fig. 429.-Quare's twelve- The minute wheels have each thirty-six teeth, 

month clock at Hampton well shaped and very regular ; the minute 

^ °"^^- pinion has six leaves ; the hour wheel has 

seventy-two teeth, and it is keyed on to the hoursocket. The 

Records of Iiarly Makers, etc. 


centre, third, and swin^^ wheels are very small and light, the 
diameter of the last-named is | in. ; the pivots also are very small. 
These tliree pinion arbors are an inch shorter than the other arbors 
of tlie train, and are pi\'Oted into a small false plate whicli is pinned 
by four small pillars on to the inside of the large pillar plate. The 
collets on wliich these three wheels are mounted are either brazed 
or driven on to the pinion arbors. The third and swing wheel 
pinions are thickest at the collet, and taper oft" with a gentle curve 
to the head of the pinion. The frame plates are 7 in. by 5 in. 

Fig. 430. — Dial of clock by Daniel Quare, about 1705. 

There are six pillars ; they are ri\eted into the back plate, and the 
front plate is kept on by pins. The pallets are of the original anchor 
form. The seconds pendulum has a lenticular bob, and altogether 
weighs 2 lbs. i^ oz. It is suspended from the same cock that carries 
the back pivot of the verge. The suspension spring is 2I in. long, 
narrow, and very thin. There is no degree plate, but a brass finger 
projecting from the base of the case is filed to an edge just below 
the pendulum, and serves to estimate the vibration (which is about 
1" on each side of zero), and also to set the clock in beat when fixing 
it. The case is of oak, handsomely veneered with walnut. 


Old Clocks and ]\'atchcs and their Makers. 

The barrel has fourteen grooves. The clock weight and pulley 
weigh 8 1 lbs. ; the fall is 4 ft. 6 in. ; the length of the weight and 
pulley is i ft. 6 in., which, added to the fall, makes 6 ft., which is 
the distance from the bottom of the clock case up to the seat board ; 

the weight is hung by a double 
line. The clock is still an ex- 
cellent timekeeper. On casting 
up the numbers of the train it 
will be found to go 403 days, 
4 hours, and 24 minutes. 

Now, I cannot help thinking 
this is a very extraordinary 
achievement, for 81 lbs. x 
4 ft. 6 in. to drive the clock 
for more than thirteen months 
seems almost incredible ; still I 
believe the facts are as I have 
stated them. There is no doubt 
that everything was done that 
was possible to economise the 
force. The very small and light 
swing wheel, the balanced 
minute hand, and the small 
shortened arbors with extra fine 
pivots, all conduce to the end 
m view. 

A twelve- month timepiece 
by Quare with an equation 
movement, very similar to the 
Hampton Court one, and in its 
original condition, forms one of 
the gems of the Wetherfield 
collection. Of this I shall be 
able to give an illustration in 
Chapter VII. 

x\t Marston House is a month- 

FiG. 431. 

clock by Quare, belonging to the Earl of Cork. Mr. C. F. Bell has 
another, and in the Wetherfield collection are several calculated for 
the same period. Ouare's dials were particularly good, as may be 
judged from the specimen shown in Fig. 430, for which I am 
indebted to Mr. H. Cook, of Newark. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 295 

Fig. 431 shows a superb little bracket clock by Quare, which 
belongs to Mr. J. W. Abbott. The extreme height of the clock is 
12 in., and the depth of the bracket 5^ in. The clock case is covered 
with tortoiseshell, and is 6^ in. wide. The handle, the feet, and the 
bevel of the door are of silver. 

By several writers Quare is credited witli the invention of the 
concentric minute hand, but such indicators were in use long before 
his time, the hour hand being driven from the great wheel, and the 
minute hand from the centre arbor. Quare's improvement consisted 
in devising mechanism so that the hour and minute hands should be 
actuated together. The earliest form of this device is applied to the 
clock-watch which has been already referred to. At first sight there 
appears to be motion work of the kind now in general use, but an 
important variation is apparent on examination. Both of the hands 
are driven direct from the great wheel. A wheel and pinion corre- 
sponding to the minute wheel and nut fit on to a squared arbor 
projecting from the great wheel. The canon pinion runs loose on a 
stud in the centre of the watch, and on it is placed the hour wheel 
in the usual way. The wheel and pinion attached to the great 
wheel are of brass, and to allow the hands to be set they fit friction 
tight on to a steel boss which has a square hole to correspond with 
the end of the great wheel arbor. Attached to the bottom face of the 
canon pinion is a snail for releasing the striking work every hour. 
Under the arrangement in vogue before Quare's time, by which each 
hand was driven independently of the other, if the minute hand was 
set forward or backward, the hour hand would cease to correspond 
with it. As the canon pinion was mounted on a stud, there was no 
necessity of having the second wheel of the train in the centre of the 
movement, and so the going train was continued to one side of the 
centre, leaving the other side for the striking work. The one advan- 
tage of the present arrangement of motion work over Quare's is that 
the minute hand now follows the motion of the centre pinion without 
shake, but in Quare's plan the position of the n^inute hand was not 
so absolute on account of the backlash of the motion wheels. 

A watch by him with silver dial and outer case of red tortoiseshell 
piqnc dating from about i6go, which is in the Hilton Price collection, 
is shown in Figs. 432 and 433. 

In 1695 Quare obtained a patent for a portable weather glass, and 
six or seven instruments made by him according to his specification 
are known to exist. One of them is in the United Service Institution ; 
another, belonging to Mr. C. F. Bell, is by his favour shown in Fig. 434. 

296 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 


Fig. ^32. 

T'G- 4J3- 

Fig. 434. — Barometer 
by Quare 

Records of Juirly Makers, etc. 297 

The case is of walnut ; three urns surmount the head, and two of 
them when rotated move the pointers on the scale, which is of gilt 
metal richly engraved. But the contrivance for which the patent 
was granted consists of a pad to co\er the bottom of the tube. The 
cistern is of ivory, and attached to the bottom of it is a brass nut, 
through which a threaded rod passes ; on the lower extremity of the 
rod is a knob, and tlie upper carries the pad. If the barometer is 
turned upside down until the tube is full of quicksilver and the 
screwed rod turned for the pad to block the tube, the instrument 
may be carried about in any position. 

Quare was admitted as a brother of the Clockmakers' Company in 
1 67 1, and served as master in 1708. During the latter part of his 
career he took into partnership Edward Horseman, who had been 
apprenticed to him, and the business was carried on at the same 
address under the title of Quare and Horseman. 

Reproduction of a selection from the inquiries respecting Quare's 
timekeepers may not be out of place. On page 222 is one which 
refers to an attempt to indicate minutes with the hour hand by 
-di\iding the circle into but six hours in order to obtain room for 
the minute marks : — 

" Lost, between Firle and Slioram Ferry, in Sussex, a gold watch, 
made by D. Quare, in a black Shagreen Case with a Cypher J. C. 
Whoever brings it to Mr. Shelley, Goldsmith, in Panton Street, near 
the Haymarket, shall have 2 guineas reward" {London Gazette, 
May 16, 1 691). 

" Lost, April 25, a Gold IMinute Pendulum Clock, the name on 
upper plate D. Quare, London, 726 engraven on it, and a Shagrine 
case. Whoever gives notice of it to Daniel Quare, Clockmaker, at 
the King's Arms in Exchange Alley, shall have 3 guineas reward ; 
or if already bought, their money returned again with content " 
{London Gazette, May 26, 1692). 

" Lost, on the road between Hungerford and Marlborough, a 
Gold Repeating Watch, made by Quare and Horseman, with an 
old Gold Chain, and several seals hanging to it. Whosoever will 
bring them to Mr. Horseman, at Mr. Quare's, in Exchange Alley, 
shall have 20 guineas reward and no questions asked" {London 
Gazette, August 9, 171 8). 

" Lost, on the road between Newark and Tuxford, about 22 of June 
last, a Gold Watch, made by Quare in London, No. 4448, double 
cased and winds up on the dyal Plate. Whoever shall secure the 
watch if offered for sale, or send it or notice of it to Mr. Andrew 

2g8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Drummond, Goldsmith, by Charing Cross, shall receive 5 guineas 
reward" {London Gazette, July 8, 1732). 

The books of the Society of Friends show that Daniel Ouare was 
a trusted man among the Quakers, and that he at first refused the 
office of Clockmaker to George I. because he objected to take the 
oath of allegiance ; the difficulty respecting the taking of an oath 
was, however, overcome, and freedom to enter the palace by the 
back stairs accorded to him. " The Yeoman of the Guard," he said, 
" lets me frequently go up without calling anybody for leave, as 
otherwise he would tho' persons of quality." He had one son, 
Jeremiah, who does not seem to have followed the craft, and three 
daughters. At the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth with Silvanus 
Bevan in 1715, among witnesses who signed the deed of settlement 
was the Duchess of Marlborough. Daniel Quare died at Croydon 
in 1724, and was buried in the Quakers' ground at Bunhill Fields, 

Fromanteel. — Fromanteel, also spelt " Fromantel," " Fromantil," 
and " Fromenteele." Ahasuerus Fromanteel pi'iinus, of Dutch extrac- 
tion, was a maker of steeple clocks at East Smithfield. In 1630 he 
was warned by the Blacksmiths' Company to bring in his certificate 
of seven years' service as apprentice. \\'ith this he complied, and 
was forthwith elected free of the company. On the incorporation of 
the clockmakers, he joined them. In 1656 he became restive under 
the somewhat inquisitorial proceedings of the court relating to his 
apprentices and the antecedents of his workmen, and for a long 
period in the history of the guild his name appears in petitions and 
other documents, expressing disapproval of the management of the 
company, or as being called to account for infraction of its rules, 
some of which, it must be confessed, could not fail to be exasperating 
to a man with an extensive business, as Fromanteel appears to 
have had. 

A second Ahasuerus Fromanteel appears on the list as free of the 
Clockmakers' Company in 1655. 

A third xVhasuerus Fromanteel was, in 1663, on completion of his 
apprenticeship with Simon Bartram, admitted as a member of the 
Clockmakers' Company. 

In 1663 also, John Fromanteel, who had been apprenticed to 
Thomas Loomes, was admitted to the freedom. 

Then Abraham, son of Ahasuerus Fromanteel, was elected in 1680. 

In 1658 proceedings were taken against Ahasuerus Fromanteel 
and his son Louis for keeping more apprentices than the regulations 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


of the company allowed, so tliat there was a fairly large family of the 
Fromanteels in the clock trade at that period, and most of them 
seem to have been connected in business. 

Beyond their squabbles with the Clockmakers' Company, there is 
a celebrity attaching to them as being the first to introduce the 
pendulum into England, the 
assumption being that one 
of the family had seen or 
heard of Huygens' clock in 
Holland, and brought it over 
to his relatives. Their claim 
has been challenged on 
behalf of Richard Harris ; 
and it has also been asserted 
that Dr. Hooke investigated 
the properties of the pen- 
dulum as a controller for 
timekeepers before Huygens 
applied it. However, there 
is evidence that the claim of 
the Fromanteels to its intro- 
duction from Holland, if not 
unanimously allowed, was 
accepted pretty generally at 
the time. 

Under date November ist, 
1660, Evelyn, in his Diary, 
writes : " I w^ent with some 
of my relations to Court to 
show them his Maj""' cabinet 
and closet of rarities . . . 
Here I saw . . . amongst 
the clocks one that showed 
the rising and setting of the 
sun in Y^ Zodig, the sunn 
represented by a face and raies of gold upon an azure skie, observing 
Y" diurnal and annual motion rising and setting behind, and landscape 
of hills, the work of our famous Fromantel." 

Again, under date April ist, 1661, Evelyn records that he "dined 
with that great mathematician and \irtuoso, Mr. Zulichem (Huygens), 
inventor of the pendule clock " ; and on May 8th, " I returned by 

Fig. 435. 


Old Clocks and ]\\itchcs and their Makers. 

Fromantel's, the famous clockmaker, to see some pendules, Mr. 
Zulichem being with us." 

The subjoined Fig. 435 represents a clock by Fromanteel in the 
possession of Mr. Percy Webster, which seems to agree somewhat 
with the description of Evelyn. The signs of the zodiac are on a 

rotating disc, and the 
alcove above pro- 
bably contained a 
ball showing the 
phases and age of 
the moon. 

Fig. 436 shows a 
hanging clock in an 
ebonised case, by 
"A. Fromanteel, 
London," of about 
the same date, and 
for which I am in- 
debted to M r . 
T h o ni a s W y a 1 1 . 
The dial is of brass 
Avith a silvered band 
to contain the hour 
numerals, which are 
very small and 
formed each within a 
ring. The original 
hand is missing. 
There are three bells 
and five hammers, 
the hours and first, 
second and third 
quarters being 
sounded. The 
movement is well made, with three trains, the back plate in one 
piece, the front arbors carried in three separate strips so that any 
of the trains may be removed separately. The pillars are square, 
and on one is engraved the name of the maker as quoted; the 
plates are fastened by hooks which fit into slots cut in the pillars. 
Below the moon are silvered rotating discs with figures on the 
edges to indicate the ares of the lunar and the calendar months. 

Records of Iiarly Makers, etc. joi 

This was a long case clock when I saw it, but examination showed 
that the lower part was a later addition. .Ml that was original of the 
case is given in the engraving. 

At the Guildhall Museum is a very well made clock by Ahasuerus 
Fromanteel dating from about 1675. It has a bob pendulum ; dial 
8 inches square, with matted centre and cherub head corners. It is 
furnished with what is called the " bolt and shutter maintaining 
power." In this device a shutter which obstructs the winding hole 
has to he lifted before the key can be inserted, and this action causes 
a spring or a weighted lever to impel the wheels during the operation 
of winding, when the driving weight is inoperative. 

The Commonwealth Mercury of Thursday, November 25th, 1658, 
contains the following advertisement : — 

" There is lately a way found out for making clocks that go exact 
and keep equaller time than any now made without this regulator, 
examined and pro\'ed before his Highness the Lord Proctor, by such 
doctors whose knowledge and learning is without exception, and are 
not subject to alter by change of weather, as others are, and may be 
made to go a week, a month, or a year, with once winding up, as 
well as those that are wound up e\ery day, and keep time as well, 
and is very excellent for all house clocks that go either with springs 
or weights ; and also steeple clocks that are most subject to change of 
weather. Made by Ahasuerus Fromanteel, who made the first that 
were in England. You may have them at his house on the Bank- 
side, in Mosses Alley, Southwark, and at the sign of the Mere 
Maid, in Lothbury, near Bartholomew Lane end, London.'' 

Mosses Alley, or Moses Alley, was a passage leading from the 
northern end of Bankside, Southwark, to Maid Lane. 

The Mermaid in Lothbury was for over a century a noted shop 
for clocks. In 1650 Thomas Loomes, who was associated with the 
eldest Fromanteel in his attacks on the government of the Clock- 
makers' Company, and to whom John Fromanteel was apprenticed, 
resided there, and, after the time of Loomes, it was occupied by 
John Fromanteel. Mr. D. A. F. Wetherfield has a remarkably well 
made long-case clock by him dating from 1676-80. It is shown in 
Fig. 437. The dial is 10 inches square with cherub corners, and in 
one line along the bottom is the inscription, ^'Johannes Fromanteel, 
Londoni fecit y Around the hour circle every minute from i to 60 
is numbered. The case is of walnut with small raised panels. The 
frame is large, having tliree trains, viz. going, striking, and ting-tang. 
The pendulum makes but 48 beats a minute and is therefore 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

unusually lon^ 

regulation is effected by means of a large milled 
nut fixed above the pendulum cock, the 
spring rising and falling between chops as 
in many modern clocks. It has the bolt 
and shutter maintaining power referred to 
on page 301. The striking at the hour is 
peculiar, there being four bells of different 
notes, the shape of Chinese gongs, and four 
hammers which are on one arbor and strike 
a chord at each blow. The quarters are 
sounded on two bells. 

There are long-case clocks by John 
Fromanteel at the Dutch Church, Austin 
Friars, and at the Philadelphia Library. 

Dr. Hooke. — Robert Hooke was born 
at Freshwater, Isle of Wight, on July i8th, 
1635. As a youth he resided with Dr. 
Busby, head master of Westminster 
School. He entered Christ Church College, 
Oxford, in 1653, ^^^ there his genius soon 
attracted the notice of Dr. Wallis, whom 
he frequently assisted in his chemical 
operations. Dr. Wallis introduced Hooke 
to the Hon. Robert Boyle, who engaged him 
as an assistant in the mechanical and philo- 
sophical works he was then employed on. 

Hooke took part in and wrote upon all 
the scientific questions of his time. Sir 
Isaac Newton styled him " The Con- 
siderer." On the institution of the Royal 
Society he became one of its fellows, was 
afterwards entrusted with the care of its 
Repository, and made Professor of Me- 
chanics to that body. About the same 
period he was elected Professor of Geometry 
in Gresham College. 

I have been unable to obtain any portrait 

of Hooke, but will quote the following 

„ description of him from Aubrey's " Lives 

Fig. 437. ^ -^ . . 

of Eminent Men " : " He is of middling 
stature, somewhat crooked, pale-faced, and his face but little belowe, 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 303 

hut his head is lardge ; his eie is full and popping, and not quick ; 
a grey eie. He has a delicate head of haire, browne, and of an excellent 
nioist curie. He is and ever was very temperate and moderate in 
dyet, &c. As he is of prodigious inventive head, so he is a person 
of great vertue and goodness." 

He discovered that the resilience of a spring is proportional to the 
angle through which it has been wound, and propounded the whole 
theory in the sentence, " Ut iensio sic vis," meaning that the force is 
proportionate to the tension. He proposed to patent his discovery 
in 1660, and, to quote his words, " Sir Robert Moray drew me up the 
form of a patent, the principal part whereof, viz. the description of 
the watch, is his own handwriting, which I have yet by me ; the 
discouragement I met with in the progress of this affair made me 
desist for that time." 

Derham describes the earliest of Hooke's essays in this direction 
as a " tender straight spring, one end whereof played backward and 
forward with the ballance." It is stated that several watches were 
made under Hooke's supervision at this period, and one of the first 
to which the balance spring was applied he is said to have 
presented to Dr. Wilkins, afterwards Bishop of Chester, about 

It appears that Hooke then conceived it to be an advantage to 
have two balances coupled together, and had two double balance 
watches constructed. In the first, which had no balance spring, the 
escape wheel was placed in the centre of the movement with its 
teeth in a liorizontal plane. There are two verges standing 
vertically on opposite sides of the wheel and connected with each 
other by means of toothed wheels of equal size ; each verge had one 
pallet and carried a balance at its upper end, one balance overlapping 
the other. 

In the second watch the verge escapement was arranged in the 
ordinary way, the balance being mounted on a verge with two 
pallets ; on the verge was also a toothed wheel which engaged with 
another of the same size mounted on a stud, and the pipe of this 
wheel carried the second balance ; the toothed wheels being of small 
size, one balance was placed a little higher than the other and 
overlapped it. Each balance was controlled by a balance spring. 

However, Hooke turned his attention to other matters, and in 
January, 1673, Huygens addressed a letter to Henry Oldenburg, 
secretary of the Royal Society, in which he described as his 
invention the application of a spring to control the balance in 

304 Old Clocks and Watches and iliciv Makers. 

watches. This aroused the wrath of Hooke, who accused Oldenburg 
of having divulged the discovery in his correspondence with Huygens. 
Hooke enlisted the interest of Charles II., and in a lecture, entitled 
" Potentia Restitutiva," etc., said, " His Majesty was pleased to see 
the experiment that made out this theory tried at Whitehall, as also 
my spring watch." 

In 1660, Hooke devised a pendulum timekeeper for ascertaining 
the longitude at sea. This was tried in 1662, and he subsequently 
proposed a compensation pendulum in the form of a rhomboid, 
the outline being of steel and the long horizontal diagonal of brass. 
This form, being wider than it was long, was considered to be 
impracticable. Troughton afterwards constructed a pendulum in 
which the rod was a series of small rhomboids arranged to compensate 
on Hooke's plan. 

Hooke devised the first wheel-cutting engine about 1670. Prior 
to that time the operation of forming the teeth was tedious and 
imperfect. Blanks for watch and clock wheels were placed in the 
centre of a circular brass platform, having thereon concentric circles 
and radial lines corresponding to the various numbers of teeth in 
general use. An arm pivoted at the centre of the platform carried a 
hard point at its other extremity, by which the positions of the 
teeth were marked on the blanks. The spaces were then filed out. 
Hooke contrived a circular file and made the platform movable so 
that each part of the circumference of the wheel could be brought 
within the action of the file or cutter. 

Hooke also invented the anchor escapement for clocks about 
1675. Among his conceptions for a marine timekeeper was one 
with two balances geared together, the idea being to avoid the effect 
of external motion. It is stated that this timekeeper had an 
escapement resembling the duplex. 

His investigations covered a very wide field of science, but his 
restless disposition rarely allowed him to steadily pursue any subject 
to a conclusion. No sooner was he satisfied of the feasibility of any 
project, than he left it, thus allowing others to perfect his inventions. 
On the death of Oldenburg, in 1677 ^^^ '^^'^^ appointed secretary to 
the Royal Society, and, by an order of the Society, he was requested 
to give a full description of all the instruments which he had contrived, 
but ill health prevented him from performing it. During the last 
year of his life he was almost helpless. He died at Gresham College, 
March 3rd, 1703, and was buried at St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. 

Christian Huygens. — This distinguished mathematician was 

I^ccoi'ch of Itavly Makers, dc^ 


born at the Hague in 1629. Early in life he devoted his attention to 
the principles on which timekeepers were constructed, and in 1657 
presented to the States of Holland a clock controlled by a pendulum. 
He seems to have acquired the additional cognomen of Zulichem 
from the place of his birth, and is so referred to by Evelyn during 
a short \isit he paid to England in 1661, as quoted in the account 
of Fromanteel. In 1665 his reputation induced Louis XIV. to 
invite him to Paris, in order to found a Royal Academy of Sciences 
there, and in 1673 was published his folio work, " Horologium 

Fig. 438. 

Fig. 439. 

Fig. 440. 

Oscillatorium," etc., from which the appended drawings of his clock 
are taken. 

The upper part of the pendulum is a double cord hanging 
between two cycloidal cheeks, to give a cycloidal path to the bob. 
Fig. 439 gives a better idea of this device, which was no doubt of 
advantage with the long arcs required by the verge escapement. 
Another feature of Huygens' clock is the maintaining power. 
P (Fig. 440) is the driving weight, supported by an endless cord, 
passing over the pulley D attached to the great wheel, and also over 
the pulley H, which is provided with ratchet teeth and pivoted to 
the inside of the clock case. The cord m is pulled down to wind 
the clock, and the ratchet wheel H then runs under its click. So 

c.w. ^ 

3o6 Old Clocks and Watclics and their Makers. 

that while winding, as in going, one-half of P minus one-half oi p is 
driving the clock. The pulleys D and H are spiked to prevent 
slipping of the cord. 

This ingenious maintaining power is to be found in many 
eighteenth century clocks. When applied to a clock with a 
striking train, the pulley with the ratchet is attached to the great 
wheel of the striking part, one weight thus serving to drive both 
trains. A chain is preferable to a cord, owing to the dust which 
accumulates in the clock through the wearing of the latter. The 
drawback to the arrangement is that it is not suitable for clocks 
going for more than thirty hours between windings. It is, however, 
worth knowing that a thirty hour striking clock on this plan can be 
readily converted to an eight day non-striker by simply disconnecting 
the striking work. 

Huygens devoted much attention to the production of a time- 
keeper for ascertaining the longitude ; and finding the pendulum 
too unstable at sea, he in 1674 constructed a marine timekeeper 
controlled by a balance and balance spring. The balance, instead 
of being on the verge, was on a separate staff", and driven by a wheel 
and pinion, so as to vibrate through very long arcs ; and this 
necessitated the use of a very long balance spring. Huygens 
endeavoured to obtain a patent for the application of the balance 
spring, but in this he was successfully opposed by the Abbe Hauteville, 
who alleged a prior use of springs for the purpose. The marine 
timekeeper was not a complete success, for Huygens found himself 
baffled by the error in changes of temperature. He returned to 
Holland in 1681 and died there in 1695. 

An exceedingly well-made clock, exactly corresponding to Huygens' 
drawing, which I saw some years ago, bore the inscription, " Johanne 
Van Ceulin, fecit, Hagae," and had a very handsome gilt skeleton 
dial, upheld by a figure of Time. This and many other watches and 
clocks of that period by Van Ceulin suggest the possibility of 
Huygens and Van Ceulin having been associated in Holland as were 
Barlow and Tompion in England. 

Nathaniel Barrow. — A watch by this maker, with a short train 
and without a balance spring, is shown on page 214. Fig. 441 
represents the exterior of a clock-watch with doubled pierced cases. 
A view of the movement will be given further on. 

Probably to get room for the striking work a most peculiar arrange- 
ment of the going train is adopted ; the winding square of the fusee 
arbor projects within the rim of the balance, which has three arms 

Rccci'ds of Earlv Makers, etc. 


clustered together in the form of u flcui'-dc-Us or trident head, so that 
a vibration of over half a turn is possible before the balance arms 
bank against the fusee arbor. 

Knibb. — Three or four members of this family are known among 
the seventeenth century clockmakers. Samuel Knibb was admitted 
to the freedom of the Clockmakers' Company in 1663 ; Joseph Knibb 
in 1670; Peter Knibb in 1677. In tlie Guildhall Museum is a verge 
watch with curiously wrought pillars, made about i6go, by "John 
Knibb at Oxon.," and among the Wetherfield collection are two 
long case clocks, inscribed "John Knibb, London," one dating from 
about 1690 and the other a little later. 

Of these the most eminent maker was Joseph Knibb, mentioned 
as of Oxon. in the records of the Clockmakers' Company. He made 
a turret clock which was fixed over the State entrance in the Quad- 
ra n g le of Windsor 
Castle, which Captain 
Smyth {Avchaologia, 
vol. xxxiii.) speaks of 
as one of the earliest 
movements constructed 
with brass ^\• h e e 1 s . 
This statement may be 
correct if it refers to 
turret clocks only, but 
it would not apply to 
smaller timekeepers. This clock was inscribed "Joseph Knibb, Londini, 
1677," and did duty till 1829, when a new one by B. L. Vulliamy 
replaced it. He issued a token, having on the obverse: " Joseph Knibb, 
Clockmaker inOxon,"and on the reverse, "I.K.," with a clock face and 
hand. In the Camden Society's " Secret Services of Charles II. and 
James II." are various records of payments on behalf of King 
Charles. In the account up to July 3rd, 1682, is an item, paid "To 
Mr. Knibb by his said Ma'tie's comand upon a bill for Clockwork, 
£1^1.'" Judging by the Windsor Castle clock, he was in London 
in 1677, and till nearly the end of the century he carried on business 
there. His work was of the highest class, judging from the 
specimens I have had the opportunity of examining. A short 
time - ago, Mr. Thomas Peake had a square black case bracket 
clock by him, fitted with a curious striking part, of the locking 
plate kind, but striking both hours and quarters from one pin-wheel, 
which had pins on both sides. The back-plate was engraved to an 

X 2 

Fig. 441. —Clock-watch by Nathaniel Barrow. 


Old Clocks and Watches and tJicir Makers. 

ornamental design, and on it was the inscription, " Joseph Knibb, 
Londini, fecit." 

A remarkable clock, formerly the property of the Duke of Sussex, 
but which now belongs to Mr. Ernest Swanwack, is shown in F'ig. 442. 
The case is of ebony, and measures twenty-two inches in height to 
the top of the knob. The particular feature which commands 
attention is the way in which the time is indicated. The upper 

Fig. 442. 

portion of the dial is fixed and divided into four quarter-hours, the 
divisions being marked by Roman numerals. Each minute is 
indicated by a tooth at the edge, and five-minute intervals by round 
holes. The central part of the dial rotates, and carries at opposite 
points near its periphery two blue discs on which are gilded figures 
representing the hours. In the illustration the time shown is thirteen 
past two, and the two wid move on till it disappears at the right hand 
behind a screen, when the figure three will appear at the left. The 
mechanism in connection with this device is illustrated on page 227. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


In front of the centre part of the rotatin.L,^ dial is a fixed screen, on 
which stags and a landscape are painted. Below is the signature, 
"Joseph Knibb, Londini." The exposed annular space of the 
rotating dial is covered with a painting of Cupids and clouds. On 
the plinth is a label inscribed in gold lettering, " From a model 
designed by Prince Rupert." Above the entablature of the case is a 
double-headed bird with outstretched wings and the motto, " deus 
MEUM guK JUS." This clock is probably referred to in White's 
" Natural History of Selborne," in a letter to T. Pennant, speaking 
of the Royal Forest of Wolmer and Ayles Holt, which says : " The 
grantees that the author 
remembers are Brigadier- 
General Emanuel Scroope 
Howe and his lady Ruperta 
(who was a natural daughter 
of Prince Rupert by Margaret 
Hughes)." ..." The lady 
of General Howe lived to an 
advanced age, long surviving 
her husband ; and, at her 
death, left behind her many 
curious pieces of mechanism 
of her father's constructing, 
who was a distinguished 
mechanic and artist, as well 
as warrior, and among the 
rest a very complicated clock, 
lately in possession of Mr. 
Elmer, the celebrated game 
painter, at Farnham, in the 
county of Surrey." 

The miniature timepiece by Joseph Knibb, with basket top, shown 
in Fig. 443, belongs to Mr. J. D. Robertson. It repeats the hour and 
quarters on two bells. The case is of black wood, and on the brass 
ornament at the left is represented the head of William HI. This 
ornament is pivoted near the top, and is drawn aside to expose the 

Messrs. Desbois recently had a long case clock made by Joseph 
Knibb when he was in London. It was formerly in the collection 
of the Duke of Sussex, and therein described as having been 
the property of Charles II., when it was called a "drinking 

Fig. 443. 

310 Old Clocks and ]]^ntches and their Makers. 

clock."* The dial was square, of brass well gilt, with a skeleton 
silvered ring to receive the Roman hour numerals and a subsidiary 
silvered ring for the seconds. The centre of the dial was coarsely 
matted, and every minute noted with Arabic figures. The corner 
pieces, boldly chased, were of the cherub-head pattern, and the hands 
finely carved. A herring-bone border was engraved at the edge of 
the square, and altogether the dial presented a handsome appearance. 
But the distinctive feature of the clock was the peculiar striking 
work, which was on the locking-plate principle. There were two 
bells, a large and a small one, and two corresponding hammers ; also 
two sets of lifting pins, one on each side of the pin wheel, one set 
actuating the large and the other the small hammer. And the pins 
were arranged so that at I. o'clock one stroke was given on the 
small bell, at II. two strokes, at III. three strokes, at IV. one on the 
small followed by one on the large, at V. one on the large, at VI. 
one on the large followed by one on the small, at VII. one on the 
large followed by two on the small bell, and so on. It will be noticed 
that so far each stroke on the small bell stands for the Roman unit, 
and each stroke on the large bell for the Roman V. Perhaps the 
procedure through the twelve hours will be best shown by different 
sized dots to represent the bells as follows : — 

• • • • . • • • 


Among varieties of striking, this plan seems to have a distinct 
value, inasmuch as it materially economises the energy required for 
telling the round of hours, only thirty blows being required in place 
of the usual seventy-eight. This particular clock was arranged for 
a run of a month between successive windings. 

When a few years ago it was proposed to alter the sub-division of 
the civil day by counting the hours continuously instead of duplicating 
them, whereby any possible confusion as to whether a particular hour 
meant a.m. or p.m. might be avoided, one of the difficulties presented 

* I confess I cannot understand this application of "Drinking Clock." August 
Demmin speaks of Drinking Clocks constructed at Nuremberg in the seventeenth 
century, which had extra outside wheels. At a banquet such a clock being put 
on the table commenced to slowly move along it, and the guest before whom the 
clock stopped was compelled to empty his flagon ; but, though interesting, this 
does not help us in connection with Knibb's timekeeper. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 311 

to the niiiuls ot those who attached particuhir importance to a sound 
signal was the impracticabiHty of counting so many strokes as would 
correspond to the hour as the day neared its close. But by adopting 
what perhaps may be called the Roman notation, as here shown to be 
practicable, even that reform may yet be appro\'ed of by the majority. 

Viscount Ridley has a three months long case clock by Joseph 
Knibb, which is inscribed "Joseph Knibb, Londini, fecit," along the 
bottom of the dial, and has the striking arranged in the same way. 
The case is of ebony. The Wetherfield collection includes two 
almost similar specimens. 

In the London Gazette, July 9-12, 1688, "a striking watch, two 
gold cases engraven, a brass case over them, Joseph Knibb, maker, 
day of the month, pins to feel the hours," was advertised for, 
" information to be given to Mr. Jos. Knibb, at the Dial, in Fleet 
Street." There are other references to him, of which tlie following 
may be of interest : — 

" Lost, on the 26th inst., near the Ferry Place, Putney, a gold 
Pendulum Chain Minute-watch, made by Joseph Knibb, of London, 
in a shagreen case, studded, with a Gold Knob, and marked with 48 
on the inside of the case. \\'hoever will give notice of it to Mr. 
Joseph Knibb, watchmaker, in Fleet Street, shall have 2 guineas and 
charges ; or if pawned or sold, their money again and a good gratuity " 
(London Gazette, April 30, May 4, 1691). 

"Left in a coach or drop'd, the 12th inst., a Gold Out-Case of a 
striking watch, engraven. Whoever shall bring it to Joseph Knibb, 
clockmaker, at the Dyal, near Serjeants-Inn, in Fleet Street, shall 
receive 405. reward" (London Gazette, January 11-14, 1691). 

" At the Clock Dyal, in Suffolk Street, near Charing Cross, on 
Friday, the 23rd inst., will begin the sale of a great Parcel of very 
good Pendulum Clocks, some do go a year, some a quarter of a year, 
some a month, some a week, and some 30 hours ; some are Table 
Clocks, some repeat themselves, and some, by pulling, repeat the 
hours and quarters ; made and sold by Joseph Knibb, at his House 
at the Dyal, in Suffolk Street, aforementioned. There are also some 
watches to be then and there sold" (London Gazette, April 15-19, 

I may mention that some time ago I saw a long case clock dial, 
dating from about 1705, which was inscribed, "Joseph Knibb, of 
Hanslope." Hanslope is, I believe, a village near Stony Stratford, 

After an examination of many clocks by Joseph Knibb, I should 


Old Clocks and l]'atchcs and their Makers. 

be inclined to class him as a clockmaker with Tompion and Quare. 
Further on I will give some illustrations of his long case clocks. 

Thomas Harrys. — St. Dunstan's Clock. —Above the main 
entrance at the western end of the old church of St. Dunstan's in the 
West, in Fleet Street, were erected in 1671 two gilt clock dials, 
placed back to back, and mounted in a handsome square case, with 
circular pediment, which projected well out over the footway, the 
tube containing the rod for actuating the hands being supported by a 
well-carved figure of Time. An alcove was built on the roof of the 

gateway, and within 

were large gaudily- 
painted and gilt figures 
of Gog and Magog, 
which struck " ting- 
tang " quarters with 
clubs on two bells sus- 
pended above them. 
The clock and figures 
were designed and erect- 
ed by Thomas Harrys, 
a clockmaker, then liv- 
ing at Water Lane, 
Blackfriars. Harrys 
submitted a statement 
of what he proposed to 
do, and after describing 
the " two figures of 
men with poleaxes to 
strike the quarters," 
continues, " I will do 
one thing more, which 
London shall not show the like ; I will make two hands show the 
hours and minutes without the church, upon a double dial, which 
will be worth your observation, and to my credit." The figures of 
Gog and Magog proved to be a great attraction ; they speedily 
became one of the sights of London, and their removal, in 1830, 
when the church was rebuilt, elicited many expressions of regret. 
Fig. 444, taken from an old print of the church in my possession, 
represents the clock as it was in 1737. 

In 1830, when the old church was in course of demolition, the 
Marquis of Hertford bought for two hundred guineas the clock, the 

Fig. 444. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


quarter figures, and three old statues representing King Lud and 
his sons. The Man^uis of Hertford was at that time building a 
residence at the north-west corner of Regent's Park. This he called 
St. Dunstan's Lodge, and in the grounds thereof the clock and 
accessories are still to be seen from Regent's Park. The dials are 
now in a circular case ; but the movement, though it has of course 
undergone repair from time to time, is still, I believe, substantially 
the one Hairys supplied over two centuries ago. 

Bradley. — St. Paul's Clock. — Langley Bradley was apprenticed 
to Joseph Wise in 1687, and admitted to the freedom of the Clock- 
makers' Company in 1694. 
Dr. Derham, in acknow- 
ledging technical informa- 
tion obtained from Bradley 
for the first edition of the 
" Artificial Clockmaker," 
published in 1696, speaks 
of him as an ingenious 
workman of Whitechapel ; 
but during the greater part 
of his career he resided at 
the " Minute Dyall " in 
Fenchurch Street. Watches 
by him with deep move- 
ments, very similar to 
Tompion's, will bear com- 
parison with the works of 
that master. An exterior 
view of one is given in 
Fig. 445. In the Soane 
Museum is a calendar watch by him, which belonged to Sir Chris- 
topher Wren. It is a fine piece of work, and was probably made to the 
order of William III. for presentation to the architect of St. Paul's. 
The dial resembles Fig. 394, and the pillars are pierced to form the 
royal monogram W. M., surmounted by a crown. Among other 
watches by him may be mentioned one in the British Museum and one 
in the Guildhall Museum. In the Wetherfield collection are a long 
marqueterie case three train chiming clock and a long walnut 
case clock. But Bradley seems to have devoted most attention to 
larger work, and is perhaps best known as the maker of the noted 
clock for St. Paul's Cathedral, which did good service from 1708 till 

Fig. 445. — Watch by Langley Bradley 1700. 

314 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

1892, and was generally regarded as the standard timekeeper of the 
metropolis till the giant dials and Big Ben at Westminster took the 
popular favour. He made a clock for Cripplegate Church in 1722. 

The following particulars of the St. Paul's Clock, from notes I 
made shortly before it was taken down, will probably be of interest. 
The frame consisted of a cast-iron rectangular base plate, from which 
rose cast-iron columns supporting an entablature of the same metal. 
The going train occupied the centre of the space between the base 
and entablature, the wheels being arranged vertically ; while the 
gun-metal bushes for the pivots were carried in wrought-iron straps 
bolted to the base plate and entablature. On one side of the going 
train was the quarter part, and on the other side the hour-striking 
part, similarly arranged. All the wheels were of gun-metal, the 
great wheels being 2 ft. 8 in. in diameter, i in. pitch, and if in. wide. 
For the original recoil escapement was substituted a half-dead one 
in 1S05, but with this exception it may be said that the whole of 
Bradley's mechanism remained in good working order till the clock 
was taken down. The two-second pendulum had a wooden rod and 
a cast-iron bob weighing nearly 180 lbs. The striking work was on 
the rack principle. The mitre wheels for driving the dial works were 
commendably large, being 20 in. in diameter, and for supporting the 
dial end of the minute-hand arbor there were three friction wheels 
placed at equal distances apart round the outside of, and carried to 
the hour-hand tube. Slits were cut in the tube to allow a portion of 
the circumference of the friction wheels to enter, and the wheels were 
of such a size that they projected into the tube just sufficient to meet 
the minute-hand arbor. This ingenious contrivance is also applied 
to the Westminster clock, and is generally supposed to have been 
invented for it. Two sides of the St. Paul's clock tower, one facing 
down Ludgate Hill, and the other looking towards the south side of 
the churchyard, were utilized for the dials of Bradley's timekeeper, 
black rings being painted on the stonework, on which the hour 
circles and the numerals were engraved and gilt. Each dial is a 
trifle over 17 ft. in diameter, and the central opening measures about 
ID ft. 6 in., the hour numerals being about 2 ft. deep. Though but 
two sets of dial-work were used, the stonework of the four faces of 
the tower is alike, and 'on the eastern side, just visible from Cannon 
Street, although the dial was not painted, the hour numerals were 
cut in the stone ; this suggests the inference that it was at one time 
intended to show the time there ; it was probably found that the 
pediment ove the southern entrance to the cathedral so obscured 

Rccflrdsi of Early Makcni, etc. 315 

the \ie\v as to render the third dial comparatively useless. On the 
roof, just outside of this dial aperture, was a horizontal sun-dial, with 
a plate over 2 ft. in diameter, for the purpose of regulating the clock 
by the sun. 

Bradley's bill appears in the Cathedral Accounts, December, 1708, 
as follows : — 

To Langley Bradley, Clockmaker, viz'- : — 

For a large Quarter clock, going 8 days, as by agreement, 

dated 15 Nov^ , 1706 300 o o 

For 2 large Bellmetal Braces for the great bell, w'- 107''-, 

at 14''- per li ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 4 10 

For a large strong can\as bed stuffe with oakam and 

sewed w"'- strong thread line to receive the clock 

weight 250 

308 9 10 

A curious feature is the description of the clock as an 8-day one, 
whereas, for many years at least, it was but a 30-hour one. Indeed, 
it seems doubtful if it ever went 8 days between windings, for, by the 
arrangement of the train and barrel, the weight fell about 40 feet for 
24 hours going. 

From the clock room the upper part of the belfry is approached 
by a stone staircase formed in the wall of the tower itself, which is 
five feet thick, composed of two stone shells, with a space of fifteen 
inches between them. Here, forty feet from the clock floor, was 
hung the celebrated hour bell which, in addition to its primal duty of 
recording the hours, was tolled when the Sovereign, the Bishop of 
London, the Dean of St. Paul's, or the Lord ]\Layor of London 
passed away. 

The commissioners appear to have had just as much trouble with 
their hour bell as was afterwards experienced over the casting of Big 
Ben for the Houses of Parliament. In the year 1700, when the 
cathedral was approaching completion, they purchased, for lod. a 
pound, from the churchwardens of St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
the celebrated Great Tom, which formerly hung in a clock tower 
facing \\'estminster Hall, as related at page 24, and which appears 
to have been given to the churchwardens by William III. They 
then entered into a contract with William \Vhiteman to recast the 
bell, and when the work was done the bell was temporarily hoisted 
into the north-west tower of St. Paul's and exhibited to the public, 
Whiteman being paid £^^9 I9^- for his labour. But lo ! after sus- 
taining many blows for the delectation of the ears of the citizens. 
Great Tom the Second exhibited a crack which rapidly developed, 

3t6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

so that the bell was pronounced to be useless. The commissioners 
suggested that of course Whiteman would make good his work by- 
recasting the bell. " Not so," rejoined Whiteman. " I delivered to 
you a sound bell for which I was paid, and since it has been in your 
possession it has been cracked." So, to make the best of a bad job, a 
very stringent agreement was entered into with another founder — 
Richard Phelps, to wit. The accident with the first hour bell 
accounts for the difference between the date of the finishing of the 
clock and the time when the Phelps hour bell was cast, around the 
waist of which is the inscription, " Richard Phelps made me, 1716." 
It is 6 ft. gi in. in diameter at the mouth, and according to Phelps' 
account, dated December 31st, 1716, weighs 99 cwt. 3 qrs. 7 lbs., of 
which 7 cwt. 2 qrs. 21 lbs. were new metal. For tolling it has a 
clapper weighing 180 lbs., and the total weight of the bell and fittings 
is, I believe, 5 tons 4 cwt. The hammer-head which struck the 
hours on the outside of the sound bow weighed 145 lbs. Just below 
the hour bell were two bells on which the "ting-tang" quarters 
were struck ; the larger of these weighed i ton 4 cwt., and the 
smaller 12 cwt. 2 qrs. 9 lbs. 

EUicott. — The first John Ellicott, watchmaker, whose parents 
came to London from Bodmin, in Cornwall, was apprenticed to 
John Waters in 1687, admitted to the freedom of the Clockmakers' 
Company in 1696, elected on the Court of Assistants in 1726, and 
served as warden from 1731 till his death in 1733. He resided in 
the parish of Allhallows, London Wall. But the most eminent 
watch and clockmaker of the family was his son John Ellicott, born 
in 1706, who established himself in business about 1728 at Sweeting's 
Alley, which was situated just where the statue of Rowland Hill 
now stands, near the Royal Exchange. After the fire which 
destroyed the old Royal Exchange in 183S, Sweeting's Alley was 
not rebuilt. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1738, 
being recommended for that honour by Sir Hans Sloane, Bart., 
Martin Ffolkes, John Senex, the celebrated globe maker, and John 
Hadley, the astronomer. At the meetings of the Royal Society he 
became acquainted with James Ferguson, who afterwards frequently 
visited Ellicott's private house at St. John's, Hackney, where an 
observatory Avas fitted up, and various scientific experiments were 

Ellicott was the inventor of a compensation pendulum in which 
the bob rests on the longer ends of two levers, of which the shorter 
ends are depressed by the superior expansion of a brass bar attached 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


to the pendulum rod. In Fig. 446, a is the suspension spring ; 5 5 s 

screws for uniting the steel rod to the brass bar, slotted holes in the 

latter allowing it to move freely in answer to changes of temperature ; 

// the two levers pivoted to the steel rod ; on the shorter ends rests 

the brass bar ; the screws g g pass through the pendulum bob C C, 

and rest on tlie longer ends of the levers. By turning the screws 

their bearing on the levers may be adjusted. 

This device has not proved to be of much prac- </T 

tical value, although there is a clock to which it 

is attached still going at the London Institution, 

Finsbury Circus. 

Ellicott's productions were distinguished by 
excellent workmanship. He paid great atten- 
tion to the cylinder escapement, and did much 
to bring it into use. In some of his later 
examples the cylinders were of ruby. His more 
costly watches were laxishly decorated, the 
cases in repousse, and the dials enamelled on 
gold, some of these being really works of art. 
They are now rarely to be met with, for the 
iconoclastic dealer as a rule ruthlessly changes 
the dial for one of cheaper material. In 
reference to the prices Ellicott obtained, it may 
be mentioned that Horace Walpole, writing to 
Sir H. ]\Iann at Florence, on June 8, 1759, with 
regard to a commission to purchase a watch, 
states that for one of Ellicott's the price was 
150 guineas. In the British ]\Iuseum is a silver 
repeater by him which belonged to Jeremy 
Bentham. Mr. Talfourd Ely, M.x\., in the 
AreJurological Journal for June, 1895, gives an i^ 
interesting description of a watch by John 
Ellicott. It is in gold cases, the outer one 
decorated in repousse, and appears to have been 
made in 1751. 

Ellicott was on the council of the Royal Society for three years, 
and read several papers before the Society. They included one on 
the " Influence which two Pendulum Clocks were observed to have 
on each other." The ball of each pendulum weighed above 23 lbs. ; 
the cases were placed sideways to each other, so near that the 
pendulums when at rest were little more than two feet asunder. In 

Fig. 446. 

3i8 Old Clocks and WntcJics and their Makers. 

less than two hours after they were set going, one of them, called 
No. I, always stopped. As it had always kept going with great 
freedom before the other regulator. No. 2, was placed near it, Ellicott 
conceived its stopping must be owang to some influence the motion 
of one of the pendulums had upon the other ; and upon watching 
them narrowly the motion of No. 2 was found to increase as No. i 
diminished. At the time No. i stopped. No. 2 described an 
arc of 5°, being nearly 2° more than it would have done if the 

Fig. 447. — John Ellicott, 1706 — T772. 

other had not been near it, and more than it moved in a short 
time after the other pendulum came to rest. On this he stopped 
the pendulum of No. 2, and set No. i going, the pendulum describ- 
ing as large an arc as the case would admit, viz. about 5° ; he pre- 
sently found the pendulum of No. 2 begin to move, and the motion 
to increase gradually, till in 17 min. 40 sec. it described an arc of 
2° 10', at which the wheel discharging itself off the pallets the 
regulator went, the arcs of the vibrations continued to increase 
till, as in the former experiment, the pendulum moved 5", the 

Rccurcls of Early Makers, etc, 319 

iiiotion of the pendulum of No. i gradually decreasing as the other 
increased, and in 45 minutes it stopped. He then left the pendulum 
of No. I at rest, and set No. 2 going, making it also describe an arc 
of 5' ; it continued to vibrate less and less till it described but about 
3", in which arc it continued to move ; the pendulum of No. i 
seemed but little affected by the motion of No. 2. Ellicott's 
explanation was that, as the pendulums were very heavy, either of 
them set going communicated a slight motion to the case and in a 
lesser degree to whatever the case touched. Ellicott's experiment 
was useful as showing the necessity of fixing clocks with heavy 
pendulums to the wall of a building or other ponderous and unyield- 
ing structure. 

Ellicott designed several of our public clocks, amongst them that 
of the London Hospital, and was appointed clockmaker to the king. 
He died suddenly, in 1772, ha\-ing dropped from his chair and 
instantly expired. The accompanying likeness (Fig. 447) is from a 
fine portrait of him shortly before his decease by Dance, afterwards 
Sir Nathaniel Dance Holland. John Ellicott was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Edward, who had been in partnership with him since 
1769. Edward h^llicott died at his residence in Great Queen Street, 
in 1 791. The business was then carried on by his son Edward, who, 
after serving in the subordinate offices, was elected as master of the 
Clockmakers' Company in 1834. Though brought up as a watch- 
maker, he had but little liking for the business, and left the conduct 
of it in a great measure to others. From Edward Ellicott and Sons 
the title of the firm was altered to Ellicott and Taylor in 181 1, and 
to Ellicott and Smith in 1830. After the destruction of Sweeting's 
Alley, Ellicott and Smith removed to 27, Lombard Street, and 
remained there till 1842. 

There was a third John Ellicott admitted to the freedom of the 
Clockmakers' Company by patrimony in 1792. He was the second 
son of the first Edward, but appears to have taken no part in the 
watch or clockmaking business. His grandson. Dr. Ellicott, is the 
present Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. 

Henry Sully. — This talented but unfortunate horologist was 
apprenticed to Charles Gretton, of Fleet Street, in 1697. On the 
completion of his apprenticeship he travelled over the Continent, 
visiting Holland and Austria. From Vienna he went to Paris with 
the Duke d'Aremberg, where he made the acquaintance of Julien 
Le Roy, Law the noted Scottish speculator, and others. Le Roy 
at once recognised the genius of the young enthusiast Avho was 

320 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

imbued with ideas for perfecting timekeepers, and encouraged him to 
continue his researches. In 171 7 Sully published " Rfegle Artificielle 
du Temps." The following year, commissioned by Law, he 
journeyed to London and engaged sixty watch and clockmakers, 
who, with their families, were located at Versailles, where a factory 
was started. After two years of unremitting toil Sully was dis- 
placed from the directorate, but a little later, under the protection of 
the Duke de Noailles, another factory was established at St. Ger- 
main. This lasted but a year, when Sully returned to England, 
bringing his staff of workpeople with him. The same ill fortune 
dogged his steps here, and in his extremity he returned to Paris, 
where for a time he sustained existence by repairing watches. In 
1 72 1, when a little more prosperous, he turned his attention to the 
production of a marine timekeeper, and in 1724 presented it to the 
Academy of Sciences. This instrument had a modification of 
Debaufre's escapement, which Sully devised for the purpose, and a 
vertical balance which was really a pendulum. It carried cycloidal 
metal pieces, around which the upper end of a slender wire was 
wound, the lower end being attached to a lever with an adjustable 
weight, with the idea of keeping the vibrations of the balance iso- 
chronous. The pivots of the balance, instead of being in holes, were 
supported on the edges of large rollers, to diminish the friction, a 
device adopted afterwards by Mudge. In 1726 Sully published 
"Abregee d'une Horologe d'une Nouvelle Invention pour la Juste 
Mesure du Temps sur Mer." When subjected to the tossing of the 
ocean, his timekeeper failed to yield the results anticipated from its 
performance on land. Though mortified by his failure, he again set 
himself to the solution of the problem. He had already made a 
marine watch with two balances geared together, as designed by 
Dr. Hooke, and now proceeded with a new timekeeper of different 
construction ; but while engaged thereon he was seized with a serious 
illness, induced by over-application and worry, and succumbed to 
inflammation of the lungs in 1728. 

At the church of St. Sulpice, Paris, he had traced a meridian line 
on the pavement of the transept, and secured its permanence by 
inlaying a thin brass edge. He blocked up the south transept 
window except for a small hole in a metal plate at the upper part 
throu"-h which the rays of the sun cast a luminous disc about 
iQi- inches in diameter on the floor. The disc moves across the line 
which at noon bisects it. In this church he was buried, and a fine 
obelisk of white marble erected to his memory in the north transept, 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 321 

in a position that allowed the meridian line to be can'ied up the face 
of the nionuinent. A laudatory inscription recounted his services to 
horology, but the greater part of it was cut out by the revolutionists 
of 1793, who possibly resented the suggestion that French watch- 
makers could be indebted to a foreigner. 

In the Guildhall Museum is a timekeeper with Sully's curious 
vertical balance. It is in the form of a bracket clock with a walnut 
bell-top case, has a seconds hand above the centre of the dial, and 
shows the days of the month through a slit below the centre. It is 
inscribed " Henricus Sully, invenit et fecit (1724), Horloger to the 
Duke of Orleans." 

John Harrison. — John Harrison was born at Faulby or Wragby 
near Pontefract, Yorkshire, in 1693. He was the son of a carpenter, 
which business he followed for several years of his life. In 1700 the 
family removed to Barrow, in Lincolnshire. At a very early 
age John Harrison showed a great predilection for mechanical pur- 
suits, and particularly directed his attention to the improvement of 

The offer, by Act of Parliament, of large sums for the production 
of a timekeeper sufficiently accurate to ascertain the longitude at 
sea, induced him to turn his attention to the subject. He devised 
a form of recoil escapement which required no lubrication at the 
acting surfaces of the pallets, the arms being jointed and furnished 
with springs which tircked each one in turn out of the wheel as the 
pendulum reversed its swing. He also succeeded in constructing a 
pendulum in which the effects of heat and cold in lengthening and 
shortening the pendulum were neutralized by the use of two metals 
having different ratios of expansion. His escapement, generally 
called the "grasshopper," is shown in Pig. 449; it was of no 
practical value and need not be further described. His pendulum, 
known as the gridiron form of compensation, shown in Fig. 450, is 
still the form of compensation adopted in many foreign regulators. 
It is composed of nine parallel rods, five of steel and four of brass, 
the total length of each kind being nearly as 100 to 60, that being 
the ratio of expansion of the two metals. Depending from the 
cross frame A are two rods of steel a a. The frame B, to which 
they are fixed at their lower extremities b b, carries also two 
brass rods c c, which at their upper ends, i d, are carried in the 
frame C, together with two other steel rods e e. Those at the 
lower extremities // are fastened in the frame D, which also carries 
the brass rods g g. The frame F carries the upper ends of this last 

C.W. Y 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

pair of brass rods at h h, and also the 
central steel rod to which the bob is 

One of his early efforts, with wheels 
and pinions of wood, which is in the 
possession of Mr. Evan Roberts, has 
John Harrison's signature Avith the 
date 1 71 3 on the face of the day of 
the month wheel. Another long case 
clock by him is at the South Kensington 
Museum, and one made about 1730, 
fitted with the grasshopper escapement, 
which was for some years in the pos- 
session of Mr. Thos. nj 
Nicholson, Barton-on- i, 
H umber, now belongs -^^o^^-v.> _ 
to his grandson, Mr. W. 
W. Nicholson. In the Guildhall Museum may be 
seen a very similar relic. 

In 1728 Harrison journeyed to London, taking 
with him his pendulum, his escapement, and drawings 
of his proposed timekeeper, hoping to obtain the 
approbation and aid of the Board of Longitude. 
Before being submitted to the notice of that body 
they were inspected by Graham, whose maturer judg- 
ment prompted him to advise Harrison to first make 
the timekeeper, and then ascertain, from its actual 
going, what claims it might have to further notice. 

Harrison continued plodding on in the country 
repairing watches and clocks and making a variety 
of experiments till 1735; then, in his forty-second 
year, he came to London and took up his residence 
in Orange Street, Red Lion Square. He brought 
with him a timepiece he had invented and con- 
structed. It was a cumbersome affair in a wooden 
frame, and had two balances. He obtained certifi- 
cates of the excellence of this timekeeper from Halley, 
Graham, and others. On their recommendation he 
was allowed, in 1736, to proceed with it to Lisbon 
in a king's ship, and was enabled to correct the 
reckoning to within i" 30'. Fig. 430. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


In consideration of this result, the Board of Longitude gave liim 
£^500 " to proceed with his improvements." It will be observed 
that the performance of his first timekeeper failed to attain the 
precision required by that Board ; for had it determined the longitude 
to a degree, Harrison would have been entitled to ^10,000 according 
to the provisions of the Act, as stated on page 345. In 1739 he 
finished another timekeeper, and afterwards a third, which was 

Fig. 451. — John Harrison, 1693-1776. 

smaller and appeared to the members of the Royal Society to be more 
simple and less likely to be deranged than either of the preceding ones. 
In 1749 he received the gold medal which was annually awarded by 
the Royal Society to the most useful discovery, but he was still not 
satisfied with his productions. The experience gained by prolonged 
trial led him to abandon the heavy framing and wheels which charac- 
terized his earlier essays and to devise and construct his celebrated 
" watch " which eventually won for him the coveted reward. 

Y 2 

32zi Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

He spent some time in improving and correcting his fourth 
nautical timekeeper, and then appHed to the Commissioners of the 
Board of Longitude for a trial according to the Act of Parliament. 
This, after much delay, was granted, and his son William was in his 
stead allowed to take a voyage to Jamaica. William Harrison 
embarked in the Deptfovd, at Portsmouth, on November i8, 1761. 
After 18 days' navigation the vessel was supposed to be 13'^ 50' west 
of Portsmouth by ordinary calculations, but by the watch was 15° 19', 
and the timekeeper was at once condemned as useless. William 
Harrison, however, maintained that if Madeira were correctly 
marked on the chart, it would be seen on the following day ; and 
in this he persisted so strongly, that the captain was induced to 
continue the same course, and accordingly the island was discovered 
the next day at seven o'clock. In like manner William Harrison 
was enabled by the watch to announce all the islands in the order 
in which they would fall in with them. When he arrived at Port 
Royal, after a voyage of 61 days, the chronometer was found to 
be about nine seconds slow. On January 28, 1762, he set sail 
from Jamaica on board the Merlin, and on his return to Portsmouth, 
after an absence of five months, the chronometer had kept time 
within about one minute five seconds, which gives an error of 18 
miles. This was much within the limit of the 30 miles prescribed 
by the Act of 1713 ; yet, several objections being raised, William 
Harrison was obliged to undertake a second voyage, the proof from 
the first not being considered sufficiently decisive by the Board, 
although they advanced ^5,000 on account of the reward. 

Accompanied by Dr. Maskelyne as the representative of the 
Board, William Harrison embarked in the man-of-war Tartar, on 
March 28, 1764, and arrived in Barbados on the 13th of May, when 
it was found the chronometer had gained 43 seconds ; he set 
out for the return journey on board the New Elizabeth on the 4th 
of June, and arrived at the Surrey Stairs on July i8th, when it was 
ascertained that after allowing for the estimated rate of one second 
a day gaining, there was an excess of 54 seconds for the whole period 
of 156 days. The result of this second voyage was so satisfactory, 
that the Board unanimously declared Harrison had really exceeded 
all expectations and demands of the Act of Parliament, and he was 
paid a further advance of ^5,000, with the condition that he explained 
the construction of his timekeeper. A sub-committee, consisting 
of Maskelyne, John Mitchell, Ludlam, Bird, Mudge, Mathews and 
Kendall, were appointed, and instructed to make themselves 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


acquainted with the mechanism of the instrument. They reported 
themselves satisfied in 1765, but even then considerable delay 
occurred. Kendall was commissioned to make a duplicate of the 
chronometer, which appears to have taken three years to execute, 
for the date of Kendall's instrument is 1769, the year the final 
payment was made to Harrison. 

Harrison's timekeeper is in the form of a large silver pair-case 
watch, with a centre seconds hand. The representation in Fig. 452 is 
from a photograph for which I am indebted to the Astronomer 

Fig. 452. — Harrison's celebrated Marine Timepiece. 

Royal. It has been stated that the piece hung in gymbals. This 
was not the case ; it reposed on a soft cushion, and on its trial 
voyages was carefully tended by William Harrison, who avoided 
position errors as far as possible by shifting the timekeeper to suit the 
lie of the ship. 

The plates are 3-8 in. and the balance 2-2 in. in diameter ; the 
fusee makes 6j turns. The escapement beats five times in a second. 
The pivot holes are jewelled with rubies. 

One of the chief features is a bimetallic arm fixed at one end, and 
carrying at its free end two pins, to embrace the balance spring near 
its outer point of attachment. " The thermometer kirb is composed 

326 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

of two thin plates of brass and steel riveted together in several 
places, which, by the greater expansion of brass than steel by heat, 
and contraction by cold, becomes convex on the brass side in hot 
weather, and convex on the steel side in cold weather ; whence, 
one end being fixed, the other end obtains a motion corresponding 
with the changes of heat and cold, and the two pins at this end, 
between which the balance spring passes, and which it touches 
alternately as the spring bends and unbends itself, will shorten or 
lengthen the spring." 

Harrison at first provided additional curb pins for mean time 
adjustment, but had to abandon them ; for it is clear, if they were 
placed behind the pins on the compensation curb, they would not 
act, and, if placed in front, the movement of the temperature pins 
would be ineffective. 

It is, of course, easy to be Avise after the event ; but, on examining 
the remontoire and escapement of Harrison's chronometer in the 
presence of the simple detent escapement introduced shortly after, 
it seems marvellous that he should have spent so many years over 
such complicated and by comparison inefficient contrivances. 
Harrison's drawings are most difficult to understand, but I venture 
to reproduce some contributed to the Horological Journal by Mr. 
H. M. Frodsham, which were made from Kendall's duplicate 
of Harrison's timekeeper at the Greenwich Observatory. 

Fig. I is a section through the fourth wheel. Fig. 2 a plan of the 
remontoire and contrate wheel. Fig. 3 a plan of the remontoire 
and escapement. The pinion at the top of Fig. i is driven by 
internal teeth on the third wheel of the train. The wheel 
immediately below the pinion in Fig. i is the fourth wheel, which 
drives a pinion X (Fig. 3). The dished wheel below the fourth 
wheel in Fig. i is the contrate wheel (C Figs. 2 and 3). In the 
recess of the contrate wheel is contained the remontoire spring 
which is wound eight times in a minute. The wheel at the bottom 
of Fig. I is the seconds wheel. This and the contrate wheel move 
continuously, while the fourth wheel and the other part of the train 
are locked by the lever D catching the stop P on the wheel P X, 
except during the winding of the remontoire. On the collet of the 
contrate wheel are eight pins, shown in Fig. i, and at Q in Fig. 3. 
The eight pins in the contrate wheel in succession push the arm H 
(Fig. 3), and so unlock the train. The locking wheel P X drives a 
fly pinion and fly, \\ to moderate the velocity with which the 
remontoire was wound. The seconds arbor is in the centre of the 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


watch, and is driven by the seconds wheel below the contrate 
wheel. The projections P P' on the barrel of the reniontoire are 
to prevent the remontoire running down. 

Fig. 4 shows the pallets, which, instead of forming an angle of 
95° or so, as is usual, are set parallel to each other, and in this way 
there is very little recoil, but increased tendency, to set. These 
acting surfaces of the pallets are diamonds set in brass collets. 

Fig. 453. — Harrison's Remontoire Escapement. 

During William Harrison's voyages, the rate of the watch could 
not of course be checked daily for want of some means of com- 
parison, and so in May, 1766, the Board of Longitude placed the 
instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the hands of Dr. 
Maskelyne, who had then been appointed Astronomer Royal, for 
the purpose of testing its daily rate. Dr. Maskelyne was supposed 
to favour lunar observations as a solution of the longitude problem 
and William Harrieon considered he was prejudiced against the 

328 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

watch ; it was therefore put in a box having a glazed Hd and two 
locks the keys whereof were kept, one by Dr. Maskelyne and the 
other by Captain Baillie, Governor of Greenwich Hospital. The 
trial lasted 298 days, during which the watch gained i hour 10 
minutes 27-5 seconds. Its greatest gain in one day was 30 seconds, 
the temperature being 60° and the pendant vertical ; its greatest 
loss in one day was 6-5 seconds, the thermometer being at freezing 
point, the piece lying dial up. 

Harrison's watch and the three bulky timepieces which preceded 
it are all preserved in the Greenwich Observatory. 

On his tomb in the south-west corner of Hampstead churchyard is 
the following inscription : — 

" In memory of Mr. John Harrison, late of Red Lion Square, London, inventor 
of the timekeeper for ascertaining the longitude at sea. He was born at Foulby. 
in the county of York, and was the son of a builder at that place, who brought 
him up to the same profession. Before he attained the age of twenty-one, he, 
without any instruction, employed himself in cleaning and repairing clocks and 
watches, and made a few of the former, chiefly of wood. At the age of twenty- 
five he employed his whole time in chronometrical improvements. 

" He was the inventor of the gridiron pendulum and the method of preventing 
the effects of heat and cold upon timekeepers by two bars fixed together ; he 
introduced the secondary spring to keep them going while winding up; and was 
the inventor of most (or all) the improvements in clocks and watches during his 
time. In the year 1735 his first timekeeper was sent to Lisbon, and in 1764 his 
then much-improved fourth timekeeper having been sent to Barbadoes, the Com- 
missioners of Longitude certified that it had determined the longitude within one- 
third of half a degree of a great circle, having not erred more than forty seconds 
in time. After sixty 3'ears' close application to the above pursuits, he departed 
this life on the 24th day of March, 1776, aged eighty-three. This tombstone was 
put up many 3-ears after his death." 

In 1878 the tomb had become very dilapidated, the inscription 
being barely decipherable, and I then suggested to Mr. W. H. 
Prosser that he should obtain subscriptions, and have it restored. 
This he proceeded to do ; but on applying to the Clockmakers' 
Company, some members of the Court expressed a wish that the 
matter should be placed in the hands of the Company, and the 
restoration was accordingly made under the direction of the Court 
forthwith. The engraving on page 323 is from one by P. L. Tassaert, 
after a portrait by T. King taken in 1768. Harrison's marine watch 
is at his right hand, and one of his earlier essays behind him. 

Pinchbeck. — Among the celebrated clock and watchmakers of 
the eighteenth century must be reckoned Christopher Pinchbeck, 
known principally as the discoverer of an alloy of metals, called after 
him " Pinchbeck," and as an inventor of " Astronomico-Musical 
Clocks." In the Dictionary of National Biography, R.B.P. suggests 
that he probably sprang from the small town of Pinchbeck in 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 32Q 

Lincolnshire. He resided at Clerkenwell in a turning out of St. 
John's Lane called Albion Place, which, prior to 1822, when it was 
rebuilt, was known as St. George's Court. From there he removed 
to Fleet Street, as is shown by the following advertisement which 
appeared in Appkbce's Weekly Journal of July 8th, 1721. 

" Notice is hereby given to Noblemen, Gentlemen, and Others, that Chr. I 'inch- 
beck. Inventor and Maker of the famous Astronomico-Musical Clocks, is removed 
from St. George's Court, St. Jones's Lane, to the sign of the Astronomico- 
Musical Clock in Fleet Street near the Leg Tavern. He maketh and selleth 
Watches of all sorts and Clocks, as well for the exact Indication of Time only, as 
Astronomical, for showing the various Motions and Phenomena of planets and 
fixed stars, solving at sight several astronomical problems, besides all this a 
variety of Musical performances, and that to the greatest Nicety of Time and 
Tune with the usual graces ; together with a wonderful imitation of several songs 
and Voices of an Aviary of Birds so natural that any who saw not the Instrument 
would be persuaded that it were in Reality what it only represents. He makes 
Musical Automata or Instruments of themselves to play exceeding well on the 
Flute, Flaggelet or Organ, Setts of Country dances, Minuets, Jiggs, and the 
Opera Tunes, or the most perfect imitation of the Aviary of Birds above mentioned, 
fit for the Diversion of those in places where a Musician is not at Hand. He 
makes also Organs performing of themselves Psalm Tunes with two, three, 
or more Voluntaries, very Convenient for Churches in remote Country Places 
where Organists cannot be had, or have sufficient Encouragement. And finally 
he mends Watches and Clocks in such sort that they will perform to an 
Exactness which possibly thro" a defect in finishing or other Accidents they 
formerly could not." 

His reputation was world-wide, to judge from the appended extract 
from a letter of the period, quoted by J. W. Pinks : — 

" Mr. P. has finished a fine musical clock, said to be a most exquisite piece of 
workmanship, and worth about ^1500, wch is to be sent over to ye King of France 
(Louis XIV.) and a fine organ to ye great Mogul, worth /'300.' 

Pinchbeck exhibited his " astronomico-musical clocks," together 
with a variety of curious automata, at Bartholomew Fair, and the 
Daily Journal of August 27th, 1729, announces that the Prince and 
Princess of Wales went to Bartholomew Fair to see his exhibition. 
Pinchbeck also attended Southwark Fair, and with Fawkes, a 
celebrated juggler and conjurer of that day, had a united "show." 
This may shock many who avail themselves of the fine arts of 
advertising in vogue to-day ; but, however undignified it may have 
been, it cannot detract from his ability as a horologist. 

Mr. J. E. Hodgkin has a trade card, " Pinchbeck, senr., at 
Pinchbeck's Head in Fleet Street," a change of sign possibly induced 
by the popularity of Pinchbeck's name. Mr. William Norman has a 
metal token ; on the obverse, a bust of George H. ; reverse, a bust 
in a frame, surrounded by representations of a walking-stick, snuff- 
box, signet ring, watch (or medal) attached to a double chain, and 

330 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

other articles, with the inscription, " Pinchbeck, senr., at Pinchbeck's 
Head in Fleet Street." 

Pinchbeck gold was much used for watch cases and the like. It 
is an alloy of three parts of zinc to four of copper ; but its composi- 
tion was jealously guarded by the inventor, as may be gathered 
from the following extract from a letter quoted by W, J. Pinks : — 

'' Mr. Xtopher Pinchbeck had a curious secret of new-invented metal wch so 
naturally resembles gold (as not to be distinguished by the most experienced eye), 
in colour, smell, and ductibility. Ye secret is communicated to his son." 

He died in 1732, at the age of sixty-two years, and was buried 
in St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet Street. The annexed portrait is 
from an engraving by Faber after a painting by Isaac Whood. 

Edward Pinchbeck, eldest son of Christopher, who was born in 
1 71 3, succeeded his father in the business, as is evident from a 
" Caution to the Public " which he inserted in the Daily Post of 
July gth, 1733. 

" To pre\ent for the future the gross imposition that is daily put 
upon the publick by a great number of shopkeepers, hawkers, and 
pedlars, in and about this town, Notice is hereby given, that the 
ingenious Mr. Edward Pinchbeck, at the Musical Clock, in Fleet 
Street, does not dispose of one grain of his curious metal, which so 
nearly resembles gold in colour, smell, and ductility, to any person 
whatsoever ; nor are the toys made of the said metal sold by any one 
person in England except himself." After recounting the various 
articles he makes from the alloy, the notice continues : " And in 
particular watches, plain and chased in so curious a manner as not to 
be distinguished by the nicest eye from real gold, and which are 
highly necessary for gentlemen and ladies when they travel, with 
several other fine pieces of workmanship of any sort made by the 
best hands. The said Mr. Pinchbeck likewise makes astronomical 
and musical clocks ; which new invented machines are so artfully 
contrived as to perform on several instruments great variety of musick 
composed by the most celebrated masters, with that exactitude, and 
in so beautiful a manner that scarce any hand can equal them. 
They likewise imitate the sweet harmony of birds to so great a 
perfection as not to be distinguished from nature itself. He also 
makes repeating and all other sorts of clocks and watches ; particularly 
watches of a new invention, the mechanism of which is so simple, and 
the proportion so just, that come nearer truth than any others yet 

Christopher Pinchbeck, second son of the first named Christopher, 

Recorch of Early Makers, etc. 


carried on a successful business as a clock and watch maker in 
Cockspur Street, bein<i^ described as clockmaker to the Kinii^. In 
iy6fi lie is said to have bought from Ferdinand Berthoud, for 
George III., the first pocket watch made with a compensation 
curb. In 1781 he was elected as an honorary freeman of the 
Clockmakers' Company. He died at Cockspur Street in 1783, aged 
seventy-three, and was buried at St. ■\Iartin's-in-the-Fields. 

Fig. 454. — Christopher Pinxhbeck, 1670-1732. 

A Richard Pinchbeck, " toyman," who seems to have carried on 
business 1 760-70, was probably a member of the same family. 

In the Gentleman s Magazine of June, 1765, it is stated that 
Pinchbeck and Norton had "just set up at the Queen's House a new 
complicated clock, ha\ ing four dials, and amongst them it denoted 
clock and sun time, sunrise and setting for every day in the year in 
various places of the world, the Copernican motion of the planets, 
the ages and phases of the moon, high water at thirty-two different 
seaports, and the days of the week and the months of the year." 

332 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Notwithstanding this announcement, it is very doubtful if Pinch- 
beck and Norton were ever in partnership. The probabiHty is that 
each of them provided a clock, for there are still two astronomical 
clocks at Buckingham Palace, one by Christopher Pinchbeck the 
younger, and one by Eardley Norton. Each of these clocks has 
four dials, one on each face of the square case, and bearing a close 
resemblance to the dials on the old clock in the South Kensington 
Museum, which is represented on page loo. Pinchbeck's clock is 
the larger of the two, and has a handsome tortoiseshell case with 
silver spandrels at the corners of the dial. 

Thomas Mudge. — Thomas Mudge, born at Exeter in 171 5, was 
the son of a clergyman, who kept a school at Bideford. Young 
Mudge showed great taste for mechanics, and his father, noticing his 
extraordinary inclination for horology, placed him as an apprentice 
with Graham. Mudge here made rapid progress in his art, and on the 
completion of his indentures took a leading position in the establish- 
ment. He was admitted to the freedom of the Clockmakers' Company 
in 173S, and called to the Livery in 1766. At Graham's death, in 
1 75 1, Mudge succeeded to the business, as shown by the following 
from the Daily Advertiser of November 1 8th, 1 75 1 : — " Thomas Mudge, 
watchmaker, apprentice to the late Mr. Graham, carries on the business 
in the same manner Mr. Graham did, at the sign of the ' Dial and One 
Crown,' opposite the 'Bolt and Tun' in Fleet Street." Shortly after 
Mudge was established, Ferdinand the Sixth, of Spain, ordered an 
equation watch from a well-known English watchmaker, who, in 
consequence of the difficulties presented by this unusual construction, 
had recourse to Mudge. Ferdinand was a lover of mechanical work, 
and hearing of this circumstance, sent an order direct to Mudge to 
construct for him any piece of horology which he thought the most 
curious, and to charge for it whatever he chose. In response Mudge 
constructed a watch which showed true and apparent time, struck 
the hours, and repeated not only the hours and quarters, but the 
minutes also. The king set great store by this piece of workman- 
ship, for which Mudge charged him 480 guineas. About 1755 he 
entered into partnership with William Button, another apprentice of 

Mudge invented the lever escapement about 1765, but it appears 
only constructed two watches on this principle : one for Queen 
Charlotte, which performed admirably, the other for his patron and 
friend Count Bruhl, which, after several journeys, subjected to all 
the inconveniences of changes of position and quick travelling, kept 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


time within a few seconds during several weeks. Mudge showed 
this escapement to Berthoud, when he was in London in 1766, but 
he did not think so favourably of it as Margetts, Emery, and other 
English horologists did. 

In 1765 he published "Thoughts on the Means of Improving 
Watches, particularly those for Use at Sea." From this time his 
attention was mainly directed to marine timekeepers, and in 1771, 
leaving the conduct of the Fleet Street business to Dutton, he 

Fig. 455. — Thomas Mudge, 1715 — 1794. 

quitted London, and went to reside at Plymouth, where he devoted 
himself to the construction of chronometers. The first one was 
sent to Greenwich Observatory in 1774, and afterwards to Baron 
Zach (who was astronomer to the Duke of Gotha), and lastly to 
Admiral Campbell, who took it a voyage to Newfoundland, when 
its performance was pronounced to be satisfactory. The Board of 
Longitude sent him ^500, requesting him to continue his researches. 
Two other chronometers were sent to the Greenwich Observatory 
for trial in 1779. 

334 ^^^ Clocks and Watches and their Maker's. 

Dr. Maskelyne and Mudge could not agree. Maskelyne, who 
was Astronomer Royal, carried the Board of Longitude with him. 
It was asserted that chronometers by Arnold performed better than 
those of Mudge. Arnold had not submitted his chronometers for 
the Government reward, and therefore Mudge objected to the 
comparison. On the petition of Mudge, the House of Commons, in 
1 79 1, appointed as a committee to investigate the performance of 
Mudge's chronometers, the Bishop of St. David's, Mr. Atwood, 
Mr. De Luc, Mr. Ramsden, Mr. Edward Troughton, Mr. Holmes, 
Mr. Haley, and Mr. Howells, the last three being watchmakers of 
repute. After much bickering, Mudge, in 1793, was paid ^2,500, in 
addition to ^^500 he had already received as encouragement, although 
the Board of Longitude dissented from this course. 

Mudge was often employed by George HI. on delicate pieces of 
work, and on the death of George Lindesey, in 1776, was appointed 
watchmaker to the king. He was made free of the Clockmakers' 
Company in 1738, and admitted to the livery in 1766. The engrav- 
ing on p. 333 is from a painting by Dance, executed for Count 
Bruhl in 1772. He died at his son's house in Walworth, on 
November 14th, 1794. 

That an accomplished horologist and sound mechanic as Mudge 
seems to have been should, after his invention of the lever escape- 
ment, have persisted in the complication of a remontoire and 
vertical escapement for his marine timekeepers, must be ascribed 
to the perversity of genius. 

The salient features of his chronometer are shown in the accom- 
panying drawings. To obviate the difficulty of the compensating 
curb action interfering with the action of the regulating curb pins 
there are two balance springs. The upper one for regulating has 
its stud C screwed to the balance cock, the stud D of the lower 
spring, with which the pins of the compensation curb engage, being 
fixed to the upper plate of the chronomeier. There are two 
remontoire springs, H and I, which are wound by the escape wheel 
G, and which alternately impel the balance through the pins a, b, 
connected with the upper, and e, f with the lower one. The wheel 
and pallet actions will be understood from an examination of the 
lower figure, which is a plan. After the wheel tooth has given 
impulse to the pallet, and thereby wound the remontoire, it is 
locked on the projecting nib of the pallet till the balance in its 
excursion unlocks it, and allows the tooth on the opposite side of 
the wheel to impel the other pallet. The balance staff is cranked. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


and the pallets with the remontoires are pivoted partly in the 
balance staff and partly in separate cocks, so that there are six 
pivots moving from the balance staff centre. 

After Mudge's migration to Plymouth, the Fleet Street business 
seems to have reverted entirely to William Dutton, although the 
title of Mudge and Dutton was retained till 1794. 

Thomas Mudge, junior, who was an attorney at 3, Old Square, 
Lincoln's Inn, engaged Messrs. Howells, Pennington, Pendleton, 

Fig. 456. — Mudge's Remontoire. 

and Coleman, to produce chronometers on his father's plan ; but 
they were too costly, and not successful. By 1799 the younger 
Mudge sold eleven at 150 guineas each, which did not pay him. Of 
others in course of manufacture some were finished by his coadjutors, 
and some by Messrs. Barraud and Jamison. One of these instru- 
ments is in the Soane Museum, another at the Horological Institute, 
and another at the Guildhall Museum. 

John Arnold. — This famous horologist was born in 1736, at 
Bodmin, in Cornwall, where he was apprenticed to his father, a 

336 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

watchmaker. While a youth he left home, and after a stay of some 
time in Holland he determined to try his fortune in London. At 
first he worked as a journeyman, but soon found an opportunity of 
establishing himself at Devereux Court, Fleet Street. One of his 
earliest acts here was to make an exceedingly small half- quarter 
repeating watch, which he had set in a ring, and presented to 
George III. in June, 1764. When it is stated that the whole move- 
ment measured but little more than one- third of an inch across, his 
ability as a fine workman and his marvellous sense of touch will be 
appreciated.* The escapement selected was a cylinder one, the 
cylinder, made of ruby and measuring one fifty-fourth of an inch in 
diameter, being the first made of that material. The king accepted 
the repeater, and presented its maker with 500 guineas as an 
acknowledgment of his surpassing skill. 

Arnold's achievement at once brought him into notice, and from 
that time his future success was assured. 

It is said that the Empress of Russia offered Arnold 1,000 
guineas for a duplicate of the repeater made for George III., but 
the offer was declined, not that Arnold doubted his ability to 
produce it, but because he desired the miniature timekeeper to 
remain unique. 

Arnold now turned his attention seriously to the problem which 
was engaging the thoughts of leading horologists here and in 
France. John Harrison had already fulfilled the conditions laid 
down by the Board of Longitude, and thus practically secured the 
;^20,ooo offered by Parliament in 17 14 for a timekeeper sufficiently 
exact to ascertain the longitude within certain limits. A subse- 
quent Act of Parliament, however, devoted a further ^10,000 as a 
stimulus to continued research and improvement. Mudge was 
already in the field, and seemed bent on adhering to the remontoire 
principle somewhat on Harrison's plan. But it was clear to other 
minds that a nearer approach to perfection might be obtained by a 

* According to the Annual Register ior 1764, the whole of this repeater, com- 
posed of 120 parts, weighed but 5 dwts. 7I gr., the following being the weight of 
the principal items : The movement, complete, is 2 dwts. 2| gr. ; great wheel 
and fuzee, 2J gr. ; second wheel and pinion, | gr. ; barrel and mainspring, 3 J gr. ; 
third wheel and pinion, i gr. ; fourth wheel and pmion, J-, gr. ; cylinder, wheel, 
and pinion, J^ gr. ; balance spring, cylinder, and collet, § gr. ; the balance spring, 
gij3 gr. ; the chain, i gr. ; barrel and mainspring, ij gr. ; great wheel and ratchet, 
I gr. ; second wheel and pinion, 1 gr. ; third wheel and pinion, ^ gr. ; fourth 
wheel and pinion, ) gr. ; fly wheel and pinion, Jy gr. ; fly pinion, -^ gr. ; hour 
hammer, ^ gr. ; quarter hammer, ^ gr. ; rack, chain, and pulley, i^ gr. ; quarter 
and half-quarter rack, | gr. ; the quarter and half-quarter snail and cannon 
pinion, | gr. ; the all-or-nothing piece, ^ gr. ; two motion wheels, i gr. ; steel 
dial-plate with gold figures, 3^ gr. ; the hour snail and star, ^ and ig gr. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 337 

chronometer of altofj^ether a different character to the one invented 
by Harrison. 

One of Arnold's first essays was a chronometer which Captain 
Cook took with him in the Resolution on his second voyage, in 1772. 
Two other timekeepers of Arnold's w^ere on board the Adventure. 
Mr. J. U. Poole, who has examined these early examples, two of 
which are the property of the Royal Society, states that they have 
plain circular balances with fiat balance springs acted on by a com- 
pensation curb ; the escapements are a compound of the lever and 
the spring detent, and they beat half seconds, the workmanship 
being xevy rough compared with the finish exacted in the present 
day. It seems certain that a timekeeper of Larcum Kendall, which 
was also carried on the Resolution, performed better than those of 
Arnold did. 

Arnold was not to be daunted. He profited by experience, and 
devised the helical form of balance spring, and a form of 
compensation balance. The spring, as shown in the sketch, „ ^^ 
is very similar to the one now in most general use for 1 V^^ 
marine chronometers, but the balance was rather a com- ^^ 
plicated affair. These components he patented in 1775 
(Patent No. 11 13), and his specification describes com- 
pensation to be effected by a brass and steel volute fixed 
at its inner end to the collet of the balance, and actuating 
weighted rods by means of a lever attached to its outer 
end. Some years later he adopted the simple circular p 
bimetallic-rim balance practically as now^ used, except 
that he soldered the brass and steel together and formed the circular 
rim with pliers, whereas Earnshaw first turned a steel disc and then 
melted the brass on to its periphery, a plan which, according to Rees, 
was introduced by Brockbank. 

In May, 1782, Arnold patented his improved detent escapement 
(Patent No. 1328). This is practically the chronometer escapement 
of to-day, which was almost simultaneously invented by Thomas 
Earnshaw, except that in Arnold's escapement the escape wheel 
teeth, instead of being flat where they gave impulse, were epicycloidal 
curves, as shown in Fig. 458 ; but they required oiling, and were 
consequently abandoned. While Earnshaw's wheel is locked on the 
points of the teeth and the detent moves away from the centre of 
the wheel to unlock, Arnold's locked on the heel of the tooth and 
the detent moved towards the centre of the wheel to unlock, the 
sunk part of the body of the wheel allowing the locking stone to pass. 

C.w. z 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Arnold was now admitted to be a very successful chronometer 
maker, but he still continued his investigations, and made countless 
experiments with a view to improvements. 

Some time after 1764 Arnold quitted Devereux Court for Adelphi 
Buildings, which is the address given in his patent specifications, 
and in an account of the going of a pocket chronometer, in 1781, it 
is stated to have been compared with the regulator at his house in 
the Adelphi. About 1785 he removed to 112, Cornhill, where he 
carried on business until his death, his son being admitted into 
partnership during the latter part of the time. Arnold and Son 
also had a chronometer manufactory at Chigwell in Essex. 

In a book of " Certificates and Rates of Going," which he published 
in 1 79 1, he gives the price of his large marine chronometers as from 
60 to 80 guineas; pocket chronometers, in gold cases, 120 guineas, 
arrd in silver, 100 guineas; repeaters from 150 guineas for the best 

kind in gold, down to 
25 guineas for the com- 
monest, in silver cases. 

The rival claims of 
M u d g e , Arnold, and 
Earnshaw to the rewards 
offered for the best 
chronometer were sub- 
mitted to a Select Com- 
mittee of the House of 
Commons, assisted by a committee of experts, and eventually each 
was awarded ;^3,ooo ; but a moiety of Arnold's portion was not 
paid till after his death, when it was received by his son. Arnold 
had not laid claim to the reward when depositing his chronometers 
at the Greenwich Observatory ; but their good performance was 
made use of by Maskelyne as a reason why Mudge's claim should 
not be recognized. 

Arnold told the committee he had then made upwards of 900 
timekeepers, but never two alike, so long as he saw room for any 
possible improvements ; adding, " I have twenty number ones." 

According to Beillard, Arnold's son John Roger was apprenticed 
in Paris to Breguet. Some time ago, by favour of Mr. Hurcomb, I 
examined a Tourbillon Chronometer in an engine-turned silver case, 
with square edges, which appears to have been the original model 
for the celebrated Tourbillon of Breguet on a chronometer by 
Arnold. The foot of the balance-cock was especially wide, and bore 

Fig. 458. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


the followint^ inscription : — " Premier rej^iilateur a tourbillon de 
BregLiet reuni a un des premiers ouvra^es d'Arnold. Hommages de 
Breguet a la memoire re\-eree d'Arnold offert a son fils. An 1808." 
The workmanship thronghout was splendid, and the graceful tribute 
to Arnold's genius of course enhanced the value of the piece. 

John Arnold was admitted as a member of the Clockmakers' 
Company in 1783, and chosen on the livery 1796. He died at Well 

Fig. 459. — JoH\ Arnold, 1756 — 1799- 

Hall, near Eltham, Kent, in 1799. The above portrait is from 
an engraving by Susan Ester Reid, after a painting by R. Davy. 

At South Kensington is a painting showing John Arnold, his 
wife and son, together with a label stating that Arnold was assisted 
in his profession by his wife. A reproduction of this group is given 
in Fig. 460. 

John Roger Arnold seemed to have inherited neither the horo- 
logical ability nor the commercial aptitude of his father whom he 
succeeded. He was admitted to the Clockmakers' Company in 1796, 

z 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

and became master in 1 817. In 1820 he removed from Cornhill to 
27, Cecil Street, and from thence in 1830, to 84, Strand, where he 
entered into a partnership agreement for ten years with E. J. Dent, 
and during this period the business flourished ; but immediately the 
term expired Dent set up for himself at 82, Strand, carrying with him 
the confidence of most of the customers of the late firm. John R. 
Arnold continued at 84, Strand, till 1843, when he died. 

Fig. 460. — JOHN Arnold, his wite and son. 

Thomas Earnshaw. — To Thomas Earnshaw, who was born at 
Ashton-under-Lyne in 1749, must be ascribed tne merit of having 
devised the chronometer escapement and compensation balance 
precisely as they are now used. 

The comparison of Arnold's and Earnshaw's escapement and 
balance just given in the sketch of the former's career may be 
referred to and need not be repeated. 

That Earnshaw was a true horologist by intuition is evident. He 
is said to have been honest and straightforward, but somewhat rugged 
in his manner. There, are, however, but few details of his life to be 
obtained. He was apprenticed to a watchmaker when fourteen years 

Records of Early Makers, etc. ^41 

of age, and seems to have come to London inmiediately on completion 
of his indentures. After working for some time as a finisher of 
verge and cylinder watches, he taught himself watch jewelling and 
then cylinder-escapement making, using ruby cylinders and steel 
wheels. He married early in life, and the necessity of providing for a 

Fig. 461. — Thomas Earnshaw, 1749 — 1829. 

family out of his earnings seems to have hampered him considerably 
in carrying out his projects. 

To improve the chronometer escapement he, in 17S1, conceived 
the idea of substituting a spring detent for the pi\'oted form as 
applied by Le Roy and other French artists. After showing the new 
method to John Brockbank, for whom he worked, he took it to Thomas 
Wright of the Poultry, another of his customers, and agreed that 
when a watch with the device was finished, Wright should patent 
it. But the latter kept the watch for a year to observe its going, 
and did not obtain the patent till 1783. In the meantime John 

342 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Arnold had lodged a Patent Specification claiming the same thing 
as his invention. To the end of his life Earnshaw lost no oppor- 
tunity of declaring in emphatic language his belief that John Brock- 
bank had divulged his plan to Arnold. According to Earnshaw's 
account his own actions were always marked by trusting simplicity 
though his confidence was continually betrayed. The patent cost 
Wright ^loo, and as all negotiations with Brockbanks, Haley, Wm. 
Hughes, Best and other leading watchmakers to purchase a share of 
it failed, watches with the new escapement were manufactured for 
various people on payment to Wright of a royalty oi £i each. The 
first dozen were not a success ; the impulse roller being too small 
with relation to the escape wheel, they were liable to stop. Earn- 
shaw discovered the fault and with better proportions brought the 
new escapement into favour for pocket watches. The earlier ones 
were stamped [">atlnt^] ^^ small characters, a form of marking which 
was dropped after a few years. 

Dr. Maskelyne, the Astronomer Royal, having tried one of his 
watches in 1789, advised Earnshaw to apply to the Board of 
Longitude for permission to submit timekeepers for official trial at 
Greenwich Observatory. P^ive of his watches were tested there in 
1 79 1, and then he obtained an order for two chronometers, and 
these were deposited at the Observatory on January ist, 1798. 

In 1794 or 1795 Earnshaw succeeded to the business which had 
been carried on for some years by W'm. Hughes at 119, High 
Holborn, one door east of the turning then known as King St. but 
now called Southampton Row. The shop referred to was pulled 
down when the thoroughfare was widened in 1901. 

The committee of investigation appointed to consider the claims 
of chronometer improvers awarded Earnshaw ^500 in 1801 on 
account of his inventions, and in 1803 a further £2,500, making his 
total reward ^'3,000. Rightly or wrongly, he was of opinion that he. 
was not well treated, and ni 1808 issued " An appeal to the Public," 
declaring he was entitled to more pre-eminent recognition. The 
engraving on page 341 is copied from one by S. Bellin after a portrait 
by Sir M. A. Shee. 

Earnshaw also made a number of clocks. For the first one, which 
was ordered by the Archbishop of Armagh, he was paid /'150 and 
an additional ;^ioo for going to Armagh to fix it. 

He died at Chenies Street in 1829, but the business was carried on 
for some years by his son, first at the Holborn premises and afterwards 
at Fenchurch Street. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 343 

Ascertaining the Longitude at Sea. Development and 
use of the Marine Chronometer. — The discovery of America, in 
1492, caused some attention to be paid to the question of finding the 
longitude at sea, for it was evident that if ocean navigation was to be 
carried on with anything like safety, some more certain means of 
ascertaining the position of a ship than was possible by dead reckoning 
would have to be pro\ided. 

Columbus had not an azimuth compass, nor a sextant, nor a 
chronometer, nor a patent log, and he, and his immediate successors, 
were several months making the voyage across the Atlantic, while 
the early voyagers took about three years to circumnavigate the 
globe. Even in the middle of the last century Commodore Anson, in 
his celebrated voyage round the world, had no safe guide. When he 
rounded Cape Horn he unexpectedly made the land on the western 
side, and found himself in consequence three hundred miles more to 
the east than he expected, and so his voyage was delayed. Then, 
again, he wanted to make the island of Juan Fernandez to recruit 
the crew. He got into the latitude of the island and thought he 
was to the west of it, but he was really to the east ; he ran eastward 
and made the mainland of America, and turned round and had to 
sail westward again before he got to the island. 

With a sextant the latitude may be readily ascertained by 
measuring the altitude above the horizon of certain of the heavenly 
bodies and reducing the observations by reference to tables. 

Finding the longitude is not" so simple a matter, owing to the 
rotation of the earth on its axis, and the apparent change of places 
of the stars. As early as 1530 Gemma Frisius suggested solar 
observations and a timekeeper as a possible solution of the problem. 
The captain of a ship can readily ascertain the instant of noon at 
any place by observation of the sun, and so it is clear that if he 
had an instrument that could be depended on to show him the time 
at Greenwich or any other starting-point, the calculation of his 
longitude would be an easy one. But the most important adjunct, 
an accurate timekeeper, was wanting. 

In 1598 the matter had risen to such importance that the King of 
Spain offered a reward of one hundred thousand crowns for any 
invention which should gain that object. The rulers of one or two 
other maritime states followed his example, but all without effect. 

Early in the seventeenth century John Baptist Morin proposed the 
preparation of tables with a view of making lunar observations avail- 
able. Although Morin's suggestion was ridiculed at the time, it has 

344 ^^^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

become a perfectly practicable method. The moon is nearer the 
earth than the stars, and consequently appears to occupy a different 
position with regard to them when viewed from different points on 
the surface of the globe. And as the moon moves so swiftly from 
night to night through the sky, she shifts her position with respect 
to the stars very rapidly. If the sailor be provided beforehand with 
a book giving the distances of the moon from certain fixed stars for 
certain hours of say Greenwich time on every day of the year, he 
can, in any position in which he may be, by observing the position 
of the moon, secure a datum from which the longitude may be 
deduced. But even after the position of the moon with relation to 
these fixed stars has been ascertained, and the voluminous tables 
provided, somewhat tedious calculations are necessary to reduce the 
elements afforded by the observations obtained ; besides which, if 
the lunar method alone is relied on, there is the disadvantage that 
the moon is not always visible. However, Morin's suggestion led to 
nothing at the time, and the greater simplicity of solar observations 
induced most investigators to consider the possibility of providing a 
correct timekeeper. The first attempts to supply the want seem to 
have been made by Huygens and Hooke. 

Huygens' marine clock, constructed about 1660, suspended in 
gymbals and actuated by a spring, was controlled by a pendulum. 
It was tried at sea by a Scottish captain named Holmes with but 
moderate success. A marine pendulum clock constructed under 
the direction of Dr. Hooke, was tried by Lord Kincardine in 1662, 
only to demonstrate the futility of relying on the pendulum as a 
regulator when tossed about in a ship on the ocean. 

In the course of a paper he read before the Royal Society in 1662, 
Dr. Hooke said : " The Lord Kincardine did resolve to make some 
trial what might be done by carrying a pendulum clock to sea, for 
which end he contrived to make the watch to be moved by a spring 
instead of a weight, and then, making the case of the clock very 
heavy with lead, he suspended it underneath the deck of the ship 
by a ball and socket of brass, making the pendulum but short, 
namely, to vibrate half seconds ; and that he might be the better 
enabled to judge of the effect of it, he caused two of the same kind 
of pendulum clocks to be made, and suspended them both pretty 
near the middle of the vessel underneath the decks. This done, 
having first adjusted them to go equal to one another, and pretty 
near to the true time, he caused them first to move parallel to 
one another, that is, in the plane of the length of the ship, and 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 345 

afterwards he turned one to move in a plane at right angles with 
the former ; and in both these case.s it was found by trials made at 
sea (at which I was present) that they would vary from one another, 
though not very much." Dr. Hooke concludes by saying that " they 
might be of very good use to the sea if some further contrivances 
about them were thought upon and put into practice." 

In 1 7 14 the British Parliament, on the recommendation of a com- 
mission, of which Sir Isaac Newton was a member, passed " an Act 
for providing public reward for such person or persons as shall 
discover the longitude at sea." This Act ordained " that any 
offered method or invention on this subject shall, in the lirst 
instance, be investigated by a specially selected body of practical 
men, who may then recommend it to the Royal Commissioners 
constituting the Board of Longitude." The award was fixed at 
;^i 0,000 for a method or in^■ention to dehne on a voyage from 
England to any of the West India Islands and back the longitude 
within one degree, ;^i 5,000 to define the longitude within two- 
thirds of a degree, and ^20,000 to within half a degree. 

The Paris Academy of Sciences in 1720 offered a prize for the 
best description of a suitable timekeeper. This was won by Massy, 
a Dutch clockmaker. In 1721 Sully produced a clock which he laid 
before the Academy in 1724. It had a vertical balance, which from 
the description seems to have been a pendulum with cycloidal 
guides. This timekeeper promised success till tested in the open 
sea, when its performance, like that of the preceding instruments, 
was found to be unsatisfactory. Sully, however, seemed to be on 
the high-road to success, and he was engaged on another timekeeper 
just before his untimely decease. 

In 1675 Greenwich Observatory was founded. Flamstead was 
instructed to rectify the tables of the motions of the heavens and 
the places of the fixed stars. He made a large star catalogue, and 
many observations on the moon and other bodies, and the 
results of his lunar observations were taken in hand by the 
philosophers of the time, Newton and others. The construction of 
lunar tables, and to predict the place of the moon with sufficient 
accuracy for the adoption of the lunar method of longitude, was a 
very serious task. 

It was not until 1767 that Maskelyne, a succeeding Astronomer 
Royal, founded the " Nautical Almanac," and gave therein, for the 
first time in any country, distances of the moon from certain fixed 
stars, that the lunar method came into use. In the early part of the 

346 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

nineteenth century the rehabihty of the chronometer was estabhshed, 
and since then the chronometer method has gradually superseded 
the "lunar." In the "Nautical Almanac" the lunar distances are 
still retained, and circumstances occasionally arise when the mariner 
is glad to have recourse to them. 

Stimulated by the prospect of obtaining the reward offered by 
the British Parliament, John Harrison, after thirty years of un- 
remitting labours and vicissitudes, recounted in the sketch of his 
life (see pp. 321-328), fulfilled, in 1761, the conditions laid down by 
the Board of Longitude. Thoroughly as Harrison deserved the 
reward he so laboriously earned, it is curious to note that of all his 
inventions embodied in his timekeeper, the maintaining spring in 
the fusee is the only one that has survived. 

Other Acts of Parliament relating to the subject were passed in 
1 741, 1753, and 1774. The last, repealing all former Acts, offered 
;^5,ooo for a timekeeper determining the longitude to or within one 
degree ; ^7,500 for determining the same to within 40 geographical 
miles ; and /'io,ooo for a determination at or within half a degree. 
Further, to obtain the smallest portion of the reward, the error of 
the timekeeper was not to exceed more than four minutes in six 

Mudge, the inventor of the lever escapement and an experienced 
horologist, with almost incredible infatuation, proceeded on the 
lines adopted by Harrison. Though he produced a superior instru- 
ment to Harrison's (see p. 334), he allowed Arnold (p. 336) and 
Earnshaw (p. 340) to develop the marine chronometer of to-day. 

The investigations of Berthoud and Pierre Le Roy were nearly 
contemporaneous with those of Mudge, Arnold, and Earnshaw. 
Each of the French masters designed a detached escapement, and 
while Berthoud used a gridiron arrangement of brass and steel to 
compensate for temperature errors, and fitted his timekeeper with 
two balances geared together, Le Roy experimented with a balance 
composed of two mercurial thermometers, the bulbs being furthest 
from the centre of motion and the ends turned inwards. No one 
could question the ability of Berthoud and P. Le Roy, but in exe- 
cuting their respective conceptions the Englishmen showed superior 
judgment. The French marine timekeepers were by comparison 
very unwieldy, which may perhaps be traced to the influence of M. 
Daniel Bernoulli, an eminent mathematician, who, says P. Le Roy, 
" wishes marine watches to be as large as good clocks are commonly 
made, that the pieces may be worked with greater exactness, and 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 347 

that their defects, if there are any, may be more easily perceived. 
This is nearly what I have practised in the new marine watch." 
However, the simplicity of construction and the compactness of 
Arnold and Earnshaw's chronometers have ensured the general 
adoption of their models. 

Vulliamy. — This noted family of clockmakers was of Swiss 

Fig. 4'->-.- Cl'jck by Justin Vulliamy, Windsor Castle. 

origin. Justin Vulliamy emigrated from Switzerland and settled in 
London early in the eighteenth century. He became connected with 
Benjamin Gray, of Pall Mall, whose daughter he married, and with 
whom he subsequently entered into partnership. Watches of very 
fine quality, inscribed " Benj. Gray, Just. Vulliamy," are occasionally 
to be met with. A choice example fetched £120 155., when the 
Hawkins collection was dispersed by auction in 1895. The case of 
gold was enamelled in colours with figures in a garden, birds and 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

flowers ; the outer case was of gold and crystal, and had a diamond 
thumb-piece to press back the locking spring. A fine watch by them, 
with the hall mark for 1757, formerly the property of Lieut. James 
Stockham, who commanded the Thunderer at the battle of Trafalgar, 
is in the Guildhall Museum. In the Wetherfield collection are two 
long case clocks of their make. 

At Gray's death the business was carried on by Justin \'ulliamv. 




'o>#-l ^^^^H 



V ■ 

-t^^ ;- ^^^^1 

^^Kik ^K 

^^^^ f \ ^^^H 

MMA j^ 

pt^"ii^ i ^m 


^MMK» '!^^ 


Wtk '"ii./^ 

Fig. 463. 

Benjamin Gray was appointed as clockmaker to George II., and the 
family of Vulliamy held the office of clockmaker to the reigning 
sovereign till the death of Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy in 1854. 

Benjamin Vulliamy, the son of Justin, was much favoured and 
consulted by George III. on mechanical subjects, especially in 
connection with Kew Observatory, which was a hobby of the king. 

Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy, born in 1780, was noted for the exactness 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


and excellent finish of his work, in both clocks and watches. The 
large clock at the old Post Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand, and one at 
Christ Church, Oxford, are among the public timekeepers by him. 
He took an acti\e interest in the Clockmakers' Company, of which 
he was five times master between 1821 and 184S. In 1849 the Court 
presented him with a piece of plate in recognition of his services 
to the Company. He wrote several pamphlets on trade subjects. 
One of them, on the construction of the dead-beat escapement for 
clocks, advocated the turning of the pallets for ensuring greater 

Specimens of \'iilliamv's handiwork abound at the Royal Palaces, 

Fig. 464. 

and in many instances clocks originally by other makers now contain 
Vulliamy movements either wholly or in part. All those I have 
illustrated are at Windsor Castle. 

On the mantelpiece of the late Queen's dining-room was a chiming 
clock by Justin Vulliamy, in a plain blackwood broken arch case as 
shown in Fig. 462. It has a white enamel dial, and was chosen by 
Her Majesty for the situation by reason of its particular legibility. 
The subsidiary dials in the upper corners are for guidance in actuating 
the rise and fall of the pendulum and strike-silent hands. 

A clock by Vulliamy in an uncommon and well-executed case of 
white marble, with two boys of biscuit china and particularly realistic 
building materials, is shown in Fig. 463. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

The presence chamber contains a sumptuous mantelpiece of 
white marble, a magnificent piece of sculpture by J. Bacon, R.A., 
executed in 1790, and incorporating the clock case as seen in 
Fig. 464. 

The clock is by Vulliamy, the fine enamelled dial slightly convex 

^ * ->*, ,t ^-' 

Fig. 465. 

in form, measures about ten inches across. Under the clock is the 
inscription by Cowper : — 


which Hayley happily rendered : — 

" Slow comes the hour, its passing speed how great ! 
Waiting to seize it — Vigilantly wait." 

In the Grand Reception-room is a clock with a movement by 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


Fig. 466, 
Chiming clock by VuUiamy. 

^ '« / 



Fig. 467 

Standard Clock at Windsor 



Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

VuUiamy and the peculiar case in the Chinese style shown in 
Fig. 465. This and the companion case which contains an aneroid 
barometer were made to the order of George IV. for the Pavilion 
at Brighton, and removed to Windsor on the accession of Queen 

A fine chiming clock by Vulliamy, with case in the Louis XIV. 
style, and dating from about 1820, which is in the Zuccarelli room 
at Windsor Castle, is shown in Fig. 466. The outline of the case is 


iJie iOc*|Hmi ISM 


Fig. 468. 

excellent, the surface of black shell is inlaid with brass and decorated 
with bold but rather coarsely chased ormolu mounts 

On the landing by the Administration Offices of the Castle is the 
long case clock by Vulliamy shown in Fig. 467, It is well made, 
with jewelled pallets, and is now used as a standard timekeeper. 
The dial is of enamel with gilt spandrels. The case though plain is 
of choice mahogany and has an effective appearance. 

Over the state entrance in the Quadrangle of Windsor Castle, was 
formerly a clock by Joseph Knibb, which B. L. Vulliamy replaced in 

Rt'ccrds of Early Makers, etc. 


1829 by one, the dial and surroundings of which are shown in Fig. 468. 
Though plain, the dial and hands are certainly an example of the 
best style of that period. 

When the new Houses of Parliament were being built, the 
architect, Mr. Barry, applied to Mr. B. L. VuUiamy for information 
respecting the construction of the clock tower, and this circumstance, 
together with \'ulliamy's influential position in the horological 

Fig. 469. — BENJA^^^• Lewis Vulliamy, 17S0 — 1S54. 

world, led people to think he would make the clock, as indeed it 
Avas intended by Barry and others that he should. But Vulliamy 
objected to the conditions laid down by Mr. Denison, who was 
commissioned by the Government to draw up a specification in 
conjunction with the i\stronomer Royal, and, backed by the Clock- 
makers' Company, declared the stipulations to be too onerous and 
unnecessary. Vulliamy submitted drawings of what he considered 
the clock should be like, and this design Denison ridiculed as being 
c.w. A A 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

merely suited for a village clock of the old style, and quite unworthy 

of the national time- 
keeper. Denison's 
masterful attitude pre- 
vailed, and Vulliamyhad 
to succumb, feeling, there 
is no doubt, the keenest 
mortification at being 
ousted from the proud 
position of leading clock- 
maker. It must be ad- 
mitted that his talent lay 
rather in the perfection 
of details than in com- 
prehensive departures 
from the beaten track. 
He died in January, 
1854. 1'^^^ appended 
portrait is from a mini- 
ature at the Horological 

Justin Theodore 
V u 1 1 i a m y , who was 
warden of the Clock- 
makers' Company from 
1820 to 1822, appears to 
have had no other con- 
nection with the horo- 
logical trades. He was, 
I believe, a brother of 
B. L. Vulliamy. 

Charles Clay. — A 
remarkably handsome 
musical clock by Charles 
Clay, which stood for 
many years in a manor 
house in Suffolk, is shown 
in Fig. 470 by favour of 
Mr. P. Webster. 

It is 8 feet 6 inches 
Fig, 470.— Musical clock by Charles Clay. in height, the case being 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


cli\iclfcl into two portions, the upper part of which is of ainboyna 
wood relieved with heavy brass mounts well finished. In the arch 
of the dial are shown the age of the moon, the day of the month, and 
the following list of tunes played by the clock : — 

"(i) Mr. Arcangelo Corelli's Twelfth Concerto, ist Adagio, 2nd 
Allegro, 3rd Saraband, 4th Jigg. 

" (2) The fugue in the overture of Ariadne." 

On the hour circle is engraved the maker's name, " Charles Clay, 
London." The pedestal, which is of Spanish mahogany and 
amboyiia wood, contains Clay's chiming machine with 21 bells. It 
is a fine piece of mechanism, dri\en by an ordinary cliiming weiglit. 


Fig. 471. 

though the barrel is fully 12 inches in diameter. Dampers are used 
to avoid vibration of the bells one with another, and by an ingenious 
contrivance the music starts immediately the clock finishes striking. 
The fly is attached to an endless screw, which ensures smooth 
running. This clock is apparently referred to in the following 
extract from the Weekly Journal, May 8th, 1736: — "On Monday 
Mr. Clay, the inventor of the machine watches in the Strand, had 
the honour of exhibiting to her Majesty at Kensington his surprising 
musical clock, which gave uncommon satisfaction to all the Royal 
Family present, at which time her Majesty, to encourage so great an 
artist, was pleased to order fifty guineas to be expended for numbers 

A A 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

in the intended raffle, by which we hear Mr. Clay intends to dispose 
of this said beautiful and most complete piece of machinery." 

James Ferguson. — James Ferguson was born at Keith, Banff- 
shire, in 1 710. He lived for some years at No. 4, Bolt Court, Fleet 
Street, where he died in 1776, and was buried in Marylebone church- 
yard. Among other conceptions of this celebrated astronomer and 
mechanician is the clock here shown, which is contrived with only 
three wheels and two pinions. The hours are engraved on a plate 
fitting friction tight on the great wheel arbor ; the minute hand is 
attached to the centre wheel arbor, and a thin plate divided into 
240 equal parts is fitted on the escape wheel arbor, and shows the 

Fig. 472. 

Fig. 473. 

seconds through a slit in the dial. The clock has a seconds pendulum. 
The number of teeth in the escape wheel is higher than is desirable, 
and the weight of the thin plate or ring in the escape wheel arbor is 
objectionable, though it might now be made of aluminium, vulcanite, 
or other very light material. 

Ferguson also designed a curious and useful clock for showing 
the time of high and low water, the state of the tides at any time 
of the day, and the phases of the moon. The outer circle of the 
dial in the left-hand corner of Fig. 472 is divided into twice twelve 
hours, with halves and quarters, and the inner circle into 29-5 equal 
parts for showing the age of the moon, each day standing under the 
time of the moon coming to the meridian on that day. There are 

Raiirds of luirly Mukcrs, etc, 


two hands on the end of the arbor comin;,^ throuf,di this dial, wliich 
go round in 2g days 12 
hours 45 minutes, and 
these hands are set as far 
apart as the time of hij^di 
water at the place the 
clock is to ser\e differs 
from the time the moon 
comes to the meridian ; 
so that, by looking at this 
dial, one may see at what 
time the moon will be on 
the meridian and at what 
time it will be high water. 
On the dial in the right- 
hand corner, all the differ- 
ent states of the tide are 
marked. The highest 
points on the shaded ellipse 
represent high, and the 
lowest, low water. The 
index travels round this 
dial in the time that the 
moon revohes from the 
meridian to the meridian 
again. In the arch abo\e 
the dials a blue plate, to 
represent the sea, rises 
and falls as the tides do, 
and over this a ball, half 
black and half white, 
shows the phases of the 

The mechanism as it 
would appear at the back 
of the dial is shown in 
Fig. 473. A wheel of 30 
fixed to the hour wheel 
on the centre arbor goes 
round once in twelve hours, and gears with a wheel of 60, on 
whose arbor a wheel of 57 drives a wheel of 59, the arbor of 

Fig. 474. 

35.8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

which carries the hand for the right-hand dial. On this arbor is 
an elliptical cam which carries and lets down the tide plate twice 
in 24 hours 50-5 minutes. On the arbor of the wheel of 57 is a 
pinion of 16, driving a wheel of 70, on whose arbor is a pinion 
of 8 driving an idle wheel of 40. This idle wheel is merely to 
reverse the direction of the wheel of 54 with which it gears, and 
which carries the hands for the left-hand dial. The moon is driven 
from this last arbor by means of a pair of mitre wheels. 

Jenkins' Astronomical Clock. — Henry Jenkins, who flourished 
from 1760 to 1780, first at 46, Cheapside, and afterwards at 68, 
Aldersgate Street, must be reckoned among the celebrated clock- 
makers of his time. Fig. 474 shows one of several astronomical 
clocks he contrived and produced. There are concentric second and 
minute hands, and among other motions are shown : equation of 
time, days of the month, age and phases of the moon, time of high 
water at many seaports, the apparent motion of the fixed stars, 
motions of the planets, etc. 

The lunar and other motions, except the revolution of the planets, 
are nearly as in Enderlin's clock, and need not be recapitulated. 
From the earth's diurnal motion wheel, rotating once in twenty- 
four hours, is driven a worm which carries forward an annual wheel, 
and the representation of the fixed stars one tooth each day. From 
thence is a communication to the planetary system dial above, 
and the motions of the planets are obtained by six wheels fixed 
together on one stud and driving six other wheels whose sockets are 
circles, and represent their respective orbits. On the stud are wheels 
of 108, 78, 84, 40, 8, 5, driving on sockets 26, 48, 84, 75, 95, 147. 

George Margetts. — By the originality of his conceptions 
embodied in exact and well finished mechanism this chronometer 
and watch maker must be ranked with the masters. He was admitted 
as a member of the Clockmakers' Company in 1779 and carried on 
business at 21, King Street, Cheapside, till the end of the century, 
when he removed to No. 3, Cheapside. In Fig. 475 is shown a 
watch by him with a series of intricate superimposed dials and 
indicators actuated by exceedingly well-made mechanism. A small 
centre dial indicates mean time, and on this dial at the XH is the 
word Ports'^ ; London at 7 minutes ; Hull at 15 minutes ; Yarmouth 
at 22 minutes ; Dover at 29 minutes ; Downs at 35 minutes ; Plym'' 
at 45 minutes, and Dublin at 55 minutes. An enamel ring outside 
this dial gives tidal hours. Through a hole in this ring is shown the 
age of the moon, and a hand attached to the ring indicates the part 

Rc'cords of Early Makers, etc. 


of the heavens the moon is in. A <j;old band below this carries a 
pointer indicating the position of the sun. The signs of the zodiac 
are painted on the lower large dial. Beyond the tropic of Cancer is 
figured the Sun's declination in correspondence with the days of the 
year ; beyond that the degrees, 30°, of each sign of the zodiac ; and 
nearer still to the edge of the dial the niontlis and days of the year, 
so that, except that no pro\ision is made for leap year, it is a correct 
calendar. The large dial makes one turn in a sidereal day ; the sun 
hand, making one turn in 
a solar day, becomes the 
pointer indicating the date 
because it gets ^{r^th of 
the circle after the dial 
each day. A finger attached 
to a large gold band on the 
dial shows the declination 
of the sun throughout the 
year. The different pointers 
can be set independently 
of each other. Fitted round 
the smallest dial and ex- 
tending to the large gold 
band is a curved frame of 
gold with arcs within it. 
It carries a pointer and 
may be moved round but 
its purpose is not evident. 
An eccentric circle on the 
large dial represents the 
orbit of the earth, farthest 
from the sun in June, 
nearest in December. The watch is in pair cases, the inner one of brass, 
and the outer one of twenty-two carat gold bearing the London hall 
mark of 1783. I recently saw a watch of earlier date with a similar 
dial. Watches by him with complicated dial work are also in the 
British and Guildhall Museums. 

As the cost of these watches must have been very great, one is 
inclined to think they were probably ordered for presentation by 
some wealthy corporation such as the East India Company. A 
ship's captain for instance would particularly appreciate such a 
piece of complicated horology. Some time ago I was shown a 




Old Clucks and Watches and ilicir Makers. 

chronometer by him on the dial of which was inscribed " Margett's 
eight-days timepiece, 202," and on the plate, " Geo. Margetts, London, 
Invt. et fecit, eight-day nautical chronometer." It was the size of 
a small two-day marine chronometer, the great wheel being planted 
near the top plate ; it had a spring detent ; an escape wheel o 
sixteen teeth, measuring -470 of an inch in diameter and an impulse 

Fig. 476. — Breguet's Synchronizer. 

roller one quarter the size of wheel. He made a regulator for the 
Archbishop of Armagh in 1790, and can be traced at 3, Cheapside, 
till about 1806. 

Abraham Louis Breguet. — The intense and abiding interest 
taken in the works of this the predominant Continental horologist of 
his period, may be traced to the great variety of his conceptions and 
the exactness with which they were carried out. He seems to have 

Records of liiii'lv Miiksrs, cic. 


had the faculty of sun'ounchn,;^ hiinsfU with assistants wlio were 
good mechanicians and able to embody his ideas to the best 
advantage. Clocks, chronometers and watches of his make all bore 
the stamp of originality in some particular. A defect in construction 
had only to be pointed out or the whim of a customer re\ealed, when 
Breguet was ready with the retiuirement. Of his more daring con- 
trivances may be mentioned a "synchronizer" or clock for setting 
a watch right, a tourbillon or revolving carriage in which the escape- 
ment of a w^atch was placed so as to nullify the effect of change of 

Fig. 477. — Watch with perpetual calendar and equation of time register. 

position, which was one of the most perplexing problems of the 
adjuster; yielding bearing surfaces to the balance stati pivots of a 
watch, which he termed a " parachute," the object being to prevent 
damage to the pivots through shocks. 

Beillard quotes a letter from Breguet to the " Citoyen " minister 
of the Interior, asking for a patent for his escapement a Tourbillon, 
dated Paris le 18 Brumaire An IX. 

Of Breguet's writing no extracts can be given, for he published 
nothing ; his works form the best tribute to his memory. Of these 
a few are selected for illustration. 

362 Old Clocks and ]]\itchcs and their Makers. 

Fig. 478. — Braguet's " Chef d'ceuvrc." Perpetual or self--.vinding watch with gold movement. 

Fig. 479. — Watch with synchronous balances; two movements in one case. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


Fip^. 476 is a \-ie\v of a clock and watch forming the " Synchro- 
nizer " which was in tlie Napier collection. Another specimen is 
the property of His Majesty the King, and I am indebted for the 
illustration to Mr, H. M. Frodsham who, by permission, explained 
the mechanism of it in the Hovological Journal some time ago. As 
already stated, the object of the in\ention is to set the watch right. 
Projecting above the case of the clock are two crescent-shaped clips 
to hold the watch. The clock may be regarded as a standard, and 

Fig. 4 So. 
Prince Murat's repeating watch. 

Fig. 4S1. 
Watch with chronometer escape- 
ment mounted in tourbillon carriage. 

when the watch is placed in position, as shown, it is not only set to 
time at any desired hour, but if necessary the regulator of the watch 
is also shifted. Projecting from the top of the clock is a pin which 
enters a small hole in the case of the watch and so establishes con- 
nection between the special pieces added to the two. There is an 
extra train of wheels in the watch to set the minute hand to zero, 
and this train is discharged by a snail-shaped cam in the clock. 
\\\i\\ this general statement I must be content ; the details are most 
complicated, and to attempt anything like a clear description within 
a reasonable space would be hopeless. 


Old Clocks and Wnich.cs and iliciv Makers. 

In Fig. 477 are front and l)ack \iews of a gold watch, No. 92, 
which was sold to the Due de Praslin for 4,800 francs on the 
II Thermidor, An 13 (30th July, 1805). It repeats the preceding 
hour, each period of ten minutes which has elapsed, and then the 
number of minutes beyond. On an enamelled dial in front are 
a perpetual calendar and an equation of time register. It has an 
independent seconds hand. At the back of the watch is a gold 
engine-turned dial, showing the age of the moon, the amount the 
mainspring is wound, a regulator for time, and one also for the 
repeating train. 

Front and back \iews of what is often spoken of as Breguet's 
chef d'ceiivre are given in Fig. 478. It is 
a watch measuring 2f inches across, which, 
as stated in Breguet's Certificate, was ordered 
in 17S3 by an officer of the Marie Antoinette 
Gardes, with the condition that it should 
contain all complications and improvements 
then known or possible, and that in its 
construction gold instead of brass should 
be used. No price was fixed, and its manu- 
facture was begun in 1789, stopped during 
the revolution of 1789, again started in 1795, 
and completed in 1802, costing altogether 
30,000 francs. It is furnished with a lever 
escapement, compensation balance, gold 
balance spring, and two parachutes. All the 
pivots, without exception, run in ruby or 
sapphire holes. All parts usually of brass are 
of gold. It repeats the hours, quarters, and 
.ninutes, has an independent seconds hand, perpetual calendar, 
equation of time register, and a thermometer. But perhaps the 
most ingenious feature of the mechanism is that there is no pro- 
vision for a watch key, nor is any periodical operation needed to 
keep the watch going. So long as it is worn, recharging of the 
energy is automatically accomplished by a heavily-weighted but 
lightly-balanced nrm or lever, to which ordinary movenxents of the 
wearer give sufficient up and down motion to wind the mainspring 
with which it is connected. Breguet is generally credited with the 
invention of this device, but of this I am not sure, for a patent 
granted in 1780 to Recordon may ha^■e been a prior disclosure 
of it. Back and front the movement is covered with rock crystal, 

Fig. 482. 

Queen Victoria's Watch 

Exact size. 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


and the dial also is of crystal, though another dial of white 
enamel with gold figures is provided. This extraordinary watch 
is tlie property of Mr. Louis Desoutter, to wlion: I am in- 
debted foi- the photographs of this 
and of the other Breguet watches 
here shown. 

Fig. 479 gives front and back \iews 
of a watch by " Breguet et fds, 
No. 2794," which was sold to Louis 
XVII L in September, 1821, for 7,000 
francs. Here are really two move- 
ments side by side in one case, witli 
separate niunerals and hands for each. 
The obje' t of its production was to 
demonstrate the effect on the time- 
keeping of a balance when another 
similar balance was set in motion near 
it. It was thought the errors of one 
woukl neutrahze the errors of the 
other, and that they would vibrate in 
unison. There is a provision for 
lessening or increasing the distance 
the balances are apart. A counter- 
part of this watch was made for 
George III. 

The watch of which a front view 
is given in I'ig. 480 has a gold case 
and dial, repeats the hours and 
quarters, and is furnished with a 
calendar and a thermometer. It is 
numbered 1806, and was sold to 
Prince Murat in 1S07 for 4,000 

In Fig. 481 is represented a silver 
watch having a chronometer escape- 
ment mounted in atourbillon carriage. 
It is signed " Breguet et fils," and numbered 2520. Its original cost 
was £r96. 

An exceedingly diminutive and thin double-cased watch is shown 
to its exact size, with the outer case detached, in Fig. 482. The 
cases and dial are of gold ; it needs no key, but is wound from the 

Fig. 4S3. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

pendant, has a lever escapement, and is numbered 5102. It carries 
an especially interesting association, for it was sold to Queen 
Victoria on July 17th, 1838. The price was 4,250 francs. 

A clock by Breguet, held aloft by a kneeling figure of bronze gilt, 
is shown in Fig. 483. The clock has a chronometer escapement and 
silver dials front and back. On the back is a calendar, the indicators 
for which turn to the left, so that if viewed through a mirror the 
actions appear to be right handed. It is ig inches in height. 

The majority of. Breguet's watches had very plain exteriors, the 

dials as a rule being either 
of silver or white enamel, 
while the cases were gene- 
rally embellished with a 
delightful kind of fine en- 
gine turning which it was 
a pleasure to see and to 
handle ; his less costly 
productions seemed to be 
purposely devoid of all en- 
richment. As an example, 
one of his '■'■ souscription'' 
watches is here shown. 
It was made in 1821, bears 
the inscription " Breguet 
et Fils," and cost ;^26. 
The bezels and bow are of 
gold and the body and 
back of the case are silver. 
It winds at the centre of 
the dial and has an hour 
hand only, though this is 
of peculiar construction, 
for beyond the part which indicates the hour is a fine prolongation to 
reach the sub-divisions, w^hich are each a twelfth of an. hour, equal to 
five minutes. With practice one could doubtless estimate the time 
very closely in this way. It is said that the subscription watches 
obtained their title from the combination of Breguet and certain of his 
workpeople to produce a reliable watch at a moderate price. Many 
of his watches had the signature Breguet scratched on the dial in 
script, the characters being so very tiny as to be almost indistin- 
guishable without a magnifier. His early watches, it may be 

Breguet's " Subscription Watch." 

Rccurch of liavly Makers, etc. 


supposed, were not so marked, but I cannot ascertain when the 
practice bej^an. In some instances tlie number of the watch 
was on the pendant, but this again did not occur on all his 

Mr. Lionel Faudel Phillips has a watcli by P)reguet in which the 
balance pivots are carried between friction rollers, a plan tried by 
Mudge in his marine chronometers. 

Breguet was born at Neuchatel, Switzerland, in 1747, his parents 
being of French origin. He 
settled in Paris in early 
m a n h o o d and (] u i c k 1 y 
achieved success in busi- 
ness. Beillard relates that 
Marat, who also came fn)ni 
Switzerland, and Breguet 
were intimately acquainted^ 
and one night when they 
met at a friend's house in 
the rue Greneta, the popu- 
lace under the windows 
shouted, "Down with 
Marat ! " The situation 
becoming serious, Breguet 
dressed Marat up as an old 
woman and they left the 
house arm in arm. Some 
time after, when the guillo- 
tine was set up " en per- 
manence,'' Marat, finding 
Breguet was in danger, gave 
him a pass to Switzerland. 
Breguet took a post chaise forthwith and reached Locle in safety. 
He afterwards returned to Paris and died there in 1823, being suc- 
ceeded in business by his son, Louis Antoine, who retired in 1833, 
and was followed by his son Louis, a worthy grandson of Abraham L. 
Although as an horologist Louis was overshadowed by the great- 
ness of his grandsire, he established a reputation among electricians, 
as well as among horologists, and timekeepers issued from the house of 
Breguet during his administration were of the highest possible quality. 
Equation Clocks. — To meet the perplexity caused by the fact 
that sundials recorded true solar time and clocks mean solar time, 





•■ — ^ » •» 



^- ^B 

_~ - 

Abraham Louis Breguet, 1747 — 1823. 


Old Clocks and ]]'atchcf; and their Makers. 

as explained on p. 2, equation dials to indicate the difference each 
day were added in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
Foremost among the inventors of equation work must be mentioned 
Joseph Williamson, whose paper in the Philosophical Transactions 
is referred to on p. 291. As well as clocks to indicate the varia- 
tion between solar and mean time, he appears to have arranged 
mechanism to raise or lower the pendulum of a clock as required. 



j^ :^t^^ xt%-. ^#s 

Fig. 484. 

Fig. 484A. 

in order that the hands might indicate true solar time, as in the 
twelve-month timepiece at Hampton Court which bears Quare's 
name. Figs. 484 and 484A are drawings of an equation clock by 
iinderlin, which gives, in addition to true and mean solar time, a 
perpetual day of the month, the sun's place in the zodiac, his rising 
and setting, and the moon's age and phases. 

Fig. 484 is the dial work, and Fig. 484A the dial itself. In Fig. 
484 the wheel Q, of 24 teeth, takes its moiion from the striking part. 
It impels the wheel R, of 32 teeth, with a vertical arbor, which has 
a bend and compound joint T. This arbor has an endless screw, S, 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 369 

in the middle of the inclined half, turning -wheel A, of 487 teeth, and 
also a pinion a, of 24 leaves, actuating a wheel V, of 32 teeth. This 
last wheel revolves in 24 hours, a in 18 hours, and with it the arbor 
R T S rt. Q revolves in 13 hours 30 minutes, and A in 8760 hours, 
or 365 days 6 hours, whence it is called the annual wheel. The 
wheel X, with 62 inclined teeth, and tlie wheel Z, with 90 teeth, 
revoke separately round one common centre 5, Z being in front. 
X is impelled by a tooth or pallet on the 24 hours arbor of the 
wheel V, and Z by an endless screw Y. This screw has a pinion 6, 
of 21 leaves, upon its upper end, and, impelled by the pinion a, turns 
Z in 59 days i hour 30 minutes, being the sum of two lunations. 
The wheel X is impelled one tootli every 24 hours, therefore an 
entire revolution would be performed in 62 days : but it does not in 
fact make more than one-half of a revolution when it jumps back. 

The Equation Movement.— On the point D, in Fig. 484, the rack E 
moves its tail c, resting on the circumference of the equation curve. 
At is a box with a spring, which keeps the cord 15 always 
stretched. This cord surrounds a pulley on the plane of a concealed 
wheel N, under K, but not attached to it. This wheel acts into 
the rack which is always resting on the equation curve. The 
pinion I, of 30 teeth, revolving in 60 minutes and carrying the 
minute hand, turns the wheel K, of 60, which drives a pinion L, 
of 30, also in 60 minutes. To L is attached a wheel H, of 48 teeth, 
which turns a similar wheel F, and this again a third similar wheel 
G, the tube of which surrounds the arbor of I, and carries the 
equation hand with a little sun on it pointing to 30, in Fig. 484A. 
The wheel N, below K, is pinned to a bar, which is not seen, but 
which carries the wheel H and pinion L ; and as the teeth of the 
rack are acting in the wheel N, the concealed bar moves alternately 
towards I and 15 as the radius of the equation cam varies. This 
motion makes the pinion L sometimes advance and sometimes retro- 
grade a few teeth, independently of the motion it receives from the 
rotation of K ; and this additional motion is also communicated to 
the wheel H in consequence of its connection with L, and hence to 
both F and G, the latter bearing the equation hand. 

Altogether this is an interesting example of the mechanism of 
early complicated clocks. The perpetual calendar work is now done 
with more simplicity, in cases where such devices are demanded, 
and the equation indicator of Tompion's Bath clock, of which a 
description is also given, is actuated in a more direct way, as may be 
seen from comparison. 

c.w. B 3 


Old Clocks and ]Vatchcs and their Makers. 

Green's Lichfield Clock. — In the Universal Magazine for 1748 is 
illustrated a singular clock with a peculiar outer case, about four feet 
high, built in three tiers, and shown in Fig. 485. The early history 
of the clock does not appear to be known, but at the date quoted it 
belonged to Mr. Richard Green, of Lichfield. 

The upper part represents a pavilion, whereon stands a brazen 
statue of Fame. Within the pa\-ilion, in the centre, appears 

Fig. 4S5. — Lichfield clock. 

Pontius Pilate, having a basin of water before him, as washing his 
hands ; and round him move continually three images, representing 
our Savour as going to His crucifixion, the Virgin Mary, and Simon 
the Cyrenian bearing the cross. These three last-mentioned figures 
make one entire revolution every minute. The musical part of this 
clock executed eight different tunes, any one of which it played 
several times over every three hours, v.-ith provision also to play it 

The outward case of this horological machine occupies the left of 

Records of Early Makers, tic. 


the engravin-;-. It represents a highly decorated church tower of 
('.othic architecture, with pinnacles, battlements, windows, mouldings, 


Fig. 480. — Bridges' clock. 

images, buttresses, etc., admirably painted and well carved. This 
perspective view of the outward case is so contrived that no part of 
the inner structure but the dial appears to view, except the front of 
this case (which consists of an upper and lower door) is thrown 
open. The clock may be then taken out, appearing then as is shown 

B B 2 

372 Old Clacks and Watches and their Makers. 

on the right of the engraving, and placed on the table or elsewhere. 
The height of the outside case is 5 ft. 2 in. 

Henry Bridges. — Henry Bridges, who lived at Waltham Abbey, 
and was brought up as an architect, seems to have obtained a greater 
reputation abroad than at home as the producer of clocks with 
motions representing the heavenly bodies. The specimen of his 
work delineated in the accompanying figure was publicly exhibited in 
about 1770 by Edward Davis, who wrote a pamphlet describing it. 
It is a monumental clock ten feet high and six feet broad at the base. 
Within the pediment at the top of the structure is a scene represent- 
ing the Muses on Parnassus ; this changes periodically to a forest 
with Orpheus and wild beasts, which in its turn gives place to a 
sylvan grove with birds. 

On the upper large dial and the four small ones are indicated the 
seconds, minutes, and hours ; the rising and setting of the sun ; 
equation of time, the age phases of the moon, and signs of the 
zodiac. On the lower of the large dials is exhibited the Copernican 
system of time, consisting of se\'enteen bodies, the sun being in the 
centre and the planets moving round it. On a panel below are a 
landscape and the sea with representations of moving persons and 
vessels, and on a second panel men at work in a carpenter's yard. 
These automata were very popular, and quite suited to the taste 
of the period. Besides these, the edifice contained an organ, which 
was played at intervals. Altogether there were, it is stated, over a 
thousand wheels and pinions in the composition of the mechanism. 

It is remarkable how little is to be gathered respecting Henry 
Bridges among English horological records. Dubois says he was 
clockmaker in the court of Charles I., and that the identical clock 
illustrated on p. 371 was made for the Duke of Buckingham. But 
this account cannot be accepted, for seconds and minute hands were 
not usual in the time of Charles I. The wig and dress of Bridges, 
are of the style in vogue at the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
and we may conclude that this was about the period he flourished. 
In the Ashmolean Museum is a copy of the print from which 
Fig. 486 is taken and it is dated 1734. 

Lovelace's Exeter Clock. — Jacob Lovelace was born in the 
city of Exeter, where, in 1766, at the age of sixty, he ended his days 
in great poverty, having been thirty- four years engaged in constructing 
the monumental clock shown in the accompanying engraving. The 
mechanism is enclosed in an elegant cabinet ten feet high, five feet 
wide, and weighing half a ton, ornamented with Oriental figures and 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


finely executed paintings, bordered by richly carved fretwork. The 
movements are: i . A moving panorama descriptive of Day and Night. 
Day is represented by Apollo in his car drawn by four spirited 
coursers, accompanied by the twelve liours ; and Diana in her car drawn 
by stags, attended by the twelve hours, represents Night. 2. Two 
<rilt fiefures in Roman costume, who turn their heads and salute with 

Fig. 487. — Lovelace's clock. 

their swords as the panorama revolves, and also move in the same 
manner while the bells are ringing. 3. A perpetual almanack, 
showing the day of the month on a semicircular plate, the index 
returning to the first day of every month on the close of each 
month, without alteration even in leap years, regulated only once 
in 130 years. 4. A circle, the index of which shows the day of the 
week, with its appropriate planet. 5. A perpetual almanack, 

374 ^^^^ Clocks and Watches and ihciv Makers. 

showing the da}S of the month and the equation of time. 6. A 
circle showing the leap year, the index revolving only once in four 
years. 7. A timepiece that strikes the hours and chimes the 
quarters, on the face of which the whole of the twenty-four hours 
(twelve day and twelve night) are shown and regulated ; within 
this circle the sun is seen in his course, with the time of rising and 
setting, by an horizon receding or advancing as the days lengthen 
or shorten, and under is seen the moon, showing her different 
quarters, phases, age, etc. 8. Two female figures on either side of 
the dial-plate, representing Fame and Terpsichore, who move in 
time when the organ plays. 9. A movement regulating the clock 
as a repeater, to strike or to be silent. 10. Saturn, the god of Time, 
who beats in movement when the organ plays. 11. A circle on the 
face shows the names of eight celebrated tunes played by the organ 
in the interior every four hours. 12. A belfry wdth six ringers, 
who ring a merry peal. The interior of this part of the cabinet is 
ornamented with beautiful paintings, representing some of the 
principal ancient buildings in the city of Exeter. 13. Connected 
with the Organ is a bird organ, which plays when required. 
Beside the dial is the inscription, " Tern pus reritm Iinpcratov.'" 

According to an advertisement in ihe Flying Post, ]u\y ^t\\, 1821, 
this clock was about to be publicly exhibited ; and in the same 
publication for September 8th, 1831, it was announced that " Love- 
lace's celebrated clock," which for several years was in the collection 
of Mr. James Burt, had the previous week been sold by auction for 
680 guineas by the noted George Robins. 

At the International Exhibition, 1851, it was a prominent feature 
in the Western Gallery. It then belonged to Mr. Brutton, who 
had it put in order by Mr. Frost, of Exeter, after it had been 
deranged for some years. In 1888 a suggestion in the Exeter Press 
that the clock should be purchased for the Imperial Institute, resulted 
in nothing, and it was afterwards acquired for the Liverpool Museum, 
where it remains. 

James Cox and h',s Perpetual Motion Clock. — By favour of 
Mr. George Ellis I a i enabled to reproduce an engraving of a self- 
winding, or as the inventor termed it, " a perpetual motion " clock, 
which now belongs to Mr. \\\ F. B. Massey-Mainwaring, M.P., and 
is deposited at the Horological Institute. The energy for keeping 
the mechanism in motion was obtained by changes in the pressure of 
the atmosphere. What at first sight seems to be a huge pendulum 
is an ornamental glass jar of mercury, suspended from chains. Into 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 


tliis is dipped a tuhe of niercurv, also Ininj^' from chains, open at its 
lower end, aiul witli a 
lar<,a' hulli at its up}X'r 
extremity. W'itli in- 
creased atmosplieric 
pressure a little of the 
mercury in the jar 
would be forced into 
the tube. The jar and 
tubes were balanced by 
weights, so that the 
tube being a little 
hea\'ier by the addition 
of mercury, would fall 
a little, and in so doing 
would raise the weiglit ; 
and with a fall in the 
pressure of the atmos- 
phere, the mercury in 
the jar would be in- 
creased and the weight 
would be raised a little. 
There is no pendulum, 
but the escapement, 
which is at the back of 
the dial, is controlled by 
a straight bar balance. 
Wherever possible, the 
rubbing surfaces w^ere 
jewelled with diamonds 
to reduce the friction. 
The clock which is over 
seven feet in height was 
constructed by James 
Cox, who resided for 
some time in Shor 
Lane, and really de- 
voted his life to the 
production of mechan- 
ical curiosities, very 
much in the style of those devised by Grollier de Serviere. 

Fig. 4SS. — Cox's perpetual motion. 


376 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

obtained an Act of Parliament in 1773, authorising him to dispose 
of his museum by means of a lottery, and for some months his 
conceptions formed an exhibition at Spring Gardens, where half-a- 
guinea admission for each person was charged. It was stated 
in an advertisement that the perpetual motion would occupy the 
centre of the room. The following certificate was appended to the 
advertisement : — 

" Sir, — I have seen and examined the above described clock, which is kept 
constantly going by the rising and falling of the quicksilver, in a most extra- 
ordinary barometer; and there is no danger of its ever failing to go, for there is 
always such a quantity of moving power accumulated as would keep the clock 
going for a year, even if the barometer should be quite away from it. And, 
indeed, on examining the whole contrivance and construction, I must with truth 
sa}', that it is the most ingenious piece of mechanism I ever saw in my life. 

"James Ferguson. 

"Bolt Court, Fleet Street, 

" Jan. 28th, 1774." 

The awarding of the various prizes to subscribers of the lottery took 

place in June, 1775. Mason, a rhymester of the time, thus refers to 

one of his exhibits : — ■ 

" Great Cox, at his mechanicall, 
Bids orient pearls from golden dragons fall ; 
Each little dragonet, with brazen grin, 
Gapes for the precious prize, and gulps it in. 
Yet, when we peep behind the scene, 
One master wheel directs the whole machine; 
The selfsame pearls, in nice gradation, all 
Around one common centre, rise and fall." 

Another of his " perpetual motion " clocks, which was really to be 
kept going by the opening and shutting of the door of the room in 
which it was contained, was for some years on view at the 
Polytechnic in Regent Street. 

Apart from his mysterious mechanism. Cox was an accomplished 
horologist. I saw a large travelling watch by him, belonging to Mr. 
William Johnson, in which everything was well proportioned and of 
the best execution. A chime clock of his make, in an ormolu case 
with allegorical figures surmounted by a lion holding the arms of 
England and a miniature of dancing bacchanals by Degault below 
the dial, fetched ;^86i at the Hamilton sale in 1882. 

Horstmann's Self-winding Clock. — In a self-winding clock 
invented by the late Gustave Horstmann, of Bath, the expansion 
and contraction of a liquid are used to wind the clock. A strong 
metal vessel, A in the figure, is filled with an easily expanding fluid, 
such as benzoline, mineral naphtha, etc. Connected to this vessel by a 
strong tube with a very small bore are a cylinder and piston, B and C, 

Records of Early Makers, etc. 



Ow'wvj, to the fact tluit most expandinn^ fluids are incapable of 
dri\in<^ a piston, bcinj^^ too \olatile and thin, the cylinder and tube 
are charged witli a tliicker and more lubricating fluid, sucli as 
glycerine. The vessel containing the expanding fluid is on a higher 
elevation than the piston and cylinder. This is done to prevent them 
mixing, as benzolinc is lighter than glycerine, and, therefore, rises to 
the top. It is easy now to see how that when the temperature 
rises, the expanding liquid will force the piston upward, and, by 
means of a slight counterforce, the piston will 
fall on the temperature lowering. 

The piston terminates in a cross-bar, to each 
end of which is attached a steel ribbon like a 
wide watch mainspring. These two bands are 
brought down over pulleys at D, fixed on each 
side of the cylinder, and then carried direct 
to the winding mechanism, E, of the clock, 
which is all fixed on the back of the case and 
independent of the mo\ement. The two bands 
join into one a little before they reach the 
winding. A large pulley, E, is fitted on a stud 
at the back of tlie case, and is driven by means 
of a ratchet and click. The pulley E has a 
flat groove, and is studded with short pins at 
equal distances apart, over which works a 
long steel ribbon perforated with oblong holes. 
This chain passes down through the weight 
pulley F, which also has a flat groove, but no 
pins, and is carried over the main wheel pulley 
G, which is supplied with pins, the same as 
the winding pulley. It then passes under the pulley of the counter- 
weight H, and is then joined to its other end, thus forming an 
endless chain. As the piston falls a coiled spring causes the smaller 
pulley at the top of the case to turn independently of E, and to 
coil the band J on to itself, ready for the next rise of temperature. 

Fan or "Windmill Clocks. — Fans actuated by currents of air 
have been from time to time used as motors for actuating time- 
keepers. One, by Lepaute, is in the Louvre, Paris. In Dardenne's 
more recent patent the weight is wound up by the current of air in a 
chimney acting upon the blades of a fan, which is stopped by a self- 
acting brake as soon as the weight nears the top of its course, 

Fig. 4S9. 

( 378 ) 




Beyond the examples which have already been given little need be 
said respecting French horology of the sixteenth and first half of the 
seventeenth century. Of the early French clockniakers, Julian 
Couldray (or Couldroy) is mentioned as having, in 1529, received 
from I'rancis I. xlix. livres iv. sols for 2 " monstres d'orloge" 
without weights. The same king, in 1531, caused to be paid to his 
" orlogeur " a sum of 50 ecus (ducats) for taking in hand a " monstre 
d'orloge." The term " monstre d'orloge " seems to have been 
generally used to designate a chamber clock up to about the middle 
of the seventeenth century. Henry HI. of France ordered Gilbert 
Martinot to make 2 " monstres," viz., a large round one to place in the 
apartment of the said " Seigneur" (the king), and another vertical clock 
with columns, which latter " hys majestie " had promised to the Bastard 
of Orleans, of both of which "hys majestie" had agreed the price. 

After the introduction of the pendulum, the term horloge appears 
to have been dropped so far as clocks for domestic use were 
concerned, and the title of " pendule " substituted. 

Paris Guild. — According to Savary, a corporate body of clock- 
makers was established about 1453, but the first statute of 
incorporation appears to have been granted by Francis I. in 
1544, on the petition of Fleurent Valleran, Jean de Presles, Jean 
Pantin, Michel Potier, Anthoine Beauvais, Nicholas Moret, and 
Nicolas le Contandois. The enactment decreed that no one, of 
whatever station, if he has not been admitted as a master, should 
make, or cause to be made, clocks, alarums, watches, large or 
small, or any other machine for measuring time, within the said 
town, city, and precinct of Paris, on pain of forfeiture of the said 
works. There were provisions for the regulation of apprentices, and 
for the appointment of officers to enfoice the powers conferred on 
the Corporation, very similar to the privileges accorded to the 
London Clockmakers in 1630. Upon the entry into Paris of 

FrcncJi Clock <^ and Casa in tlic French Slylc, etc. 379 

Fig, 490. 

Fig. 491, 

380 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 


49? • 

Fig. 493. 

French Clocks and Cases in the Frcncli Style, etc. 381 

Henri II., ten " orlogeurs " formed part of tlie procession composing 
the crafts. The Paris Clockmakers had their statute varied in 1554 
under Henri II., in 1572 under Charles IX., and in 1600 under 
Henri I\'. In 1646, under Louis XIV., their laws were thoroughly 
revised, and it was ordained that apprenticeship should be for eight 

Fig. 494. 

Fig. 495. 

Fig. 496. 

years, after which the apprentice could leave the employer, but 
subject only to the approval of his master, and that of the master of 
the Company. In i6gi was issued a regulation declaring that an 
apprentice was not qualified for membership, i.e., for submitting a 
master w^ork, until he had attained the age of at least 29 years. The 
number of msmbers was limited to 72, of which only six could 
be admitted without qualifying. Special privileges were accorded to 


Old Clocks and Jl'aichcs ar.d their Makers. 

sons of members, a fact which perhaps accounts for so many successive 
generations of a particular family following the craft. Widows 
could continue the business of their husbands, and enjoyed the same 
privileges. Artisans who practised their trade in districts administered 
by the king, the lord of the manor, the church, or the princes of the 

Fig. 497. 

blood, claimed exemption from control of the Guild. The districts 
where this immunity existed were : the Cloistre Parvis of Notre 
Dame, the Court of the Church of Saint Benoit, the enclosures of 
Saint Denis de Chartres, Saint Jean de Latran, Saint Martin des 
Champs, Saint Germain de Pres ; also the Rue de Lourcine (because 
subject to Saint Jacques de Latran), the Courts of the Temple and 
of the Trinity, and the Faubourg Saint Antoine. The work pro- 

Frcncli Clocks mid Cases in the Frciuh Slylc, c!c. j,^^ 

duced in these quarters was generally considered to be of an inferior 
order unless executed by a craftsman who had voluntarily joined the 
Corporation. To the pri\ileged places einunerated liave to be added 

Fig. 49S. 

Havaid Dictionnaivc dc rAnicidlenient, 

those where work was carried out for the king or the state, such as 
the Galeries du Louvre. The Associated Clockmakers appear to 
have governed the trade till the revolution of 1789, when all the 
guilds were abolished. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Alfred Franklin, in " La Vie Privee D'Autrefois," says the 
Martinets and Bidaults for a century and a half occupied lodgings 
in the Louvre, reserved by the king for distinguished artists. In 
1712 Louis XIV. had for clockmakers Louis Henri Martinot, 


Fig. 499. 
Havard Dictionna'.re de I'Autcublcmcnt. 

Augustus Francis Bidault, and Jerome Martinot. They were 
engaged by the quarter, received 395 livres for salary, dined at the 
Castle, at the table of the Gentlemen of the Chamber, and had the 
right of entry to the king's presence along with the distinguished 
members of his household. Every morning, during the dressing of 

Vrcuch Clocks and Cases in the French Slylc, etc. 385 



Fig. 500 
Schloss collection. 


c c 

386 Old Clocks and ]Vatches and their Makers^ 

Fig. 501. 
Timepiece by Lepaute. 

Fig. 502. 
Clock by Julien Le Roy. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 387 

the king, the horologist on duty wound up and properly adjusted the 
watches which his Sovereign was about to wear. 


Fig. 503. 

Fig. 504. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century decorative art in 
France underwent a remarkable change, and cases of " Pendules 

c c 2 


Old Clocks and ]]^atchcs and tlicir Makers. 

d'appartement," or chamber clocks, were produced in harmony with 
the extravagant demand for more sumptuous furniture of all kinds. 

Fig. 505. 

Eminent artists and designers vied with each other in ministering to 
the pronounced taste for novelty of form and style. J. Berain, 
Jacques Caffieri, BouUe and Marot were among the most noted of 
those engaged in horological coverings. As will hz seen, some of the 

Fycnch Clocks and Cm^cs in ihc FvcncJi Style, etc. 389 

earlier desij^ns were rather liea\y and formal. The ornamentation con- 
sisted of masks, escutcheons, shields, and other attributes of the style 
hitherto in \ogue, the structure in many instances being surmounted by 

Fig. 506. 

a representation of Father Time with his scythe, or Minerva helmeted 
and holding a lance, or warriors, ancient or mediaeval, and occasionally 
a cupid or nude female figure. Flatterers of Louis XIV. likened 
him to the sun, and it will be noticed that pendulums and other 
parts of many clocks produced during the latter part of his reign 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

were decorated with the face of Phoebus. But in the closing days 
of Louis XIV. the comparatively stiff and sedate outlines gave place 
to freer and more coquettish forms, and the traditional masks, etc., 
to Rocaille or " Rococo " decoration. 

Rocaille is, strictly speaking, a style of ornamentation which 

Fig. 507. 

obtains its effects from the kingdom of shells, but the products of 
luxurious vegetation, such as palms and other leaves, were also put 
under contribution, blended and twisted to produce a fanciful con- 
fusion of curves and spirals. To make the eccentricity more marked, 
designers, borrowing an idea from the Chinese, perversely strove to 

r'rcucJi Clocks and Cases in the FrencJi Style, etc. 


obtain originality in their conceptions by the avoidance of symmetry, 
tliough it must be confessed that in some instances the judicious 
incorporation of well posed figures and groups from the pictures of 

Fig. 508. 

Watteau and other celebrated artists produced effects sufficiently 
beautiful to quite atone for the outre character of the surroundings. 

Like many other fashions, the Rocaille style degenerated. It lost 
favour, and was done to death by the grotesque forms and unmeaning, 
contemptible decoration which characterises so many works executed 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

during the latter part of the reign of Louis XV, Such mad travesty 
caused a reversion during the reign of Louis XVL to simpler and 
more symmetrical designs. 

Fig. 509. 

Boulle or Buhl Work. — Charles Andre Boulle, who was born 
at Paris in 1642, became celebrated there as a chaser and inlayer. 
In 1672, Louis XIV. allotted to him rooms at the Louvre, and his 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 393 

effective inlay work of metal, usually brass and tortoiseshell or turtle- 
shell, speedily became the fa\oured decoration for furniture of all 
kinds. He died in 1732. 
Boulle work for clock cases 
and pedestals continued 
popular in France through- 
out the eighteenth century, 
and in a lesser degree here, 
where the title became cor- 
rupted into "Buhl." In 
some instances the natural 
tint of the shell would ap- 
pear. In others the shell 
would be painted on the 
back, red or black, according 
to the effect desired by the 
designer. Then by way of 
contrast the arrangement of 
the materials used was 
A'aried in different parts of 
the same object ; for in- 
stance, if on the front the 
outline was of shell, with a 
design inlaid with metal, 
the sides or perhaps panels 
elsewhere would be decor- 
ated with the counterpart or 
" counter," that is, the out- 
line would be metal and 
the inlay shell. " Counter " 
or metal outline, though 
often effective, is considered 
to be an inferior production. 
The particularly hand- 
some Louis XIV. clock and 
slender pedestal shown in 
Fig. 490 are in the Council 
Chamber at Windsor Castle. Fig. 510. 

Together they stand over 

seven feet in height, and are decorated with red shell and white 
metal Boulle work, relieved with ormolu mounts sharply chased, 


Old Clocks and IWitchcs and their Makers. 

The pendulum of the clock is seventeen inches long, descending 

below the clock case into the pedestal. The upper panel of the 

latter is hinged to afford 
access for regulation. This 
and several other engrav- 
ings of the clocks at Wind- 
sor Castle are reproduced 
from photographs taken for 
me by Mr. J. H. Agar- 

A plainer but very effec- 
tive pedestal, supporting a 
calendar clock as repre- 
sented in Fig. 491, is in 
the corridor at Windsor 
Castle. The surface is 
Boulle work of black shell 
and brass. 

Another choice example, 
in the Rubens room, appears 
as in Fig. 492. The front 
surface is brown shell inlaid 
with brass, the covering of 
the sides being in counter- 
part. The clock case has 
sphinx corner supports of 
ormolu and a domed top 
surmounted by a figure of 
Time. At the base of the 
case the three Fates are 
represented. The hour 
numerals are on plaques of 
enamel. Through the glazed 
part of the front below the 
dial may be seen the pen- 
dulum and the inside of the 
back of the case, which is 
Pj(-_ -jj covered with inlay in 

counterpart. The style of 

this clock, apart from the pedestal, was long in favour with French 


Frcncli Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 


In the Wallace collection is a clock by Mynuel, with case and 
pedestal by Boulle of nearly the same period, and bearinj^f a general 
resemblance to Fig. 492. They 
were purchased in 1863 for 
/"GjOoo. The clock is sup- 
ported on figures of fantasti- 
cally costumed w-arriors with 
their accoutrements, and on its 
summit is a statuette of Cupid 
shooting. On the upper part 
of the pedestal is a medallion 
representing Hercules relieving 
Atlas of the burden of the 

A clock and pedestal of the 
same dimensions, and nearly 
identical in design, is in the 
Biblioth^que de 1' Arsenal at 
Paris. Another of the same 
type is in the collection at 
Waddesdon Manor. The 
splendid pedestal clock shown 
in Fig. 493 was at the Palais 
du Louvre, Paris. 

Many of the best designs of 
the Louis XIV. period were by 
Daniel Marot, who was born 
in Paris in 1660. By the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes 
he was driven to England, but 
in 1702 took up his abode in 
the Netherlands. Appended 
are some examples from a 
collection of his works pub- 
lished at Amsterdam in 171 2. 
In this book he was described as 
" Architecte de Guillaume III., 
Roy de la Grande Bretagne." Pj^- .^2. 

Fig. 494 by him does not show 

the minutes ; it has an hour hand and a hand for pointing to the day 
of the month on a circle outside of the hours. Fig. 495, also by 


Old Clocks and IVatches and their Makers. 

Marot, has a minute indicator, and may be of a slightly later period. 

Fig. 496, though very much 
in the style of the Windsor 
Castle brass inlay clocks, is 
of more recent date. 

Figs. 497, 498 and 499 are 
bracket or table clocks, by 
Marot. The superbly de- 
signed specimen shown in 
Fig. 497 is really perfect. 

An interesting bracket 
clock, with complicated 
mo\'ements, in a case inlaid 
with white metal and brass 
Boulle work, dating from 
about 1 690-1 7 10, is shown 
in Fig. 500. At the top of 
the dial plate is engraved 
the motto " Nee pluribus im 
. par," the first two words 
preceding and the second 
two following a representa- 
tion of the sun. At the foot 
of the dial plate is the in- 
scription " Henricus Mar- 
tin ot, motum adjunxit. 
Pouilly Inventor Fecit 
Parisis." Henry Martinet 
was Chief Clockmaker to 
Louis XIV., having lodgings 
in the Louvre, and on the 
plinths oi the two columns, 
which are prominent features 
of the dial plate, is the doubled 
initial of the King, L. L., 
interlaced and reversed, sur- 
mounted by a crown. This 
treatment, coupled with the 
fleur de lys ornament formed 
by the Boulle work of the case, led to the conclusion that the clock 
was made for Louis XIV., possibly for presentation to some 



Frciuli Clocks and Cases in the FrcncJi Style, etc. 397 

Fig. 514. 

distinguished person. Tlie dial circle, supported by a figure of 
Saturn, shows hours and minutes, besides which appear, through 
seven openings within the circle, sunrise, sunset, the length of the 

398 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Prciich Clccks and Cases in the I'rciicli Siylc^ ck\ 399 

day, the length of the night, the month of the year, and certain 
events of the year as they occur. 

Fig. 518. 

Above the centre of the dial are eight tablets, and below the centre 
four more. These contain each the title of a month, with a number 
arranged in a peculiar way, thus : April 2 ; July 5 ; September 7 ; 


Old Clocks and ]Vaichcs and their Makers. 

December lo ; June 4 ; February 12 ; March i ; November g. These 
are the eight upper ones, the four below, arranged in a cruciform 
frame, are August 6 ; May 3 ; January 1 1 ; and October 8. Under- 
neath a fleur de lys, en- 
graved over the words 
" Premiers jours du mois," 
points direct to the figure 8 
of the month of October. 
On each side of the dial 
centre is engraved an oval 
border within which, show- 
ing through curved slits, are, 
on the left the age of the 
moon, and on the right the 
days of the month ; the title 
of each day is engraved on 
the plate in each case, and 
on the right are also 
allegorical figures to repre- 
sent the days. 

The shafts of the columns 
already referred to are slit, 
and each has a pointer 
which travels from top to 
bottom during the space of 
one year. On the plate, 
beside the left-hand column, 
at equal distances are enu- 
merated the months of the 
year, and on the corre- 
sponding space at the other 
side are the following twelve 
annual notes — Nombre d'or, 
Cicle solaire, Epacte, Indi- 
cation romaine, Lettre 
dominical, Jours de cendres, 
Pasques, Rogations, 
Ascencion, Pentecoste, Festes Dieu, Premier Dimanche des Adiients. 
Below the figure of Saturn are two apertures, and an inscription 
underneath denotes the purpose to be to indicate the eclipse of the 
sun and moon. 

Fig. 519. 

1-rcnch Clocks and (\iscs in the French Style, etc. 401 

rouilly seems to have been a man especially ini^enious in de\-isinf^' 
calendars and the like. He is referred to in the Paris Directory for 
i6gi as " Le Sieur Pouilly, of Rue Dauphine, mathematical instru- 
ment maker and seller of a peculiar calendar." In 1692 is mentioned 
in connection with him an invention relating to the compass and 
an extraordinary microscope. 

Another scientihc instrument maker (" ingenieur "), the Sieur 

Fig. 520. 

Fig. 521. 

Haye, collaborated with Martinot in the production of a movable 
sphere, which was presented to the King in 1701. Henry Martinot 
died at Fontainebleau in 1725 at the age of 79. 

In the corridor at Windsor Castle is the fine long-case clock by 
Julien Le Roy illustrated on page 386. The dial has a brass centre 
with silvered border, and shows solar and mean time and the day 
of the month. The escapement is a modification of the Graham, 

c.w. D D 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

each pallet being pivoted separately. On the dial is inscribed 
" Invente en 1736 par Julien Le Roy, de la Societe des Arts." 

The case is of kingwood inlaid with some lighter veneer to an 
angulated design and carries heavy ormolu well -chased mountings. 

A companion case in the corridor contained a clock by Ferdinand 

Fig. 522. 

Berthoud, but the movement has been reconstructed by Vulliamy 
and the dial altered. 

On page 386 is shown a superb twelve-month timepiece by 
I-epaute, which adorns the Zuccarelli room at Windsor Castle. 
The movement is exceedingly well made, and has a very light pin- 
wheel escapement furnished with pins on one side only. The 
pendulum beats seconds, and is compensated on Harrison's " grid- 
iron " principle. The dial, of enamel, is very fine, and the lower 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 403 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

FrcncJi Clocks and Cases in tJic rrcncJi Style, etc. 405 

edge of it bears in tiny characters the signature " G. Merler." 
Besides the hour and minute indicators, which still exist, there was 
originally a centre seconds liand and one for showing the equation 
of time. The month and day of the month appear through a slit in 
the lower part of the dial. There are no winding holes, the weight 
being raised on Huygens' plan, by pulling down the rope. The case 
is of ebony, relieved with exceptionally fine ormolu mountings. The 
Baroness Burdett Coutts has a similar timepiece, also by Lepaute. 

Among French artists with wealthy patrons the formal square 
long case so characteristic of English clocks, was never liked. As 
examples of their best style may be quoted the elegant regulator 
shown in Fig. 503, which is at the Conservatoire des Arts et 
Metiers, Paris, and the equally meritorious design on the same page. 
Fig. 504. Lepaute's clock shown on page 386, and the more florid 
design which encloses Julien le Roy's work as shown beside it are 
also worthy of reference. In the series of bracket clocks, Fig. 505 to 
Fig. 514, arranged nearly in the order of date, every specimen 
contains, I think, some feature of excellence. 

Hanging or "Cartel" Clocks. — The word Cartel, probably 
from the Italian Ccwtcla, a bracket, seems, during the seventeenth 
century, to ha\ e been applied to any ornament, frame, or other 
object fixed against a wall or ceiling and having a shape more or 
less rotund or oval with elongated or pointed ends. The intense 
desire for fresh forms in articles of furniture which permeated 
French society during the latter part of the reign of Louis XIV. led 
to the production of the " Pendule a Cartel" or "en cartel," a title 
subsequently contracted to simply " cartel." The carte! cases were 
made occasionally of wood, lead, or zinc, but more often of bronze, 
thickly gilt. As may be gathered from the examples I am able to 
illustrate, they were, as a rule, graceful in form and, when oxidation 
had toned down the somewhat obtrusi\'e garishness of the gilding, of 
\'ery pleasing appearance. 

Small clocks of the same shape and of a size to be easily fastened 
on the inside of the bed curtain, were designated Cartels dc 
Chcvet. They were generally furnished with watch mo\'ements, the 
cases being of brass or of wood with Vernis Martin or other decora- 
tion, though large cartel clocks with pull strings for repeating were 
occasionally placed inside the bed against the hangings or wall, for 
the convenience of those French ladies who, in accordance with 
accepted custom during the earlier half of the eighteenth century, 
held receptions while reclining on their beds. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

French Clocks and Cases in the Frencli Style, etc. 407 

In Fig. 516 is sliown a mural clock of Louis XIV. period by 
J. Thuret, Paris, which belonged to the Marquess of Hertford. 
The panels are filled with 
Boulle work which sets off 
and subdues the ormolu 
mountings. Side by side 
with it are two nearly 
contemporary designs. 

Cartel timepieces were 
in especial favour through- 
out the time of Louis XV. 
A representation is given 
in Fig. 518 of a Rocaille 
Cartel clock in the Cafiieri 
style dating from about 
1 760. It is of medium size, 
measuring 2 feet in length 
and 14 inches across the 
widest part. Themovement 
is by Courtois, clockmaker 
to Louis X\'., who had pre- 
mises in the Rue Saint 
Jacques, facing the College 
du Plessis, and acquired a 
reputation for the excellence 
of his movements, both 
silent and musical. There 
is a pull string for repeating 
on two bells, it strikes the 
hours and half hours, also 
an alarum. The case of 
bronze gilded is boldly 
chased, and the modelling 
of the figures is exceedingly 
good. Pierrot and Pierrette 
appear to enjoy life among 
fantastical vegetation and 
scrolls, so popular during 
the epoch of Louis XV. 
The mandoline player at the top is well posed and of pleasing expres- 
sion. Hardly so large and of perhaps ten years later date is another 

Fig. 529. 

Astronomical clock by Passement 
at Versailles. 

Havard Dictionnairc de V Ametiblement. 


Old Clucks and Watches and their Makers. 

specimen, also of bronze, chased, and gilt, which is shown in Fig. 519. 
Below the dial is an aperture through which the vibrations of the 
pendulum may be seen, and the design includes a female figure 

and cupids, subjects 
brought into favour by 
Boucher and his 
school. The detail of 
the chasing is finer 
than was usual with 
an object to be ex- 
hibited on a wall at 
some distance from the 
eye. Dial and move 
ment bear the signa- 
ture of "Thioutl'aine, 
Paris." There are two 
bells and a pull string 
for repeating on them 
the hours and quarters 
at pleasure. 

Fig. 520, a smaller 
striking clock of later 
date, indicates the 
decline of the more 
extravagant features 
observed in some of 
the rocaille designs. 

An excellent cartel 
clock of the Louis 
X\ I. period, which 
belongs to the Hon. 
Gerald Ponsonby, is 
shown in Fig. 521, 

I may mention that 
the movements of old 
cartel clocks are in- 
serted into the case 
from the front. Ignorance of this has, I know, sometimes led to 
damage by attempts to force the movements out at the back. 

Mantel Clocks before the time of Louis XV. are exceptional. 
When not supported by a long case or a pedestal or a bracket, 

Fig. 530. 

French Clocks and Cases in ilic Fvcncli Style, etc. 


chamber clocks were luing to a nail on the wall. An early mantel 
clock, which is in the Octagon room at Windsor Castle, is shown in 
Fig. 522. The case is decorated with Boulle work and very fine 

^^ <^^^ 


Fig. 531. Fig. 532. 

ormolu mountings. A well-modelled Cupid surmounts the structure 
and below the dial is an equally effective reclining figure of Time 
holding a balance. Except the plinth, which is of later date, this 
splendid clock is of Louis XIV. period. Plinth and clock together 
are three feet hi^h. 

41 o Old Clocks and IVatches and their Makers. 

A characteristic example of design in the Louis XV. style is the 


Fig. 533 — Lyre clock, Sevres. 

ormolu clock by " Gudin a Paris " at Windsor Castle, and shown in 
Fig- 523. The chasing is bold, though somewhat coarse. The 

Firitcli Clccks and Cases in the Frouh Style, etc. 41 1 



' • Ytefriji 






Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 41 j 

pierced diaper work below the dial is hacked with crimson silk with 
good effect. 

Another excellent specimen of the Louis XV. style is the drawling- 
room clock represented in Fig. 524. The movement is by Etienne 
la Noir, a noted clockmaker of the time, while the chasing has been 
executed bv Saint Germain, \vho also probably did the casting of 

Fig. 53S. 

the model. Saint Germain was one of the small number of founders 
and chasers of the period wdiose productions were characterised by 
remarkable excellence of finish and lightness. Saint Germain stands 
second only to Caffieri. He was frequently employed by, or on 
behalf of, the King and the Court. His productions bear his full 
name "punched" in the metal. The crafts of founder and chaser 
were nearly always combined, forming an exception to the rule then 
prevailing as to regulation of trades by corporations or companies. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

No better example of the Louis X\'I. period could be selected 
than the chaste and elegant boudoir or ante-room clock shown in 
Fig. 525. It is of white polished marble, w^hich age has tinted to a 
dark cream, with gilt mountings, the contrast harmonizing perfectly. 
It dates from about 1780 and is by Robin, " horloger du Roy." 

The splendid mantel clock showm in Fig. 526 in the Louis XVI., 

Fig. 539. 

style is perhaps of a little later date, and well represents decorative art 
during the last few years of the reign of that monarch. The beautifully 
modelled cupids representing sculpture (adjacent to a completed 
bust of Henri IV. of Navarre), music, dancing (or singing), and 
painting appear to be nestling in clouds around a celestial sphere in 
which the dial is placed. The plinth of white marble with rounded 
ends contains a gilt frieze of trophies. It is 17^ inches in length 

French Clocks and Cases in tlic French Style, etc 


and 18 inches h'vj^h. 'J'he inoxenient is inscribed " L. J. Leguesse." 
The gildin<; and chasing are excellent, the minutest details of the 
bronze work being brought out in the style of a master artist. Here, 
as in the last example, the association of white marble and bronze pro- 
duces a most pleasing effect. These two clocks belong to Mr. Schloss. 
Fig. 529 shows a celebrated clock in\ented by Passement and 

Fig. 540. 

constructed under his direction by Dauthiau, clockmaker to Louis XV. 
Passement is said to have been engaged for twenty years in 
calculating the various movements, and the construction of the 
machine occupied Dauthiau for twelve years. It was completed in 
1749, and in 1750 presented to the King, who ordered a new case for it, 
after his own choice. This was made by Messrs. Caffieri (father and 
son), and when finished in 1753, the clock was deposited at Versailles. 


Old Clocks and M'afchcs and Ihciv Makers. 

It has a dead-beat escapement and a seconds compensated pendulum; 
indicates solar and mean time, has a seconds hand, strikes the 
hours and quarters, and has provision for repeating at pleasure the 
blows last sounded. The striking part is driven by a spring, and the 
remainder by a weight of 22 lbs,, doubly suspended, which falls 
8 inches in six weeks. Within a glass sphere over the clock are 
marked the age and phases of the moon, days of the week, 

Fig. 541 

month and year correctly for a period of 10,000 years. Antide 
Janvier repaired the clock for the First Consul. 

As a curiosity in design, the timekeeper by Lepine, shown in 
Fig. 530, is worthy of record. Hours and minutes are indicated on 
two bands rotating horizontally, and there is a long pendulum which 
terminates very effectively in a representation of the face of 

Front and back views of a most effective mantel clock by Ferdinand 
Berthoud are given in F^gs. 531 and 532. The design as a whole is 
excellent ; the primary object of a clock is to indicate the time, and 
this point, which seems to have been too often ignored, has here been 

French Clocks and Ca-^cs in the French Style, etc. 417 

Fig. 542. 


E E 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

properly kept in view, and the elegant supporters in no way detract 
from the due prominence of the dial which measures 9 inches 

Fig. 543. 

across, the whole structure being 3 feet 8 inches in height. The 
plinth is of white marble, with bas-reliefs of cupids struggling for 
vinei ; the Bacchantes are of dark-coloured bronze ; the vase with 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 419 
overliaiiLnng leaves and i^rapes wliich surmounts the dial is 

Fig. 544. — Porcelain case with mounts by Gouthiere. 

gilded. Thus a charming combination of colour is obtained quite 
worthy of the modelling and chasing, which are admirable. 

E E 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

The design altogether is a good example of the return to simpler 
and more reposeful forms suggested by Clodion and his school, in 
place of the overdone and discredited rocaille. On the chased work 
is a punch mark corresponding to P. C, which may possibly be that 
of Pierre Cauvet, a celebrated modeller under Louis XVI., several of 

whose productions are 
in the collection of Garde 
Meuble at the Louvre. 

Lyre-shaped exteriors 
were, it must be con- 
fessed, among the most 
elegant conceptions of 
the Louis XVI. period. 
From the example illus- 
trated in Fig. 533, it will 
be seen that the upper 
part of the pendulum is 
formed to represent the 
strings of the instru- 
ment ; the lower end, 
shaped as a ring, passes 
and repasses behind the 
dial with very pleasing 
effect. This clock, which 
is among the Jones col- 
lection at South Ken- 
sington Museum, is said 
to have belonged to 
Marie Antoinette. The 
case of Sevres blue 
porcelain is 2 feet in 
height, has ormolu 
mountings, and the ring 
of the pendulum being studded with large pastes enhances its very 
handsome appearance. It bears the signature " Kinable." A some- 
what similar clock realised £^62 at the Hamilton sale in 1882. 

The Lyre clock shown in Fig. 534 is at Windsor Castle. The 
dial is quite modern and bears the inscription, " Hanson, Windsor." 

The blue Sevres vase clock shown in Fig. 535, in the Louis XVI. 
style, affords another example of the fancies characterizing the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. 

Fig. 545. — Carriage clock of Marie Antoinette. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 421 

The very pretty example of Louis X\'I. style which is shown in 
Fig. 536 is by VuUiamy, and graces one of the drawing-rooms at 
Windsor Castle. On the ormolu slab above the dial is a drawing of 
the fusee and demonstration of its action. 

Fig. 537 is another specimen by the same maker, and is also at 
Windsor Castle. 

For the example shown in Fig. 538, dating from about 1790, I am 
indebted to Mr. Robert Rolfe. 

From about 1760 till well on in the nineteenth century, elegant 
mantel clocks of marble and bronze, in which the dial depended from 
a handsome entablature, were much favoured in France. 

The two examples on pages 414-5, for which I am indebted to 
Messrs. Jump & Sons, give a 
good idea of the best of them. 

Fig. 539 is a clock by Engaz, 
of Paris, which shows the day 
of the week and the day of the 
month, on a dial bearing the 
signature of Dubisson. 

Fig. 540 represents a some- 
what similar design covering 
a clock by La Croix, rue Denis, 

Berthoud was apparently 
partial to this form, judging 
from the number to be seen 
with his name thereon. 

The clock with white marble base and sphinx supporters for the 
dial, and shown in Fig. 541, by Sotian, Paris, is at Windsor Castle. 

In Chap. III. were given illustrations of early German timekeepers, 
in which figures of animals formed a most important part of the 
structure. A revival of this extraordinary conception seems to have 
found favour in France during the eighteenth century when huge 
beasts were introduced as carriers for timekeepers. 

The example illustrated in Fig. 542 is a clock by a noted 
Paris maker, Bailly I'aine, dating from about 1769. It strikes the 
hour and half-hour in passing, and its dial, as in most French 
clocks of that period, stands out conspicuously. The occupants 
of the ponderous castle are evidently engaged in warfare. The 
elephant is of dark-coloured bronze, the remainder being chased and 
richly gilt, while the Rajah, a coloured terra cotta figure, seated 

Fig. 546. 

422 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 423 

inside the castle, complacently directs operations against the enemy. 
A small hole between his lips suggests the possibility of his having 
at one time a pipe in his mouth. In the Jones collection at South 
Kensington is an elephant with a clock on its hack. It is signed by 
Caffieri, and illustrated in Fig. 543. 

Clock cases of porcelain were made 
during the eighteenth century, chiefly at 
Dresden and Sevres, though Berlin, 
Worcester, Derby and Chelsea contri- 
buted to the demand. Some of them 
were very beautiful, especially French 
productions of Louis XV. period, which 
were decorated with figure subjects and 
scenery taken from pictures by W'atteau, 
Lancret, and other artists. But com- 
paratively few survive, for, apart from 
such accidents as lead to the destruction 
of china generally, the fixing of a clock 
movement to so brittle a material suffi- 
ciently tight to withstand the strain of 
winding is responsible for the fracture 
of a large proportion. 

Among the Jones collection at South 
Kensington is a splendid clock in a case 
of Sevres porcelain, formed like a vase, 
with mounts by Gouthiere, which is 
believed to have been made for Marie 
Antoinette, and is shown in Fig. 544.* 
Charming it certainly is, and beyond 
criticism ; still, if one might be permitted 
to complain, I would say it is too small, 
too condensed ; it measures but about 
12 inches in height. 

The travelling or carriage clock be- 
longing to the same royal lady, also in 
the Jones collection, of which a sketch 

appears in Fig. 545, has the dial, front, side and back panels, all of 
Sevres porcelain, jewelled ; it is between 10 and 11 inches high. The 

Fig. 549. — Clock in Windsor 

* The four illustrations of clocks in the Jones collection are from the Official 
Handbook, and are inserted by permission of the Controller of His Majesty's 
Stationery Office. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

front panel bears the signature, " Robin H^i- du Roy," Though 
undoubtedly of French make, the outline bears a singular resemblance 
to English productions of the period. 

The elegant lyre-shaped clock of Sevres, illustrated on page 410, 
is another excellent example. A clock by " Godon, Paris," in a 
vase-shaped case of Sevres porcelain of Louis XVI. period, which 
was in Lord Strathallan's collection, realised two thousand guineas 
at Christie's in 1902. A quaint clock case of Chelsea china is to be 
seen at the British Museum. 

From the middle to the end of the eighteenth century, the shops of 

Fig. 550. 

Fig. 551. 

leading horologists in Paris were, it is said, a great attraction to visitors. 
The earlier ones included Thiout I'aine, at the sign of " La Pendule 
d'Equation," quai Pelletier ; Julien Le Roy, at rue de Harley, where 
also was Berthoud ; Pierre" Regnault, p^re, rue Vielle ; Le Paute, 
aux galeries du Louvres, opposite the rue Saint Thomas ; Lepine, and 
also Romilly, place Dauphine ; Leroux, rue Guenegaud ; Gosselin, 
rue St. Honore. Later on were Carcel, at Pont Saint Michel ; 
Breguet, at quai d'Horloge, 65; Caron, rue Saint Denis, 224; 
Lepaute jeune. Place du Palais-Royal ; Lepine, Place des Victoires ; 
Pierre Le Roy, Palais-Royal ; and Wagner, at the sign of the Carillon, 
Bout-du-Monde, 2. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 425 

Louis XVI. had from a youth a hking for the mechanical parts of 
timekeepers, and Marie Antoinette possessed a hirge number of 
choice specimens, notably those illustrated on pp. 419-20, but there 
are in existence clocks and watches purporting to have belonged 
to her, and having thereon M. A. interlaced, which were really made 
between about 181 8 and 1830, when enthusiasm at the restoration of 
the French monarchy induced people to pay high prices for any- 
thing connected with the Court of Louis XVI. Watches apparently 
of Swiss manufacture, the cases decorated with gold of difiFerent 

Fig. 5^2. 

tints (a quatre couleurs), as illustrated in Chap. IV., or with small oval 
plaques containing enamelled portraits of ladies, bordered with 
paste diamonds or pearls, and surrounded by engravings of bows and 
knots, are often seen, with a pedigree of former ownership which will 
not bear expert examination. 

Undeterred by the failure of Sully's enterprise at Versailles in 171 8, 
and the collapse of Voltaire's venture at Ferney sixty years after- 
wards, the French Government in 1786, on the strong recommenda- 
tion of Berthoud, Gregson, Romilly and Lepaute, established a 
clock manufactory at Paris, which, however, had but an ephemeral 
existence, for it succumbed to the stormy events of 1789. The 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

episode is little known, and might escape record but for the splendid 
medal issued as a reward for meritorious pupils, the obverse of which 
is reproduced on page 421. It was designed by Duvivier, engraver to 
the Paris Mint, and contains a representation of Father Time journey- 
ing round the periphery of a clock. The aphorism, " Le tems a pris 
un corps et marche sous nos yeux," is a quotation from Delille. In 
1838 yet another attempt was made in the same direction, and a 

Fig. 553. 

factory initiated at Versailles under the special protection of the King. 
This also proved to be an ill-starred venture, for it languished almost 
from its inception and collapsed in the course of three or four years. 
With the return of Napoleon from Italy came a marked change 
in the P^ench style of design. The soft harmonious conceits 
of Louis XVI. artists gave place to more severe and statuesque 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 427 

productions with heavy draperies, founded on ancient Roman models. 
Characteristic specimens are illustrated in Figs. 547 and 548. 

Fig. 549 shows a fine clock in the First Empire style, which is at 
Windsor Castle. It is by Jefferson, London, and dates from about 1810. 

Portable table or bedroom clocks, cased in the form of a drum, and 
especially convenient to travellers, were in favour from the latter part 
of the eighteenth century till, debased and shorn of all enrichment, 
they degenerated both as 
ornaments and timekeepers. 
An example in the best style, 
with well -chased gilt Fauns 
as supporters, and surmoun ted 
by an eagle holding a ring by 
which the clock could be 
lifted, is shown in Fig. 550. 
It strikes the hours and 
quarters, and the striking 
may be repeated at pleasure 
by pulling out the knob on 
the back of the eagle ; it is 
also provided with an alarum. 

Table clocks with hori- 
zontal dials were revived 
during the First Empire. A 
pretty specimen of gilt metal, 
in which the movement is 
enclosed by the base, is shown 
in Fig. 551. It dates from 
1806-10 and has but one 
hand, which may be set by 
turning one of the little 
ornaments standing up from 
the lower part of the case. 
The band around the dial 
is pierced to a pretty design. It strikes the hours and quarters. 

Clocks with cases of a nondescript character, but abounding in 
ormolu or gilt metal ornament so popular at the latter part of the 
eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries, seem to have 
entirely died out of favour. At Windsor Castle is a fine example 
with a winged boy on each side of the dial, and a celestial globe and 
mathematical instruments above it, as shown in Fig. 552. 

Fig. 554. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig. 553 shows a remarkably well modelled figure of a harlequin, 
who is represented as drawing attention to the notes of the bird 
peeping from an alcove above the dial. 

Clock hands do not as a rule lend themselves to decoration 
symbolical of a particular subject, but three pairs typical respec- 
tively of Sport, Agriculture and Music which appear to be worth 
reproduction are shown in Figs. 554-5-6. They are French, and 
were, I believe, designed for presentation timekeepers. 

It may be noted that up to the end of the eighteenth century 
movements of the French chamber clocks were rectangular even 
though the cases were circular, as in the example by Berthoud shown 

I'"'^- 555 Fig. 556. 

on page 409 ; the bell always surmounted the movement instead of 
bemg at the back of it, as the modern custom is, and the pendulum 
was suspended by means of a silken cord. 

Adjuncts to a clock in the way of candelabra, tazzas or figures 
en suite, were not in use till nearly the end of the reign of Louis XVI. 

Italian Cartel Timepieces.— By way 6{ contrast to the French 
treatment the two cartel timepieces shown in Figs. 557 and 558 will 
be of interest. They are reproduced from designs by Giovanni 
Battista Piranesi, which were published in 176 1. Fig. 558 is modelled 
upon the form of an ancient Roman rudder, a conceit particularly to 
the taste of that age. It will be noticed that each of the dials is 

French Clocks and Cases in the Fvcncli Style, etc. 429 

divided into six hours, in conformity with tlie countinj^ of the hours 
in many parts of Italy at tliat time. 

Falling Ball Timekeepers. — This remarkably clever and 
elegant piece of seventeenth century mysterious horology consists of 
a sphere of brass, to be suspended from a bracket, or the ceiling of a 
room. The upper and lower portions of the ball are gilt, while around 

Fig. 557. 

Fig. 558. 

a silvered band in the middle are marked two serials of Roman 
numerals from I. to XII., and subdivisions for the quarter-hours. 
The extremity of one of the wings of a cupid on the lower part of 
the ball points to the hour of the day or night. The construction 
may be gathered from the vertical and horizontal sections which are 
given in Fig. 559, borrowed from " Les Merveilles de I'Horlogerie." 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

The suspending cord is coiled round a barrel, with which is connected 
a train of wheels terminating in an escapement and balance. While 
the top and bottom of the ball are rigidly connected, the middle is 
free to move, and is furnished with a ring of teeth projecting inside, 
through which the middle is rotated once in twenty-four hours, the 



weight of the ball acting as a driving force. The mechanism is 
wound by simply raising the ball with the hand, there being a weak 
spring in the barrel, which causes it to turn and coil the suspending 
cord on to itself. 

At the British Museum are two of these falling ball timekeepers of 
4 inches in diameter. One of them is inscribed "Jacob Behan, 
Vienna." The Society of Antiquaries possesses a very fine example, 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 431 

measuring 10 inches across, but of, I fancy, much later date. It 
was given to the Society by B. L. Vulliamy. 

Figs. 560 and 561 represent two of many timekeepers designed and 
made by a truly remarkable mechanical genius, Nicolas Grollier, 
afterwards M. Grollier de Servifere, who was born at Lyons in 1593, 
and passed his early manhood in the service of the French army. 
His later years he devoted 
to designing all sorts of 
mechanism, and, thus pro- 
viding himself with ample 
occupation, he managed to 
reach the good old age of 
ninety-three years. 

These two drawings are 
from a thick quarto book 
written by his grandson, and 
dedicated to Louis XIV. 
In the first example a small 
ball runs down inclined 
shoots, and by its momentum 
unlocks the train as it 
reaches the bottom. There 
are two balls, and as the 
first disappears from view 
the second one begins its 
descent. The balls are, in 
turn, carried up at the back 
by a kind of tape ladder 
with pockets, which passes 
over a pulley at the top, and 
another at the lower part 
of the case. 

Globes, Urns, and 
Vases. — In the "Atlas" 
timekeeper by Grollier de 

Serviere (Fig. 561), the movement within the globe causes the 
central band, on which the hours are marked, to revolve, the arrow 
of course indicating the time. The upper and lower portions of the 
globe are stationary. 

A taste for revolving band timekeepers, formed as globes, urns and 
vases, revived in France during the eighteenth century. The exteriors 

Fig. 560. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

of some of these were of very elegant design, as may be judged from 
the examples submitted. 

Fig. 562 shows a particularly attractive one dating from about 1780, 
which is at the South Kensington Museum. The boys supporting 
the globe are of bronze. The moving band contains two sets of 

numerals painted blue on 
enamelled plaques; the 
lower set represents the hours 
counted twice from I. to 
XII., and the upper set 
each fifteen minutes. The 
tongue of the snake forms a 
bar across each successive 
hour numeral, as an indi- 
cator, and reaching beyond 
it, points to the minutes 

In tlie Throne room at 
Windsor Castle is a globe 
clock which has double re- 
volving bands, Roman hour 
numerals being marked on 
one band, and on the other 
Arabic figures to represent 
the minutes. It is by 
Maniere, of Paris, and 
adorned with a well-exe- 
cuted group, as in Fig. 363. 
The ball, enamelled in royal 
blue, forms a properly con- 
spicuous centre, on each side 
of which the statuettes are 
arranged. The houris shown 
by the coincidence of a 
numeral with the brass vertical bar supporting the globe, while the 
Destroyer is posed to indicate the minutes with his scythe. 

The Wallace collection also includes more than one fine globe 
clock with hour and minute revolving bands. 

Fig. 564 represents a vase clock, which is said to have belonged 
to Marie Antoinette. The movement was covered by a handsome 
carved marble pedestal, the urn being of porcelain with bronze 

Fig. 561. 

Fi'Ciic/i Clocks and Cases in tlic French Style, etc. 433 

mountings. A serpent coiled round the foot of the vase had its liead 
erect to point to the hour on the double polygonal band. 

Fig. 565 shows a larger urn or vase mounted on an elaborately 
carved square plinth ; a somewhat similar clock by " Le Loutre, 
horloger du Roy, Paris," realised ^"903 at the Hamilton sale in 

In Fig. 566 is reproduced a magnihcent design l)y L'alconet, 
wherein the Three Graces are 
portrayed, one of whom indi- 
cates the hour with her finger. 
The vase is supported by a 
column standing on a hand- 
some plinth ; tlie panels of 
the plinth show very choice 
carvings of groups of children 
at play. Etienne Maurice 
Falconet, w'hose production of 
this and some other clock cases 
stamps him as an artist of the 
front rank, was born in 17 16 
and died in 1791, and seems 
to have been more appreciated 
after his death than before. 
The Three Graces clock was 
sold in the early part of the 
nineteenth century for 1,500 
francs, and in 1855 was pur- 
chased for 7,000 francs by 
Baron Double, whose collec- 
tion was sold in 1881 when 
Comte de Camondo secured 
the Three Graces for 101,000 
francs. His son, who is the 
present owner, has, it is said, 
refused an offer of over a 
million francs for the treasure, which, in accordance with the wish 
of his father, he will bequeath to the French nation. 

Negress-Head Clock. — Among the eccentricities of French 
horology is one at Buckingham Palace in the form of the head of a 
negress, as shown in Fig. 567. Figures corresponding to the hours 
appear in proper order in one of the eyes of the negress, the minutes 

c.w. V F 

Fig. 562. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

being denoted in the other eye in a similar way. By closing the 
eyelids the figures may be rendered invisible. 

Rolling Clock. — This ingenious device appears to have been 
patented by that universal genius the Marquess of Worcester, in 
1661 (No. 131)- It was also made by Grollier de Serviere probably 
about the same date. Maurice Wheeler published a description of 
it as his invention in Lowthorp's " Abridgment of the Philosophical 
Transactions in 1684." The construction of it will be understood 

Fig. 563. 

from the uncovered view of the front, Fig. 568. There is a train of 
wheels and an escapement as in a watch. The great wheel a carries 
the hand and also the weight h. The clock never requires winding. 
It is every morning simply placed at the top of the inclined plane, 
down which it gradually rolls during the day, the hand pointing to 
the hour marked on the dial, which of course covers the mechanism. 
The length of the plane had better be more than twice the circum- 
ference of the clock case c. Its inclination may be regulated by the 

French Clocks ami Cases in the French Style, etc. 435 

screw g. The hand may be in the form of a figure of Time, as in 
Fig. 569, a serpent's head, or otlier grotesque design. 

Schmidt's Mysterious Clock. — The weighted lever of the 
roUing clock, as shown in l'"ig. 568, has been utilised in another form 
of mysterious timekeeper, an exterior view of which is given on 
page 439. It was patented in 1808 (No. 3185) by John Schmidt, a 
watchmaker, living in St. Mary Axe. He called it " The Mysterious 
Circulator, or Chronological Equilibrium." The ring is divided into 
hour and five-minute spaces. The watch movement, with the 
weighted lever, is contained in the box, 
c, but it is now driven by a mainspring 
in the usual way. The hand is pivoted 
to the tail of the dolphin, n is a counter- 
weight. The weighted lever revolves 
once in 12 hours ; it would be nearest 
to the centre of motion of the hand at 
12 o'clock, and furthest from it at 6 
o'clock ; it is easy, therefore, to see 
that by this displacement of the centre 
of gravity the weighted lever would 
cause the hand to revolve and point 
to the time. It appears that Schmidt 
was a Dane, who was taken prisoner 
at Copenhagen, and brought to Eng- 
land. The clocks were sold by Rundell 
and Bridge, whose shop was in Ludgate 
Hill. Several distinguished persons are 
stated to have become purchasers. 
Some years ago I saw one which bore 
the name of McNab, Perth. It was 
then in the possession of Mr. Robert Napier, but it now belongs to 
Mr. Henry Levy. 

This device has been several times re-invented, but never, I think, 
in so elegant a form as the original. 

Fan-shaped Clocks. — M. Planchon has an engraving of the 
tutor to Charles, son of Phillippe II. of Spain, on which is shown a 
timekeeper, the dial being composed of a double fan of white and 
black slats which expanded and contracted to suit hours of varying 
length in day and night throughout the year. This dates from 
about 1570. Other forms of fan timekeepers have been con- 
structed and should be mentioned as among horological curiosities. 

F F 2 

Fig. 564. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

The illustration, Fig. 571, was published some time ago in La Nature. 
The fan, composed Df thirteen very light slats, is pivoted to a 
backing covered with velvet, and at six o'clock in the morning and 
in the evening would be wide open as shown, and a serpent, fixed by 

Fig. 5r,5. 

Fig. 566. 

its tail to the velvet, would point to the hour with its tongue. Imme- 
diately after six o'clock the fan suddenly closes, the serpent still 
pointing to six, but it would then be the figure on the right-hand side 
of the fan. On a continuation of the joint of the fan is a pinion 
actuated by a rack in connection with a snail-shaped cam, which 
causes the fan to gradually open as the hours progress, and then 
suddenly close. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 437 

Suspended Bird Cage. — This, from the Schloss collection, is 
probably a combined I'rench and Swiss production of about 1780, 
An enamelled dial with centre seconds hand projects below the 
bottom of the cage, the actuating mechanism being hidden in the 

Fig. 567. — Negress-head c'ock at Buckingham Palace. 

plinth which is adorned with oval enamels of scenery in the Swiss 
style. In niches at the corners are fine statuettes of Sevres biscuit. 
At the completion of each hour the birds move, flutter and trill a sort 
of duet, their actions and notes being remarkably natural. By 
means of rotating pieces of glass, a double-fall fountain appears to 
be playing in the centre. These motions can be caused to repeat at 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

pleasure by pulling a string. The few somewhat similar clocks 
known to exist are highly prized by their owners. One not so 
decorative as the example here shown is in the King of Italy's 
summer palace at Monza. 

Magnetic Timekeepers. — Grollier de Serviere devised a time- 
keeper resembling a shallow bowl with a wide rim, having marked 

Fig. 568. 

thereon the twelve hour numerals, as in Fig. 573 ; the bowl being 
filled with water, the figure of a tortois3 was placed on it and at once 
floated round till it pointed to the time, and then gradually crept to 

Fig. 569. 

the figures in succession as the hours advanced. Underneath the 
rim of the bowl was a magnet of the horseshoe type, which was 
caused to revolve once in twelve hours ; the tortoise was of cork and 
carried the "keeper" of the magnet. By the same agency he was 
enabled to cause a lizard to ascend a column and a mouse to creep 
along a cornice with the hours marked on the frieze below. 

Congreve Clock. — William Congreve, best known as an inventor 

French Clocks and Cases in llie French Style, etc. 439 

of war rockets, was an ingenious mechanician, an officer in the 
Royal Artillery, and a member of Parliament. In succession to his 
father he in 1814 became a baronet and also Comptroller of the 
Royal Laboratory at Woolwich. In 1808 he patented a timekeeper 
in which a small metal ball rolled down grooves in an inclined plane, 
which was movable on its centre. The grooves were zigzag, form- 
ing a succession of V's, so tliat the ball, once started, traversed the 
whole surface of the plate by rolling down one groove and entering 

Fig. 570. 

the next at the point of the Y. On arriving at the lowest point of 
the inclined plane the ball with its acquired impetus unlocked the 
train, which thereupon reversed the inclination of the plane or table 
by the intervention of a crank and connecting rod, and the ball 
started on its journey in the other direction. The ball should be of 
platinum or other dense material to ensure sufficient impact in 
unlocking. Congreve clocks, as they are called, go fairly well if 
made with exactness and kept free from dust, but in spite of their 
really attractive appearance but few of them appear to have been 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

made. At the Rotunda, Woolwich, is one of these curiosities bear- 
ing the following inscription : " This first experiment of a new 
principle for the measurement of time, invented by William 
Congreve, Esq., is humbly presented to His Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales, 1808." Mr. R. Eden Dickson has one ; another 
belongs to Mr. W. W. Astor ; I saw a fine specimen dating from 
about 1820, inscribed "John Bentley and James Beck, Royal 
Exchange." For the example in Fig. 574, which is signed " Henry 
Bell, Mount St.," I am indebted to Messrs. Jump & Sons. The 
three dials indicate respectively hours, minutes and seconds. 

Japanese Clocks are peculiar. Until quite recent years the 
Japs divided the daylight and darkness each into a period of six 
hours, which therefore, except twice a year, would be of unequal 

Fig. 571. 

duration. Fig. 575 shows a simple and very general form of 
Japanese timepiece, taken from a specimen at the Horological 
Institute. There is no dial, but the progress of time is indicated by 
the downward motion of the driving weight. A pointer attached to 
the weight projects through a longitudinal slit running the length of 
the body of the case, and clasped on to the front are metal hour 
marks which may be adjusted to different heights by the thumb and 
finger. The custom was to set these hour marks once a fortnight 
far enough apart to correspond with the length of the hour for the 
particular period of the year according to a scale engraved on 
the case. 

In a form of striking clock presumably used by the more wealthy 
classes, dials were provided and also two balances of the cross-bar 
kind, one of which controlled the motion by day and the other by 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 441 

night. At sunset, by means of a pin in tlie locking-plate of the 
striking train, one was automatically switched out of connection 

Fig. 572. 

with the train, and the other substituted. Each arm of the balances 
had notches throughout its length, and the weights were shifted 

442 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 


I n minrv^w^mixxxiin 

Fig. 573. 

Ftg. 574. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style, etc. 443 

444 ^^^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

by hand at fortnightly periods as in the more primitive time- 
keepers. Half-hours as well as hours were sounded, the strokes on 
the bell being given in the following order : g, i, 8, 2, 7, i, 6, 2, 5, i, 
4, 2. The hours are g, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, the halves, i, 2, i, 2, i, 2. In 
this way, when the half-hour was struck the hearer knew to which 
one of any two hours it referred. 

There is a cross-bar Japanese clock with dial at the Horological 
Institute, and one with the automatic alternating arrangement at 
the South Kensington Museum. Fig. 576 shows it very well. 
This and Fig. 577 are from La Nature, which two or three years ago 
contained an interesting article by Mons. Planchon on Japanese 
methods of timekeeping. No. i of Fig. 577 is of porcelain, and No. 2 
decorated with Japanese lacquer. In the latter the driving weights 
are masked with tassels. 

Hogarth's Dial. — x'Vs space permits in this chapter, I will append 
as a curiosity a strange dial published by William Hogarth in a paper 
called " The Masquerade Ticket," which appears to have been put 
forth as a satire on the position accorded to Heidegger, " Master of 
the Revels," whose head is drawn on the upper part of the dial. 
The date, 1727, is indicated by figures in the corners. The sketch 
is reproduced from John Ireland's " Hogarth Illustrated." 

( 445 ) 



The manufacture of chamber clocks for domestic use, as distin- 
guished from the costly and higlily decorated timekeepers made for 
pubhc buildings, or to gratify the tastes of the wealthy, seems to 
have commenced about 1600. These chamber clocks were of the 
pattern known as "lantern," "birdcage," or "bedpost." They were 
supported on a bracket, and wound by pulling down the opposite 
ends of the ropes to those from which the driving weights were 
hung. In some instances all the hours were struck in regular pro- 
gression on the bell surmounting the structure, and sometimes the 
bell was only utilized as an alarum. In all cases the second train, for 
actuating the hammer, was placed behind the train for the watch, 
or going part. The framing was composed of four corner posts 
connecting top and bottom plates, the pivots of the trains being 
supported in vertical bars. In none of them was the train calculated 
for going more than 30 hours. At first the escapement with \'ertical 
verge and a balance as in De Vick's clock was used as the control- 
ling medium, the verge being usually suspended from a string. 

About 1658 the pendulum was introduced, and quickly super- 
seded the balance. The escape wheel was then as a rule planted to 
work in a horizontal plane, the pendulum being attached to the 
verge, and swinging either between the two trains of wheels or 
behind, according to the fancy of the maker. The alternate appear- 
ance of the pendulum weight at each side of the case led to its being 
called a " bob " pendulum, and pendulums of this kind are still known 
as bob pendulums, in contradistinction to the longer variety which 
at a later period, and with the anchor escapement, vibrated in a 
much smaller arc. 

The movement was enclosed at the back with a brass plate ; at 
the front with the dial, also of brass, with silvered hour band and 
engraved numerals ; at the sides with brass doors, and when the 
pendulum was between the trains, a slit was cut in each door for 
the pendulum to " bob " in and out of. 

446 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 578. — " Great Chamber Clock," 1623. 

In the earliest of these clocks the dials were, as a rule, thickly gilt; 
the hour circles narrow and the numerals stumpy, the front one of 
the frets surrounding the bell at top usually having a shield for the 

The Proi^rcsdon of Englisli Domestic Clocks. 


crest or initials of the owner. The doors were often made of sun- 
dial plates, as may be seen from the engraving on the insides of early 
specimens ; doubtless the introduction of clocks played havoc with 
the demand for the older time recorder, and induced many sundial 
makers to turn their attention to the production of clocks. The maker's 
name was engraved along the base of the fret ; or inscribed at the 
top or bottom of the centre of the dial, just within the hour ring ; or 
placed out of sight under the alarum plate, the latter practice leading 
to the assumption that the clock was to be sold by some one other 
than the maker. It may be assumed that each of the leading crafts- 
men introduced alterations in style from time to time and designed 
fretwork and other ornament for his exclusive use ; but it is pretty 
evident that such variations were 
speedily copied by the general run of 
makers, for most checks of the same 
period bear a marked resemblance to 
each other ; possibly much of the 
material was supplied from the same 
foundry and cast from the same pat- 
terns. About 1640 the hour bands 
were made wider, with longer numerals, 
and the fret with the crossed dolphins 
came into use. 

Among those who subscribed to the 
fund for obtaining the Charter of 
Incorporation of the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany in 1630 was William Bowyer, who 
then appears to have been a clockmaker 
of repute. It is stated in Overall's " History of the Clockmakers' 
Company," that in 1642 Bowyer presented to the Company a great 
Chamber clock in consideration of his being thereafter exempted 
from all office and service as well as quarterage and other fees. 

Fig. 578 shows what must be regarded as a particularly interesting 
specimen of Bowyer's work. It is a " large Chamber clock," which 
measures 8|- inches across the dial, its total height being i6|^ inches. 
Around the centre of the dial is inscribed, " William Bowver of 
London, fecit 1623." This was doubtless formerly covered by an 
alarum disc. Along the bottom of the dial is engraved, " Samuel 
Lynaker of London." Now Samuel Linaker was named in the 
Charter of Incorporation of the Clockmakers' Company to be one 
of the assistants, as the members of the Committee of Management 

448 Old Clocks and ]Vatchcs and their Makers. 

were termed, and it seems to be a fair inference that the clock was 

made by Bowyer for Linaker. 

On the side door of the clock, which is visible in Fig. 578, a figure 

of Time is engraved ; and on che other door a figure of Death, as 

shown to a reduced scale in the sketch, Fig. 579. In the right hand 

of the figure appears to be a torch, and depending therefrom is a 

streamer, on which are the words, " The sting of death is sinne." 

The left hand holds a sand glass, and underneath are the following 

lines : — 

" Man is a glase, Life 
Is as water weakly washed about, 
Sinns brought in death. 
Death breakes the glase. 
So runes this water out." 

In larger characters is the admonition, " Memento Mory." 

Very possibly the doorn of such clocks were engraved to suit the 
tastes of purchasers. There are no particulars obtainable as to the 
early history of this example, which now belongs to Mr. Henry Smith. 
I remember seeing another large lantern clock by the same maker 
which was inscribed, " William Boyear, in Ledenhall Streete, fecit." 
The movement of this clock was arranged in the usual manner, the 
striking train behind the going, and working in three upright bars. 
It required a great fall of the driving weights to go thirty hours, as 
each of the main wheels made one rotation per hour. The original 
vertical escapement, as usual, had been removed ; but from parts 
remaining it could be seen that it was identically the same as the 
drawings of De Vick's. The wheels and pinions, as one sometimes 
finds, were very little cut, and though evidently rounded by hand, 
seemed beautifully correct, and ran easily without 'chattering. The 
hour wheel was driven by a pinion of four, the end of the main 
wheel stafi" being filed up into four pins to serve the purpose. 

Another interesting lantern clock of large size is shown in Fig. 
580, the dial measuring 7-^ inches across. The gallery fret above 
the dial is particularly well designed, and bears the inscription, 
" Thomas Knifton at the Cross Keys in Lothebury, Londini, P'ecit." 
Thomas Knifton was well known among the early makers. On the 
upper part of the space within the hour ring is engraved, " This 
was given by William Adams, the founder of this Schoole, and is to 
be made use of for the benifit thereof, 1657." The reference is to a 
school in Gloucestershire which was maintained by the Haberdashers' 

Clocks of this size were I think exceptional. Most that I have 

Tlic Prooycssioii of Ei!i:^iisJi Domestic Clocks. 


seen of the period varied from about 3 inches by 2| inches to 
5 inches square. Larger movements were more favoured at the end 
of the seventeenth century and beginning of the eighteenth century. 
After about 1660 the dial was, as a rule, increased in size with 
relation to the body of the clock 
so that it projected more on each 
side of the frame. This de- 
parture may be observed on the 
lantern clock by Tompion, which 
dates from about 1665, and is 
shown on page 270. 

Front and side views of a 
good specimen by Thomas 
Dyde, dating from about 1670, 
engraved by favour of Mr. 
Shapland, are given in Figs. 
581 and 582. A particular 
feature in this clock is the 
unusually elaborate pierced work 
attached to the hammer tail 
detent, which may be seen in 
Fig. 582. 

The engraving (Fig. ^8^) 
taken from a drawing by Mr. 
William Newton shows well the 
usual arrangement on a bracket. 
The name, W'illiam Ruthven, 
on the door of the clock was 
probably that of the owner. 

Many clocks made during 
the latter part of the reign of 
William III. and in the time of 
Queen Anne had the dials pro- 
jecting beyond the frames from 
2 to 3 inches on each side. 
These are generally known as 

sheeps-head clocks. However much the usefulness of the clock 
may have been increased by the superior legibility of its hour ring, 
it cannot be contended that the overhanging disc improved its 
general appearance. 

With little variations in the style, these brass clocks seem to 

c.w. G G 

Fig. 580. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

have been made from the time of EHzabeth until about the beginning 
of the reign of George III., the later specimens being principally of 
provincial manufacture, and with square arched-top dials. They 
are still often to be met with in the country, enclosed in a wooden 
hood as a protection from dust, with pendulum and weights hanging 

Fig. 581. 

Fig. 582. 

below. Sometimes they are without any extra case, and, instead of 
being placed on a bracket, are simply attached to the wall by means 
of an iron loop and two prongs. 

The " fret " at the top of the case may in many instances be 
somewhat of a guide in estimating the period of a lantern clock. 
Appended are examples, for several of which I am indebted to 
Mr. Percy Webster. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 


The heraldic fret (Fij(. 5S4) was in use at the earliest period up to 
1630 or 1640. William Bowyer, Thomas Loomes and Peter Closon 
(Figs. 585, 586, 587) are diverse styles between 1620 and 1640, 

Fig. 583. 

while the Thomas Pace fret (Fig. 588) may be taken to represent 
the period between 1630 to 1660. The crossed dolphins came into 
use about 1640, and were a favourite pattern from then as long as 
lantern clocks were made. An uncommon and unusually fine fret 

G G 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

may be observed on the clock by Thomas Knifton, shown in Fig. 
580. J. Michell of Chardstock, a village in Somersetshire, was an 
excellent maker of lantern clocks about 1700, and judging from the 

Fig. 584. — Heraldic. 

number of specimens still existing, he must have had a considerable 
connection. His frets were good and bore a distinctive character. 
The one shown in Fig. 590 is from a clock in the possession of 

Fig. 585. — The fret of William Bowyer. 

Mr. S. Good, Seaton, Devonshire. Michell was succeeded by the 
family of Drayton, of which several generations successively carried 
on the business till past the middle of the nineteenth century, 
the last member being Thomas Drayton. A fret as in Fig. 591, 

TJic Progression of Eni^lish Dovicsiic Clocks. 


einbodyin<::[ somcthin.ij similar to the supporters in the Royal arms, is 
occasionally to be met with. The initials preceding; the date may be 

Fig. 5S6, — The fret of William iJowyer and Thcmas Lcomes. 

those of the owner or the maker. Frets similar to Fig. 592 are found 
upon later specimens, particularly those made in the Eastern Counties. 

Fig. 5S7. 

Captain Edward Lethbridge has a clock of the kind referred to as 
being a transition between the brass-cased lantern and the wooden 
long-case. It is by Thristle of Williton, a village in Somerset. The 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

movement stands on a mahogany bracket, and is protected by a hood 
of the same material having a carved top. It requires winding twice 
a week. The dial measures about 7 inches across, and has an 

Fig. 58S. — The fret of Thomas Pace at the Crown. 

arched top with a figure of Time and the motto " Tempus fugit." 
There is an alarum, but no other striking work. It has a long 
pendulum swinging in the open air below the bracket, where also 

Fig. 589. — Dolphin fret. 

hangs the cord from which the dri\ing weight depends. The date 
of its production would be, I should think, about 1720. Mr. W. T. 
Harkness has one by " Payne, Hadleigh," of the same period, the 
hood of which is mahogany. 

The Pro<^i'cssioii of EiiglisJi Domestic Clocks. 


An earlier hood clock is shown in Fig. 593 by fa\our of Mr. Percy 
Webster. It is of the kind known as " Friesland," and though 
clocks of this pattern were, I think, not made in England, they are 

Fig. 590. — Fret of J. Michell, Chardstock. 

of interest as an early application of a pendulum longer than the 
case. Through the hole in the bottom of the bracket the pendulum 


,1 CV/# ^^ 

Fig. 591. 

bob, in the form of a man on horseback, is visible as it vibrates. 
There are two bells, the completion of each hour being marked 
by strokes on the large bell, while the same number of blows given 
on the small bell denotes the succeedinsr half-hour. 


Old Clocks and Watches and iliciv Makers. 

Fig. 592. — Late period fret used in the Eastern Counties. 

In Fig. 594 is shown a clock, probably German or Dutch, and 

which appears to date from the 
middle of the seventeenth century. 
The movement and case are en- 
tirely of iron, the sides and front 
being adorned wdth oil paintings, 
which are very effective. 

Lantern clocks were made long 
after the long case was introduced. 
Indeed, one occasionally sees an 
adaptation of the bedpost movement 
to the needs of the later con- 
struction, the two trains being 
placed side by side to allow of 
winding with a key from the front, 
but witli six pillars instead of the 
more simple and convenient back 
and front plates. 

Then, in the old four-post Dutch 
movements, made at the beginning 
of the last century, a long while 
after the adoption of the pendulum, 
the crown wheel and verge were 
retained in a vertical position, and 
the pendulum was suspended above 
the movement at the back of the 
Fig. 593. case, quite detached, and connected 

The Progression of Eiu^lish Domestic Clocks. 


witli the escapement only by means of a light wire crutch, working 
horizontally over the frame. Owing to this peculiarity, clocks of such a 
construction are often supposed to be much older than they really are, 
especially if, as occasionally happens, the pendulum gets removed or 
lost ; for when this occurs, the 
remaining part of the movement 
almost identically resembles the 
drawings of De Vick's clock. 

Another instance of the slow 
appreciation of impro\ement 
is the very gradual acknowledg- 
ment of the minute hand. 
Clocks with an hour hand only 
were produced by country 
makers till quite the end of 
the eighteenth century. 

Long - Case Clocks. — It 
would bedifiicult to say exactly 
when the brass chamber clock 
with a wooden hood developed 
into the long-case \ariety now 
familiarly termed "Grand- 
father," but it was probably 
between 1660 and 1670. In 
the earliest the escapement was 
governed either by the two- 
armed balance with weights or 
by a " bob " pendulum. John 
Smith in " Horological Dia- 
logues," published in 1675, 
says : "If your pendulum clock 
be of the ordinary sort the 
trouble and manner of hanging 
it up is the same with the 
balance clock, viz. : to drive 
an hook for it to hang on." 
But he also speaks of " setting up long swing pendulums after you 
have taken it from the cofifin " and adds, " the same rule that is given 
for this serves for all other trunck-cases whatsoever." 

In his " Horological Disquisitions," issued in 1694, Smith is much 
more precise and refers to the anchor escapement and improved 

Fig. 594. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

pendulum " invented by that eminent and well-known artist, Mr. 
William Clement." He gives a list of " Crown Wheel Pendulums," 
from I inch to 12 inches long, and then a list of " royal " pendulums, 
as in his enthusiastic approval he terms those of Clement, from 
12 inches to 65 inches in length. 

The long or "royal" pendulum, introduced about 1676, was 
pretty generally adopted by the leading makers for their best work 
within a few years]^from that date. The cases of the balance and 
bob pendulum clocks were exceedingly narrow in the waist, only 
just sufficient width having originally been allowed for the rise and 
fall of the weights. In some instances a clock of this kind would be 

converted to the new style and then a 

curious addition, in the form of a wing 

^^ '' ■■'^■^ JB '-"^ projection was made on each side of 

lM^liii^^|HiE~~'*'^^H the case to permit the swing of a "royal" 

pendulum. Sheraton seems to have 
suggested a revival of these wings in 
the case shown in Fig. 655. 

But for a few exceptions that mark the 
rule, long-case clocks have the movement 
contained between two brass plates held 
together by horizontal pillars. This change 
came with the rearrangement of the 
trains side by side, to allow of winding 
with a key from the front of the dial. 

It may be concluded that the earliest 
long-case clocks would go for but 24 
or 30 hours between successive windings, 
and possibly at first they were wound by 
pulling down the driving cords. There 
is an early one by Tompion at the Guildhall Museum, which has a 
lantern movement and is so arranged. But there is a very fine 30 
hour clock by the same maker in the Wetherfield collection, which 
winds through holes in the dial. The introduction of the " royal " 
pendulum and wheel work for 8 days running, seems to have been 
almost coincident. The evident success of eight-day movements 
induced clock makers to calculate trains to go for a month, three 
months, and e\en a year, of which there are several examples by 
Tompion, Quare and others. 

In the striking part of the earliest eight-day clocks the locking 
plate or count wheel was on the outside of the pillar plate, instead 

Fig. 595. — Side view of time- 
piece movement by William 
Clement, about 1676. 

Tlic Pi'ogrcssioii of Eiii^lish Doincsiic Clocks. 459 

of bcint^f altaclied to the great wheel. When the rack was introduced 
it was placed between the plates and lifted by a pin in the arbor, the 
superior niethod of an outside rack lifted by a gathering pallet 
seems to have come into use about 1 700. 

Mr D. A. F. Wetherfield has a month timepiece by William 
Clement, who is said to have first applied the anchor escapement. 
It is in an oak veneered-walnut case, the case and dial being very 
similar to those of the Tompion clock shown in Fig. 627. There is 
no door to the hood which has grooves to correspond with the back- 
board of the case ; the hood thus slides upwards when taken off, or 
when the clock is to be wound. Preparatory to winding, the hood is 
raised until engaged by a spring, which holds it in the requisite 
position to admit of access to the winding-hole. A side \-iew of the 
movement is given in Fig. 595. There are six pillars and catches 
pivoted on one of the plates shut into corresponding slots in the 
pillars, thus fastening the movement together. The escape wheel 
is solid, has 24 teeth, and is i inch in diameter ; the pallets are about 
^ inch across. The pendulum is 5 feet 6 inches long, each vibration 
marking a second and a quarter, and the seconds circle has 48 
divisions only instead of the usual 60. Between the plates is a 
small brass dial with figures i to 12 engraved on it, and having a 
hand by turning which forwards or backwards the pendulum is 
lengthened or shortened. On the spindle to which the hand is 
attached is a worm which gears into a quadrant carrying an arm, 
and to this arm the pendulum is hung. 

Dials. — In estimating the age of a clock many distinguishing 
features of the dial may be noted. From the first the hour circles 
were, with few exceptions, engraved on a separate silvered ring as in 
lantern clocks ; the double circles within the numerals were retained, 
and in the space enclosed between them were radial strokes, dividing 
the hour into quarters, the half-hours being denoted by longer 
strokes terminating in a fleuv-de-lys or other ornament. The form 
of the hour hand differed but little from the indicators on lantern 
clocks. Fig. 596 shows the dial of a 30 hour long-case clock 
by Andrew Prime, London, dating from about 1670, belonging to 
Mr. C. J. Abbott, of Long Melford. Except for the difference in the 
name, the engraving on the 30 hour Tompion clock at the Guildhall 
Museum is exactly similar. 

It must not be assumed that of two long-case clocks, one with an 
hour hand only, and the other with a minute hand as well, that the one 
with the single index is necessarily of the earlier date, for though the 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

minute hand was applied as early as 1 670, clocks with an hour hand only 
were quite common throughout the eighteenth century. It is most 
probable that for some years the minute hand was only apphed by the 
best makers and exclusively to clocks of a superior class ; this assump- 
tion is justified by the fact that though many early one-hand clocks 
roughly made are met with, those with the minute hand are almost in- 
variably well finished. The form of the hands is an excellent guide to 
the period. Fig. 597 shows the dial and hands of a very fine long-case 
clock by Tompion, belonging to Mr. Wetherfield, and which may be 

Fig. 596. — Andrew Prime, about 1670. 

safely placed as dating from between 1 676 and 1 680. The centre of the 
dial is matted, and this, though characteristic of the time, was not an 
invariable custom, for some makers adhered to the engraved centre as 
seen in lantern clocks of earlier times. On dials of the William III. 
and Queen Anne periods, even when the centre was matted, there would 
be usually a "herring-bone" or laurel leaf border along the edges, 
and engraving something in the form of birds and foliage surrounded 
the aperture showing the day of the month, as in the Quare dial on 
page 293. This had a very good effect when burnished bright in 
contrast to the matting. Further relief was given by turning a 
number of bright rings around the winding holes. \\'ith the 

Tlic Progression of English Domestic Clocks. 


exception of those 30 liour adaptations with lantern movements 
as in Fig. 596, the maker's name on the earhest of the seventeenth 
century clocks was, as a rule, inscribed in a straight line along the 
bottom of the dial, usually in Latin, thus : " Eduardus East, 
Londini, Fecit," and visible only when the hood was raised or 
remo\ed, or the door of it opened. Later it was engraved within 
the minute circles between the numerals VIL and V. and the Latin 
form of inscription died out so far as the signature is concerned, 
though it was occasionally indulged in for such popular mottoes as 

Fig. 597. — Dial of Clock by Thos. Tompion, 1676 — 80. 

Tcnipns fugit, Vigilatc et Orate, Tempiis edax reriiiii, &c. A remarkably 
fine month clock by Tompion in a beautifully figured walnut case, 
dating from about 1 705, which belongs to Mr. J. Drummond Robertson, 
is shown in Fig. 636. In this the name is inscribed in a straight line 
along the bottom of the dial, and the signature appears also on a label 
below the centre of the dial as in the Bath and Iscoyd Park clocks by 
Tompion, of a slightly later date, shown on pp. 277, 279. After 
about 1710 attached name plates were occasionally used, but through- 
out the century most makers showed preference for the curved 
inscription between the numerals. 


Old Clocks and WatcJics and their Makers. 

Speaking generally, it seems that up to the end of the seventeenth 
century long-case clocks were small in size ; all had square dials 
measuring either 9I inches, 10 inches, 10^ inches, or 11 inches across. 
Square dials, 12 inches across, were later. 

Fig. 598 represents a very early square engraved metal dial which 
is of particular interest, not only from its handsome appearance but 
froin the fact that it discloses a peculiar plan of denoting the 
minutes. The short hand in the centre of the dial is the alarm 
index, which need not be referred to further. The hours and sub- 
divisions representing quarter hours are engraved on the dial plate 
in the manner usual at the middle of the seventeenth century, and 

the hours and quarters are indi- 
cated by a pointer fixed to a plate 
of the form shown, and which 
revolves once in twelve hours. 
The revolving plate includes an 
outer ring connected with the 
centre by three arms, and pro- 
jecting from the outer edge of 
this ring are twelve pointers 
placed equidistantly around the 
periphery. On the upper part 
of the fixed dial plate is a narrow 
band forming 30 degrees, or one- 
twelfth of the circumference. 
This band is divided into 60 
equal parts, representing the 
minutes in an hour ; and if at 

Fig. 598. 

the beginning of an hour one of the pointers is just entering this arc, 
it is obvious it will in its course indicate the minutes which have elapsed 
since thecompletion of the pre\'ioushour. At the bottom of the dial is 
inscribed, "William Clay, King's Street, Westminster," and this 
William Clay was possibly the one recorded as the maker of a watch 
presented by Cromwell to Colonel Bagwell at the siege of Clonmel. This 
dial was sketched from a clock in the possession of Mr. Percy Webster. 
An arched top to the dial appears to have been first added early 
in the eighteenth century for the reception of an equation of 
time register, as shown in Tompion's clock on page 279. It will 
be observed that the Hampton Court clock bearing Quare's name 
and which was designed to show true solar time has no arch to 
the dial, but a subsequent clock on the same plan by Joseph 

The Proi^rc^^ion of Eit'^U^li Domestic Clocks. 


Williamson, has an arch containing a calendar for the year as shown 
in l''ig. 612. On another dial by \\'illiamson, the day of the week 
is indicated, as seen in Fig. 613. Apart from its utility in this 
connection, the addition of the arched top was certainly a great 
improvement to the appearance of the dial, and from this time was 
generally retained for the better class of work e\en when not 
required as a field for the exhibition of any of the clock movements. 
In such cases the space was devoted to decoration, a fa\oured device 
being a domed plate on which was inscribed either the owner's or 
the maker's name, occa- 
sionally with a crest or 
motto, and generally 
flanked on each side by 
a dolphin or rococo 
ornament of the kind 
apparently introduced 
by Joseph Williamson, 
and shown on his dials, 
Figs. 612 and 613. 

Among other useful 
purposes to which the 
arch was applied the 
" strike-silent " hand 
and the " rise and 
fall " register may be 
mentioned as two of 
the earliest. The titles 
of these are suggestive 
of their use. The strike- 
silent mechanism for 
stopping the striking of the clock at pleasure is older than the arch, 
and is to be seen on clocks ha\ing square dials. A particular form of 
strike-silent mechanism was incorporated in a patent granted to John 
Rowning, M.A., in 1732 (No. 535). The rise and fall hand was 
connected with the pendulum and served to regulate the time of its 
vibration by altering its effective length. 

For many years, but especially during the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, there was a great taste for mo\'ing figures placed 
in this part of the dial, such automata as see-saws, heaving ships, 
time on the wing, etc., being especially favoured. The Dutch seem 
to have greatly excelled at this kind of work, 

Fig. 599. — Simple calendar work. 

464 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Calendar circles in the arch of the dial were very popular. The 
hands for these were generally worked as shown in Fig. 599. Gearing 
with the hour wheel is a wheel having twice its number of teeth, and 
turning therefore once in 24 hours. A three-armed lever is planted 
just above this wheel ; the lower arm is slotted, and the wheel carries 
a pin which works in this slot, so that the lever vibrates to and 
fro once every 24 hours. The three upper circles in the drawing 
represent three star wheels. The one to the right has seven teeth 
corresponding to the days of the week ; the centre one has thirty-one 
teeth for the days of the month ; and the left-hand one has twelve 
teeth for the months of the year. Every time the upper arms of the 
lever vibrate to the left, they move forward the day of the week and 
day of the month wheels each one tooth. The extremities of the 
levers are jointed, so as to yield on the return vibration, and are 
brought into position again by a weak spring, as shown. There is a 
pin in the day of the month wheel which, by pressing on a lever 
once every revolution, actuates the month of the year wheel. This 
last lever is also jointed, and is pressed on by a spring, so as to 
return to its original position. Each of the star wheels has a click 
or jumper kept in contact by means of a spring. 

For months with less than thirty-one days the day of the month 
hand has to be shifted forward. 

The phases of the moon, usually accomplished by a disc turning 
once in two lunations, as shown in Enderlin's clock on page 365, 
was also a favourite device for the arch of the dial. Clocks with a 
globular rotating moon over the dial as used by Fromantil were 
popular in Yorkshire during the eighteenth century and were known 
locally as " Halifax clocks." Mr. J. Whiteley Ward has a fine 
specimen of which I shall be able to give an illustration. This clock 
was made by Thomas Ogden and formerly stood at the top of the 
stairs of the Old Assembly Room behind the Talbot Inn, Halifax. 

The spandrels or corners outside the circle of the dial are another 
sign of the times. In some of the very earliest long-case clocks 
flowers were engraved there, as in William Clay's dial on page 462. 
In Fig. 621 the corners are filled each with a line of verse, but 
more usually these spaces were occupied by raised gilt ornaments, of 
which the earliest were the cherubs' or angels' heads, Fig. 600. 
This pattern will be seen on the clock represented in the coat of arms 
granted to the Clockmakers'' Company in 1671, and was largely used 
until the end of the century. It was succeeded by larger and more 
elaborate corners like Fig. 601. Then more ambitious designs came 

Tlic Pro-^rcssioii of English DcDiicslic Clocks. 


into use, notably two Cupids or nude boys supporting a crown in the 
midst of ornamental scroll-work (Fig. 602) ; or a crown with crossed 
sceptres and foliage, as in Mg. 603. This is an unusually fine 
specimen taken from a clock of the Queen Anne period by W. 
Draper, a maker of wliom I seem to have no precise particulars, 
tliough Mr. William Norman lias a metal token issued by W. Draper, 
watchmaker, wliich lias on the obverse " Success to the Borough of 
JMaldon " with the arms of the town, and on the re\erse the arms of 
the Clockmakers' Company. Later in the eighteenth century different 
figures representing the four seasons were popular with some of the 
pro\incial makers, but they are seldom to be seen on clocks by 

London men. The naked boys were followed by various combina- 
tions of a rococo character, such as Fig. 604. One of the best and 
most popular of the designs used during the George IIL period is 
shown in Fig. 605. Some of the corners and arch ornaments of this 
time were sadly degenerate in form and execution, being merely a mass 
of unmeaning curves reproduced in rough castings, not touched by 
the chasing tool or graver, but lacquered just as they left the sand. 
Many of the early dials and corners were water gilt. Occasionally 
on clocks of a high class, silver corner pieces pierced and engraved 
were substituted for the set patterns. 

The hands on eight-day clocks of the William IIL period are 
most artistic, not only being elaborately pierced, but also carved 

c.w. H H 


Old Clocks and Watches and tlicir Makers. 

and shaped on the surface. At my request Mr. Wetherfield has 
favoured me with a series of eight dials reproduced in Figs. 606 to 613 
from which may be noted the hands, marks between the hour 

Fig. 603. 

numerals and other distinguishing features ranging over about forty 
years from the Edward East specmien, Fig. 606, which is furnished 
with bolt and shutter maintaining power as described on page 301. 

Later examples down to the end of the eighteenth century are given 
on succeeding pages. 

Dials of brass, silvered all over, without a . separate ring for the 

hour and minute circles, and in which the primitive practice of 
engraving instead of matting the central space was reverted to, 
were introduced about 1750. Many of these dials were characterised 
by really excellent engraving. Thomas Bewick, the celebrated 

The Pro<^n'L'ssio!i of Eni^IisJi Doiiicsiic Clocks. 467 

Fig. 606. — Edward East, about 1680 ; 8 day clock ; 10 inch dial 
Bolt and shutter maintaining power. 

Fig. 607. — Joseph Knibb, about 1690 ; month clock ; 10 inch dial ; 
unique corner pieces. 

H H 2 

Fig. 608. — Joseph Knibb, about 1695 ; month clock ; 10 inch dial 
skeleton hour ring : every minute numbered. 

Fig. 609.— Thos. Tompion, about 1700 ; month clock ; 11 inch dial 
bolt and shutter maintaining power. 

Fig. 6io. — Daniel yuare, about 1705 ; month clock ; 11 inch dial. 

Fig. 611. — Jonathan Lowndes, about 1710; S day clock; 12 inch dial. 

470 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

engraver, who died in 1828 at the age of seventy-six, was apprenticed 
to Bielby of Newcastle, and during his apprenticeship was frequently 
engaged in engraving clock dials. By favour of Mr. Thos. Foster, I 
am able in Fig. 615 to show an excellent specimen, dating from 

Fig. 612. — Joseph Williamson, about 1715 ; month clock ; square 
of dial, 12 inches; inscription, Horae indicantur apparcntcs 
invohitis aequatioiiibus. Calendar in the arch. 

about 1 775, by James Whitworth of Lussley, a village near Newcastle. 
The figures at the corners to represent the seasons are engraved on 
the plate. The disc, which moves in the arch and contains two 
representations of the moon and rural scenes is painted, and the 
moon in its course indicates its age by figures engraved on the fixed 
part of the arch. 

TJic Prof^irssion of Eiii:^lish Domestic Clocks. 


Dials with enamelled centres were occasionally used for superior 
long-case clocks at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the 
nineteenth century, but earlier ones are rare. In Fig. 617 is shown, 

Fig. 613. — Joseph Williamson, about 1720; 8 day clock; square of 
dial, 12 inches; lower hour numerals reversed; day of the 
week indicated in the arch, an illustration for each day appears 
through an aperture. 

by favour of Mr. Wetherfield, the dial of a long-case clock dated 
1778, by Robert Comber of Lewes, a maker of good repute in Sussex 
for the excellent character of his work, which this example quite 
justifies. The hands will bear examination, the corner pieces and 
arch ornaments are of good design, well chased and water gilt ; but 


Old Clocks and ]Vatches and their Makers. 

the most remarkable feature is the position of the winding squares, 
which are below the enamelled disc so that not only is the unsight- 
hness of the holes got rid of, but one of the chief objections to 
enamel, the danger of chipping round the holes, is avoided. Wheels 

Fig. 614.— Rotating Moon Dial of " Halifax Clock" by Thos. Ogden, 
about 1750, see p. 464. 

were added at the back of the movement to bring the winding squares 
down to the required position. 

About 1780 silvered dials shorn of all decorative engraving were 
sometimes used, and at the same period dials of iron or tin painted 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks. 473 

over made tlieir appearance ; this last construction betokens a dep^ree 
of dej^'radation beyond which we need not pursue the lonfj^-case clock 

On pages 476 and 477 are sliown some clock liands, nearly all from 

Fig. 615. — Finely engraved dial, about 1775. Figures at the corners 
to represent the four seasons. 

examples collected by Mr. G. H. Newton of Watford. Nos. i, 2, 3, 
and 4 belonged to lantern clocks made between 1630 and 1680. 
No, 5 from a clock by Henry Jones about 1670. Nos. 6 to 23 are 
from long-case, and 24 to 29 from bracket clocks. No. 6 by John 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Tirry, York, about 1680; No. 7, J. Windmills, 1690; No. 8, John 
Smith, 1695; No. 9, Simon Lamb, Rochester, 1700; No. 10, Saml. 
Harris, 1710; No. 11, George Hewitt, Marlboro', 1720; No. 12 

V//v//. ^ '(^////'//'.Yl 

-• >\^ 




r ' 

Vu:. (.16. — l)ial -.vith moving fiyures. ihoiU i jSu ; see p. 4i)'>. 

(hour, minute and regulation hands), Geo. Graham, 1730; No. 13, 
Thos. Vernon, Ludlow, 1740; No. 14, Wm. Avenall, Alresford, 
1750; No. 15, Thos. Andrews, Steyning, 1760; No. 16, Wm. Berridge, 
1770. Nos. 17 and 18 are typical single hands from early eighteenth 
century long-case clocks. No. 19, S. Hoole, 1770 ; No. 20, Wm. 

Tlic Pvo^rc^don of English Domestic Clocks. 


Skeggs, 1780; No. 21, J. Lorinier, 1790; No. 22, Hugh Stockell, 
Newcastle, 1800; No. 23, another \ariety of about the same date ; 
No. 24, J. Lowndes, i6go ; No. 25, AsseHn 1720; No. 26, Win. 

Fig. 617. — Enamel centre, 1778 : see p. 471. 

KipHng, 1710; No. 27, Joseph Emery, 1780 ; No. 28, Robert Newman, 
1700 ; No. 29, Thos. Appleby, 1800. 

Cases. — As material for the cases, oak has been used from first 
to last, but rarely for high-class work. Walnut cases, both plain and 
inlaid, were largely made during the latter part of the seventeenth 
and beginning of the eighteenth centuries. The marqueterie work 

476 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig. 618 

The Proi^rcssion of Eiii^lisJi Doincslic Clock 

:s. 477 


Fig. 6ig. 

478 Old Clocks and Watches and tlicir Makers. 

rarely extended to the sides of the case, which were plain as a rule, 
though occasionally panelled ; the panels being filled with parquetry, 
that is, set w'ith angular pieces of thick veneer. Oyster-shell veneer 
or inlay was another handsome style of ornament ; the inlay consisted 
of roundish pieces of veneer cut from cross sections of small branches 
so as to exhibit the natural formation or ringed structure of the wood. 

Ebony, rosewood, and hardwood of reddish colour called, I believe, 
kingwocd, were occasionally used for cases, while laburnum, olive, 
yew, holly, sycamore, apple and pear as well as tulip wood, amboyna 
and other fancy kinds were employed with good effect for inlaying. 
In some districts chestnut seems to have been utilised to a considerable 
extent for cases during the eighteenth century. Mahogany was not 
used till about 1716. The arched dialTompion clock at the Guildhall 
has a mahogany case, but it was probably made at a later date than 
the movement. The case of the Tompion one year timepiece at the 
Admiralty, w4iich is showm on page 483, is distinctly later than 
Tompion's time, and it is related that the movement of a similar 
piece presented to the Royal Society in 1736 was discovered among 
lumber on the premises occupied by the Philosophical Society. At 
Child's bank is a long-case clock by Richard Street dating from about 
1 7 10. It is in an oak case veneered with mahogany, but the veneer 
was, I am satisfied, not applied when the case was made ; doubtless 
the rich appearance of mahogany led to its subsequent application. 

The arched head to the long door of the case is not quite so old as 
the arched dial, but the introduction of curved door heads may be put, 
I think, at about 1725. 

Numbers of cases covered with English copies of quaint-looking 
Japanese or Oriental lacquer- work were made between 1720 and 
1750, and they have many admirers, but marqueterie and lacquer- 
work rapidly declined as mahogany became more known, and it 
must be confessed that some cases of mahogany in the Chippendale 
and Sheraton styles, inlaid with satinwood, etc., quite justify the 
admiration with which they are regarded. 

In many of the early cases a bull's-eye of greenish glass was let into 
the door opposite the pendulum bob, magnifying and distorting the 
appearance of the bob as it swung to and fro. The upper part of 
the case, or hood, which surrounded the dial was at first made wnthout 
any door. Most makers fitted the hood with grooves to the back as 
described on page 459. In other instances the hood had to be slid 
forward and entirely removed to obtain access to the dial. In the 
early cases the moulding under the hood was convex as distinguished 

The Progycssion of Eii^i^lish Domestic Clocks. 479 

from the conca\e moulding almost imariably used afterwards. 
Corkscrew pillars at the angles of the hood were much favoured 
during the William III. and Queen Anne periods. The pillars 
supported an entablature which either terminated with a Hat top or 
was surmounted by a pediment or some kind of ornament. A domed 
or canopied structure was common, but there is no particular pattern 
which can be (juoted as absolutely distinguishing the time. The 
styles most in vogue may be gathered from illustrations of examples 
which I shall be able to give. In nearly all cases a frieze or other 
band was pierced to emit the sound of the bell ; sometimes the fret- 
work was of wood and sometimes of brass. The brass fret strips, 
which were rather pretty, were often removed when the case subse- 
quently underwent repair. One of them taken from a clock dating 
from 1700 is shown in Fig. 620. 

Fig. 627 represents an eight-day Tompion clock dating from 1676-80, 
the dial of which, g^ inches square, is shown separately on page 461. 
The case is of oak veneered with walnut ; at the corners of the hood 

Fig. 620. — Brass fret from head of long-case clock, about 1700. 

are pillars with helical or " corkscrew " shafts, brass bases and 
Corinthian capitals. Well executed brass festoons of fruit and 
flowers adorn the hood over the dial and over the side lights. Mr. 
Wetherfield, who owns this clock, has a timepiece by William Clement 
which is very similar in appearance. 

By favour of Messrs. Home and Son, of Leyburn, I am able to 
give an engraving of a quaint 30 hour long-case clock of provincial 
make which now belongs to Mr. Thomas Bradley, W^ensleydale. 
This case is of oak and panelled. The head is fixed on the trunk, 
and will not take off. Two slip doors at the sides of the head open to 
get to the works, and a sash door affords the same convenience for 
the dial. Both the case door and the sash door open from right to 
left. The initials E. F. M. wath date, 1681, are carved on the case. 
The clock was made for Edward and Margaret Fawcett ; the former 
was a clergyman, who lived at Hardraw, close to the beautiful Har- 
draw Waterfall. The works are of the lantern type, with a large 
bell and hammer inside, and small dial as shown in F'ig. 621. It was 
made by John Ogden, Bowbrigg(e). In Ogden's clocks of later date 

480 Old Clocks and Watches and tlicir Makers. 

the name of the place was spelled Bowbridge, but the local name is 

Bowbrigge to-day. In each of the corner spaces outside of the hour 

circle is engraved one line of the following verse : — 

" Behold this hand, 

Observe ye motions trip ; 
Man's pretious hours 
A way Hke these do slip." 

John Ogden was a member of the Society of Friends, and a friend 
of George Fox, who often visited Wensleydale. 

Marqueterie. — The formation of designs byinlaying wood of 
different kinds is a very ancient art. The Italians particularly 
excelled at it in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Early inlaying 
was done by cutting out from the solid wood which formed the 
groundwork such parts of a pre-arranged design as it was desired 
to have of a different colour and then inserting pieces of a suitable 
and different kind of wood. But in most of the marqueterie we see 
on clock cases, the design is out cut of a groundwork of veneer which 
is filled in with other veneer and attached to the surface of the wood 
which forms the body of the case. This method is, I think, of 
French origin and dates from the middle of the seventeenth century, 
but it was first applied to., clock cases about 1685, and remained in 
fashion, so far as clock cases are concerned, for about 25 years from 
that date. 

Dutch marqueterie is effective, of a distinctly bolder or coarser 
character, and, as a rule, may be distinguished from what may be 
called English designs, which more favoured the Italian style. 
Arabesques, fine geometrical patterns, conventional flowers and 
foliage executed byinlaying wood, which, though of a different colour 
to the ground, was yet not in violent contrast to it, characterised the 
English, while Dutch artists, who accentuated more the difference 
between the groundwork and the inlay, indulged in quaint and 
fanciful designs in which grotesque masks and figures, as well as 
vases, birds, leaves, tulips and other flowers were pourtrayed by 
means of shading and the use of wood naturally of another colour or 
stained to the desired tint. It must not be assumed, though, that what 
is called Dutch marqueterie was necessarily executed in the Nether- 
lands ; there is no doubt that when William III. ascended the 
English throne his followers included Dutch inlayers who settled 
here and turned the public taste to their particular methods, which 
were followed by English workers 

At first the marqueterie was arranged on the front of the case in 
panels with semicircular ends, sometimes with a line border connecting 

The Pro;j^)rssio)i of Iii!t:;lish Domestic Clocks. 481 

the panels ; afterwards the whole of the front surface might be 
covered with niar(]ueterie, the door and plinth having set designs, 
enclosed in floral or other borders. In marqueterie work of the very 
highest class, it will be noticed that the whole of the inlay on any one 
surface forms a complete design ; if birds or figures are introduced 
they are delineated as a whole and fall gracefully into the conception 
of the designer. More frequently a symmetrical pattern was taken 
and two pieces of veneer forming half of the pattern w^ere laid one on 
the other and pierced together ; the halves were then placed side by 
side and of course matched exactly. But however close the jointing 
of the halves, the line of junction down the centre may be discerned 
by close examination. Masks or vases containing leaves and flowers 
on stalks were commonly selected for such treatment and were dis- 
played very effectixely in this way. Sometimes the halving would 
extend to a portion of the design only, and advantage would be taken of 
the outlines of leaves or scrolls to join in the halved pieces very neatly. 

In the South Kensington INIuseum are a clock by Mansell I3ennett 
enclosed in a case decorated with marqueterie in panel, and an 
unusually fine example of English scroll marqueterie co\ering the 
case of a clock by Henry Poisson ; on the staircase of the Soane 
Museum is a clock by William Threlkeld, the case of which is 
also adorned with marqueterie in the English style. 

Soho seems to have been a favoured district for marqueterie 
workers, though Tonbridge in Kent and St. Ives and other smaller 
places in Cornwall are spoken of as being famous for marqueterie 
work in the eighteenth century. 

After being neglected for fifty years or so marqueterie was to some 
extent revived as a decoration for clock cases. An example on the 
early lines which is shown in Fig. 653, dates apparently from about 
1770. Chaste inlay in the Hepplewhite and Sheraton style, as in 
Fig. 659, is admirable. Sheraton's designs for clock cases are 
reproduced on page 496. 

A fine specimen, with English marqueterie in panels, which is 
in the Dean's Vestry, St. Paul's Cathedral, is given in Fig. 622. 
The date of this can be well authenticated by the following extract 
which I have been allowed to make from the Cathedral accounts 
for the period from October, 1697, to September, 1698, when the 
clock was paid for : — 

" ffor a pendulum Clock for the South East Vestrey that goes 8 dayes in a 
Wallnut Tree inlade Case ^14 00 00." 

There is now no maker's name on either the dial or movement, 
c.w. I I 


Old Clocks and ]Vaichcs and tlidir Maker's. 

but the clock was doubtless the production of Langley Bradley^ who 
was at that time the Cathedral clockmaker. 

The clock shown in Fig. 623 is the property of Mr. Thomas 



Fig. 621. — Primitive 
provincial style, 1681. 



Fig. 622. — Clock at St. 
Paul's Cathedral, i6g8. 


Fig. 623. — "George 

Ethrington, London," 

about 1695. 

Boynton, Bridlington Quay, and was made by George Ethrington, 
London, about 1695. The case is finely decorated with English 

Tlic Pyo^rcssion of liUi^lisJi Duiiicstic Clvch 


A very fine chiniini^' clock by Tonipion, with canopied head, wliich 
is at Windsor Castle, is shown in V'v^. 624. The upper part of the 


Fig. 624. — Tompion 
clock at Windsor Castle. 

Fig. 626. — Tompion one 
Fig. 625. — Tompion. year timepiece at the 

about 1700. Admiralty. 

case is particularly good. The trusses supporting the hood, though 
somewhat unusual features, have an excellent effect. 

I I 2 

484 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 



Fig. 627. — Thos. Tompion, 

Fig. 628.— Ed. East, 

Fig. 629.— Jos. Knibb, 

The Pi'O^^rcssiou of English Domestic Clocks. 485 

Another clock hv 'r()nii)i()n, Fig. 625, dating from about 1700, is 
the property of Mr. Jolni W Trotter of Hexham. 'J"he case is of 
oak \eneerecl witli wahiut, and has a rather tall plinth and narrow 
body ; on eacli side of the dial is a spirally fluted pillar, and a hand- 
some carved ornament surmounts the entablature. The clock is in 
perfect order, and Mr. Trotter speaks of the hands as the finest pair 
he has ever seen. Fig. 626 represents a Tompion one-year time- 
piece which is now at the Admiralty. 'I'he hours are marked twice 
from I to XII, and at the top of the hood is the inscription, "Pre- 
sented by Queen Anne." The case is certainly later than Queen 
Anne's time, as I ha\e already said, and the dial looks more like 
Graham's production than Tompion's. It is quite likely that the 
timekeeper was ordered of Tompion and intended for Greenwich 
Observatory and that Graham's well-known desire to make as 
reliable an astronomical regulator as possible caused considerable 
delay in its construction. A very similar twelve-month timepiece 
bearing Tompion's name, in the possession of the Royal Society, is 
inscribed, " Sir Jonas Moore caused this movement to be made with 
great care, Anno Domini 1676." It was presented to the Society 
in 1736. 

The specimen shown in Fig. 628 by Edward East is from the 
Wetherfield collection and dates from 1680-16S5. It has a dial 
gi inches square, goes 8 days, and is in a walnut case with marque- 
terie panels showing flowers, birds and butterflies ; somewhat coarse 
but effecti^■e. The hood has a canopied top with brass side 

From the same collection, and of slightly later date, is the fine 
eight-day clock with lo-inch square dial, by Joseph Knibb, shown in 
Fig. 629. The case of oak is covered with burr walnut oyster-shell 
veneer, the sides are panelled and inlaid down the front with large 
rosettes of dark and light wood mixed. There are gilt bases and 
capitals to the corkscrew pillars at the corners of the hood, and over 
the entablature is a finely carved ornament. There are two bells of 
Chinese gong shape and on the smaller of these the preceding hour 
is repeated at the half-hour. 

As a specimen of fine marqueterie extending over the whole of 
the front and sides of the case, the clock shown in Fig. 630, which 
dates from about 1695, i^ worth notice. The dial plate is 1 1 inches 
square and below the hour circle is inscribed, " James Clowes, 
Londini fecit." It is from the Wetherfield collection, as also are 
the fine example of bird and flower marqueterie co\'ering a clock by 

4^6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

■% «! / 

^ I 

Fig. C30. — Jas. Clowes, 
about 1695. 

A I, ^. 





I IG. 631. — Jonathan Lowndes, 
about 1695. 

y i 

Fig. 632. — Dan Quare, 
about 1705. 

TJic Prof^yessioii of Eiiglif^Ji Domestic Clocks. 4S7 

^ « / 

: 5^*55 



Fig. 633. —Joshua 
Hutchin, about 1700, 

Fig. G34. — 1'. Garon, about Fig. 635. — Thos. Tompion : 

1705. month clock, about 1700. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 


Fig. 636. — Thos. Tompion, 
about 1705. See p. 461. 

Fig. 637. — One year timepiece 
by Daniel Quare. 

Fig. 638. — Danl. Delander 

year equation timepiece, 

about 1720. 

Jonathan Lowndes, shown in Fig. 631, and the splendid clock, 
Fig. 632, which is of later date. It has a dial 12 inches square ; the 
name " Dan : Quare " being engraved between the hour numerals 

TJic Pro^i^rcssion of Ens^lisJi Domestic Clocks. 489 




1/ i' 




Fig. 639. — Carved dark oak; 




r ^ 


Fig. 640. — Oriental 

lacquer-work, about 



\\ \" / 

Fig. 641. — Philip Abbot ; red 
lacquer case, about 1750, 

490 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig. 642. — At Windsor 

Castle : Richard Vick, 

about 1730. 

Fig. 643. — Reputed 
Chippendale case. 

Fig. 644. — Simpson, 
Southwell, about 1790. 

VII and VI and "London" between VI and V. The case is 
decorated with marqueteile, birds and flowers arranged in panels 
with scroll borders around the door framing and the plinth ; the 
pillars at the hood corners are also covered with marqueterie. 

The Progrcsainu of English Domestic Clocks. 491 

An example c^f iiiarqueterie arranged in geometrical patterns is 
shown in Fig. 633 which represents a clock by Joshua Hutchin 
belonging to Mr. W. K. l>owen. The case, of walnut, is inlaid with 
stars, curved hexagons, etc., and a broad herring-bone border which 
runs around the door, up the sides, and across the top of the body ; 
a banding inside this border is interspersed w ith bits of red wood at 
intervals of three inches. The stars and hexagons are picked out 
with holly and set in selected pieces of yew. 

An eight-day chiming clock by Peter Garon, in a very tine 
arabesque marqueterie case, the property of Mr. J. Drunnnond 
Robertson, is shown in Fig. 634. 

The Tompion clock, Fig. 635, is from the Wetherfield collection, as 
IS also the tw-elve-month timepiece by Daniel Quare show-n in Fig. 637, 
which is remarkable for the somewhat peculiar outline of the case 
and for its extremely beautiful marqueterie surface. Of the sub- 
sidiary discs in the upper corners of the dial plate the right hand 
one is a twelve-month calendar and that on the left is engraved 
" Tempus a?quale " and " Tempus apparens," and the main dial can 
be caused to show at pleasure either mean time or solar time 
according as the pointer is set. 

A one-year equation timepiece by Daniel Delander, shown in 
Fig. 638, is also the property of Mr. Wetherfield. 

Dark oak cases carved in high relief do not seem to have been 
the fashion of any particular period, but the result rather of occasional 
efforts by enthusiastic artists in wood, and then in most instances 
they appear to have been made to enclose existing clocks in 
substitution for inferior or worn-out coverings. Of the specimen 
shown in Fig. 639, I was fa\-oured with a drawing by the owner, 
whose name I ha\'e unfortunately mislaid. The maker of the clock 
was Thomas Haden, and it possibly dates from about 1720, but to 
assign a date for the case would be mere guesswork ; its outline 
is suggesti\e of the Chippendale period. 

Oriental Lacquer. — Cases coated with black, red or green 
lacquer or with a coating of lacquer on black, red or green ground, 
the surface being decorated in the Chinese or Japanese style more 
or less in relief and gilded, were much in favour from about 17 10 to 
1750. It is said that at first these cases were sent by ships engaged 
in the tea trade to China to be decorated, and that a delay of two years 
or so would occur before they reached England again. Then the 
Dutch engaged in the art, and afterwards the lacquering or japanning 
of cases was practised in England. While a few of the specimens now 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

to be met with are worthy of admiration, the greater number attract 
merely by reason of the grotesque appearance of the ornament. 


Fig. 645. — Chippen- 

Fig. 646. — Chippen- 


Fig. 647. — Chippendale. 

A square-headed clock case with the Oriental lacquer-work 
decoration in relief, is shown in Fig. 640. The clock, which was in 
the possession of Mr. John T. Trotter, bore the name of Anthony 

The Pi'ogycssion of English Domestic Clocks. 4Q3 


Figs. 648, 649. — Chippendale bracket cases. 

Tigs. 6jo, 651.— Chippendale bracket cases. 


Old Clocks and ]]\itcJics and their Makers. 

Marsh, who was free of the Clockmakers' Company in 1726, and it 
may be assumed to have been made about 1740. An unusually fine 


Fig. 652.— Chippendale. Fig, 653.— Marqueterie, 177c 

Fig. 654. — Timepiece 

by Ainsworth Thwaites 

at the India Office. 

red lacquer case, covering a clock by Philip Abbot, in the Wether- 
field collection, and dating from about 1750, is shown in Fig. 641. 

The Pn\^rcssioii of J^iii^iisli Domestic Clocks. 495 

Chippendale. — Examples of what is generally accepted as an 
ortliodox Chippendale case are represented on page 490. It is not 
easy to define exactly w hat constitutes a Cliippendale case, nor why 
cases of this pattern should be ascribed to Chippendale. Tliomas 
Chippendale was a noted upliolsterer and cabinet-maker in St. 
Martin's Lane. He published a splendid folio book of designs, of 
whicli three editions appeared between 1755 and 17^13. Figs. 645, 
646, 647 and 652 are copied from liis work by fa\our of Mr. 13. T. 
Batsford. It must be confessed none of them bears a \ery close 
resemblance to the reputed Chippendale patterns. There are also 
representations of two other long-case clocks, the bracket-clock cases 
shown in Figs. 648, 649, 650 and 651, a cartel case, and two other 
small wall timepiece cases. The two long cases I have not repro- 
duced are carved very much in the French style, as I'^igs. 494, 495, 
Chapter \I. The characteristics of the cases now usually known as 
" Chippendale " are the pillars or pilasters rising at the front corners 
of the case, from the plinth to the entablature under the hood, and 
the corresponding pillars at the front corners of the hood. Generally 
the bases and caps are of metal, and the shafts fluted. The case 
is much higher than the dial, and the top of the pattern shown in 
Figs. 642 and 643, which is considered the more correct, or of the 
horn-top kind, in which the upper part terminates in two carved 
scrolls, curving inwards. It will be observed that the head above 
the dial in Fig. 642 is high, and niost after the style of Chippen- 
dale's drawings. This clock was made by Richard Vick and is at 
Windsor Castle, and is earlier than Chippendale's time. The 
horn-top style, which was very popular with pro\'incial makers, is 
later. For the horn or scroll-top case shown in Fig. 644 I am 
indebted to Mr. H. Cook of Newark. It encloses a chiming 
clock by Simpson of Southwell, dating from about 1790, and is 
an excellent example of that period. There are no pillars between 
the plinth and the hood but the front corners of the waist are boldly 

Sheraton. — Thomas Sheraton was born at Stockton-on-Tees in 
1751 and died in London in 1806. In 1791 was issued " The Cabinet- 
Makers' and Upholsterers' Drawing Book" by him, and in 1S03 
" The Cabinet Dictionary," of which another edition appeared in 
1808. No mention is made of clock cases in the first edition of this 
work. From the later edition are copied Figs. 655 and 656. Though 
rarely made in this form with square dials, the ornate style and 
beautiful inlaid work associated with Sheraton have been very 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

successfully applied by clock-case makers, and the popularity of 
Sheraton cases has never declined. 


Fig. 655. — Sheraton 

Fig. 656. — Sheraton case. 

Fig. 657, — Clock by 

William Button, 

about 1780. 

In Fig. 659 is shown a remarkably fine musical clock with moving 
figures, the property of Mr. E. E. Cook of Walton-on-Thames. It 
was made by Pickett of Marlboro', and dates from about 17S0. The 

Tlic Pro'^rcssion of Eiii^lish Dnutcsiic Clocks. 497 

Fig. 658.— At Windsor Castle Fig. 659.— Clock with moving • Fig. 660.— Jas. Lorimer, 
by Recordon, about 1800. figures, about 17S0. musical clock, about 1780. 

silvered dial is engraved with urns and just inside the usual numeral 
circle and concentric therewith is a date circle to which an index 
from the centre points. 

c.w. ,.. V 

498 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

At 12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock one of the following tunes is played : — 

1. Marlbro' |igg. 4. Batt's Hornpipe. 

2. Jack's ligg. 5. Ben's Delight. 

3. Ned's Hornpipe. 6. Head's Whim. 

These tunes are enumerated in the right-hand spandrel ; the left- 
hand spandrel contains a chime-silent hand. In the arch of the 
dial is a curtain which rises when the clock chimes and a male and 
female figure are discovered dancing. Below them is a river and a 
bridge ; over the bridge people, carts, etc. pass, including a man 
carrying his wife to avoid the toll, which, tradition says, refers to a 
local bridge w^here a heavy toll was exacted. Below the bridge, 
swans, boats, etc. pass to and fro on the water. In the lower part 
of the main dial is a moon calendar. On p. 474 the dial is shown 
to an enlarged scale. 

A musical clock of large size, the property of Mr. R. Eden 
Dickson, Glemham Hall, Suffolk, is shown in Fig. 660. The case 
of mahogany is 8 feet 5 inches high and the dial measures 18^ inches 
by 22 inches. The quarters are chimed on eight bells, and at every 
three hours, after the quarters are chimed and the hours struck, a 
tune is played. There are sixteen bells and twenty-four hammers ; 
the music barrel is 14 J inches long and 3 inches in diameter. The 
subsidiary dials are " strike-silent " and " chime-silent," the name 
"James Lorimer, London" being on the plate between, while in the 
arch above is the following list of tunes : — 


La Promenade. 


I do as T will with my Swain. 




Lays of Paties Mill. 




Flowers of Edinburgh. 


Bagnigge Wells. 


Cuckoo's Nest. 


Duke of Gloucester's 



Tweed side. 


Neu Alamand. 


Portsmouth Psalm. 

The pendulum rod is of ebony, and above the bob on a small brass 
plate is engraved " John Marshall, London." 

The handsome clock shown in Fig. 654 was made by Ainsworth 
Thwaites for the East India Company about 1770; the case is of 
figured wood, doubtless of Indian growth. A companion case, 
which originally held a dial to record the direction of the wind, 
seems to have mysteriously disappeared from the offices of the 
Company and to have been found on the Continent, where it was 
purchased by an official of the English Government, and the two 
now appropriately occupy positions in a room at the India Office, 
being symmetrically placed one on each side of the fireplace. 

Fig. 657 represents a long-case clock of novel design by W'illiant 

The Pi'Oi^i-cfision of Jiiii^^lisJi Donicsiic Clocks 


Duttoii, dating from about 1780, for which I am indebted to Mr. 
Thomas W'yatt. The case, just upon 10 feet in heip^ht, is of pine 
and mahogany painted light blue and white. The dial is of brass 
with a convex enamelled centre. The movement has a dead beat 
escapement and a gridiron compensated pendulum. The lunar ball 
in the arch of the dial is nutated from the hour wheel arbor, on 
\\hi(-h is cut a screw to dri\-e tlu' inlcrmediatc lunar train. IV'low 

Fig. 661. 

the moon is an oblong slit through which appears the day of the 

As examples of the plain early nineteenth century clocks of the 
best class with circular enamelled dials, and usually in cases of 
mahogany with finely figured surfaces, may be taken the one by 
Vulliamy illustrated on p. 351 and one by Recordon shown in 
Fig. 658. For a really perfect dial on this plan one has to go to a 
comparatively obscure provincial maker, see Fig. 617. 

The introduction of cheap American clocks was disastrous to the 

K K 2 


Old Clocks and l]^ntchcs and their Makers. 

old English ones, and between 1850 and i860 thousands of good 
serviceable long-case timekeepers were sacrificed, the cases being 
chopped up for firewood and the substantial brass movements 
consigned to the melting-pot. 

Bracket or Pedestal Clocks. — Bracket or pedestal clocks, with 
enriched cases, as distinguished from the plain metal covering of the 

Fig. 662. 

ordinary chamber clock, were in favour before the advent of the 
long-case variety. 

Of the early types with metal cases, examples have already been 
■given. During the latter part of the seventeenth and the beginning 
of the eighteenth centu-ry the square '• squat" case of wood with a 
fiat top and plain metal handle for lifting it by, or with a perforated 
metal dome-shaped addition, chased and gilded, called basket-work, 

The Proi^rcssioii of Eiv^lisJ] Doiiicsiic Clocks. 


suniunuittHl by an enriched handle, was \-ery popular. Engraxings 
of this variety are given on pages 266 and 267. 

Fig. 661 is a specimen by John Harris, London, dating from about 
1680, for which I am indebted to Mr. \\'i]liam Newton. 

The example shown in Fig. 662 is by Ben Collier, London, and 

Fig. 663, 

belongs to Mr. G. H. Jocelyn, Writtle, Essex. ]\L. J. Drummond 
Robertson has a clock by Claudius Du Chesne, London, with an 
unusually fine double basket top, as shown in P^ig. 663. Fig. 664 
by Tompion, is from the Wetherfield collection. Mr. Frank Jones, 
W'estcliff, has a very similar piece. After the " basket " came the 
" bell " shaped case, so called from the hollow curved character 
of the top, as seen in Fig. 665. This is a very early example of 


Old Clocks and IVatchcs and their Makers. 

that style, also in the collection of Mr. J. D. Robertson. It dates 
from about 1690, and is inscribed, "Stephen Asselin, London." 

Fig. 666 shows the back plate of the John Harris clock, on page 
499. It is noteworthy by reason of the excellent engraving and the 

Fig. 664. — Thos. Tompion, eight-day striking clock ; repeats 
quarters by pulling the knob and string on the right. Above 
ttie dial are pointers : one at the left hand corner for regulation 
and one at the right hand corner to change from " strike " to 
"not strike." Between these is inscribed, " Tho. Tompion, 
Londini fecit.'' 

ornamental " cock " or cover over the pendulum suspension. Another 
admirable back plate, shown in Fig. 667, by favour of Mr. J. D. 
Robertson, bears the name of Thomas Parker, Dublin. The cock is 
similar to that on Sir Isaac Newton's clock in the Guildhall 

The Proi:;rcss!oii af Jiir^lish Domestic Clocks. 


The " lu'll " top case continued in faxour lon^' alter the intro- 
duction of the arclied dial. Two views (Figs. 668 and 669) are 
appended of an early arch dial bracket clock, belonging to Mr. 
Schloss, which was made (juite at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century by Jeremiah Hartley of Norwich. The case is of ebonized 
wood with brass mounts. In the spandrels of the arch and at the 
sides is pierced diaper work backed by silk, to permit the sound of 

Fig. 665. 

the bell to escape and yet pre\ent the ingress of dust. The engraving 
of the dial and the back plate is very fine indeed, and the work 
throughout is really admirable. The clock shows days of the month, 
strikes the hours and quarters, and the strokes corresponding to the 
previous striking may be repeated at pleasure by pulling a string 
terminating in the knob which is seen at the right of the front view. 
In the arch of the dial is a rise and fall regulator which adjusts the 
length of the pendulum. 


Old Clocks and ]]\iicJics and their Makers. 


A later bell top case with fine claw feet, and surmounted by a 

plain brass handle instead of the 
side handles, is show^n in Fig. 
670. From the presence of tlie 
strike-silent hand, one may place 
the date of this at about 1740. 

Of the more ornate styles in 
\ ogue during the second quarter 
of the eighteenth century, the 
clock by Graham on page 287 
affords a good idea. 

\\'hat perhaps may be termed 

a sporadic case of very elegant 

design is shown in Fig. 671, 

by favour of Mr. William 

Home, Leyburn, Yorkshire. The 

clock is undoubtedly the work of 

Fdward East, and dates probably 

from about 1685, but the case is 

in many respects characteristic 
Fig. 666. 

of the Sheraton style. It is 
of iron with brass mountings, 
finely chased and gilt, and 
measures 2 feet 2 inches high, 
and 12 inches broad. On the 
dial of brass is engraved a 
peacock in full plume. On 
the back plate of the movement 
is engraved a basket of flowers, 
and underneath the inscription, 
" Ediiardiis East, London.'' 

In Figs. 672 and 673, are 
shown a \'ery large musical 
clock by " William Webster, 
Exchange Alley," and in Fig. 
674, by way of contrast, a 
diminutive specimen bearing 
the name " Chevrier." Both ^'''- ^^7- 

are from the collection of Mr. Eden Dickson. The Webster clock 
is 26 inches high, the dial being it,^ inches by 9 inches. 


Tltc Pro!:;irssioii o/ Iini^lisli Domestic Clock:' 




Old Clocks and ]]\itches and tJicir Makers. 

are 24 tunes engraved in three lines on the dial, and of these each 
cylinder plays eight. The tunes are as follows : — 

ist. Granadiers' March. 2nd. A youngVirginof 15. 3rd. ButifuU Phillis. 

A Minuet. 

The Rumer. 

The Spanish Jigg. 

A Riggadoon. 

Thomas, I cannot. 

Don't you tickle me. 

3 Generals' Health. 

A English Sible. 

Sweet is our Blessing. 

The Mouse-trap. 

A Minuet. 

A Jigg. 

An Ayre. 

The Happy Clown. 

Gle.Raingeall round. 
O Nymph of Race 

Hunt ye Squirel. 
Bright Aurelia. 
St. George's Minuet. 
A Minuet. 
Soldiers Rejoyce. 

The music is played every three hours, at 12, 3, 6 and g, the air 

being given twice each 
time. There are twelve 
bells and two hammers 
for each. The cylinders 
are each 10 inches 
long and i^ inch in 
diameter. Those not in 
use are kept ' in a drawer 
in the plinth of the case. 
The clock has also a full 
(juarter movement, 
arranged to strike on six 
of the chime bells. 

The Chevrier clock is 
in an ebony case, 18 
inches high, the dial being 
yh inches by 5^. The 
numerals are in Turkish 
characters. The following 
six tunes are played : — i 
An Italian air. 2. A 
Minuet. 3. Bright Aurelia. 

4. Ye King enjoys his own. 

5. Italian Minuet. 6. A 
seventeen hammers on nine 


Fig. 670. 
The chime barrel plays 


The charming diminutive clock by Josiah Emery, with bracket, 
shown in Fig. 675, is from the Wetherfield collection. 

Towards the end of the eighteenth century the popularity of the 
" bell-top " case waned, and it was gradually supplanted by three 
set patterns, the " broken arch," the " balloon," and the " lancet." 

The Proi^rcssioii of Eii^tj^lisli Doiiicslic Clocks. 


Tlie "broken arch" was not, as mi^dit be supposed, a circular 
pediment cut away in the middle, but an arched top not extending 
to the full width of the dial, the moulding surmounting the arch 
being continued from its springing along the front of the case in 

Fig. 671. 

two short straight bands. This seems to ha\e been taken from 
Chippendale's bracket cases, as in Figs. 648, 649, 650, 651, all of 
which have circular pediments of this kind, but the ornamental 
superstructure as suggested by Chippendale was not adopted. What 
is generally accepted as a " broken arch " case is shown in Fig. 676. 


Old Clucks and ]]^aichcs and their Makers. 

It enclosed a clock dating from about 1790, by John Thwaites, an 
eminent maker who was several times master of the Clockmakers' 

A wide broken-arch mahogany case, containing a musical clock by 
Stephen Rimbault, is shown in Fig. 677. The clock plays six tunes 
on eleven bells. One air is " God Save the King " ; the others are 

now obsolete and not easily 
recognized, but ne doubt 
they were most popular 
about 1780, when the clock 
was made. A fine musical 
clock by Rimbault, which 
was formerly the property 
of Sir William Drake, is in 
the Ashmolean Museum, 

Stephen Rimbault 
carried on business in 
Great St. Andrew's Street, 
St. Giles, and was a maker 
of repute, particularly 
excelling in clocks, with 
mechanical figures dancing 
or working on the dials, 
and other complicated 
timekeepers. The artist 
Zoffany was for some time 
Rimbault's decorative 
assistant, and in him his 
master had a man of great 
ability and taste, who no 
doubt helped to make his 
name. Zoffany painted a 
portrait of his master 
which pleased Rimbault so much that he introduced him to 
Wilson, the portrait painter. Zoffany was then employed by Wilson 
to fill in draperies, etc., at a salary of £40 a year, and while with 
him his ability was recognized by David Garrick, Avho put him 
into the channel of theatrical portraiture, where he made his name, 
becoming R.A. in 1798. 

A very excellent example of a " balloon " case and bracket is 

Fig. 672. — Musical clock by Wm. Webster. 

TJic Pro<^i'cssioii of Eiif^^lisJi Domestic Clocks 


given in Fig. 678, for which I am indebted to Mr. Webster. They 
were generally plain in outline, and inlaid after the Sheraton style, 
but their beauty really lay in the graceful harmony of the curves 
constituting the case and bracket which together formed a complete 
and pleasing design. The clock enclosed in this case was made by 
Robert Wood, of Moorfields, about i jcjo. The round knob on top of 

Fig. 673. — Back of musical clock by Wm. Webster. 

the case served to regulate the time by shortening or lengthening the 
effective part of the pendulum. 

In Fig. 679 is a later and more ornate form of balloon clock 
at Windsor Castle. Its appearance is somewhat disappointing, 
for without a bracket this style of case is shorn of its beautiful 

The " lancet " case, in form the counterpart of a pointed Gothic 
arch, and named from its resemblance to the well-known cutting 
instrument used by surgeons, is shown in Fig. 680. This clock. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

dating from about 1820, was made by George Orpwood. Ornamental 
engraving on the back plate, which characterized all the best bracket 
clocks up to the end of the eighteenth century, is rarely seen 
on nineteenth century productions. With the engraved plate 
disappeared, of course, the glazed door at the back of the case. The 
utilitarian spirit, which abolished these features as redundant, has, 
however, caused fine specimens which survive to be more highly 
prized. What can look meaner than the bare and often common 
wood at the back of many pretentious modern clocks if one of them 

happens to be in front of a mirror. 

Soon after its introduction, the 
pendulum was occasionally placed 
outside of the case in front of the dial, 
especially in small clocks like Fig. 
371, but I saw a very fine bracket 
clock arranged in this way. It was 
by John Trubshaw, of London, and 
dated from about 1700. To put the 
pendulum outside is not a good plan, 
for it is clearly more liable to dis- 
turbance than when suspended inside 
the case. Captain Edward Leth- 
bridge informed me that in the hall 
of Hinton Ampner House, near 
Alresford, is a timepiece, probably 
of German origin, in an o\al case of 
embossed silver measuring about 20 
inches by 12 inches, mounted on a 
velvet block. The pendulum reaches 
from the top to the bottom of the 
case, and swings in the front on the outside of the dial. This also 
would probably be a very early eighteenth century production. 

On page 516 are front, side, and back views of an English travel- 
ling clock, dating from about 1710, which is interesting by its rarity, 
for it is a type, I think, but very seldom seen. From the bottom of 
the case to the top of the swivelled knob below the carrying ring 
measures 8 inches. The movement is signed " Paulet, London." 
But little is known of Paulet except that a watch by him is at the 
South Kensington Museum and that in 1730 he worked for EUicott, 
though by his name he was piobably of French descent. The gilt 
metal work of the case of this clock is finely pierced and carved, 

Fig. 674. 

'Jlic rrogirssion of Jiiii^lish nomcstic Clocks. 


arabesques and faces being executed in a style not usual at this 
period on clock cases of English manufacture. The dial and back 
plates are coxered with open lace work of hammered siher. 
Besides repeating the hours and quarters, the clock is provided 
with an alarum, and in a semicircle occupying the arch of the 
dial the day of the month 
is indicated. It belongs to 
Mr. Schloss. 

Taxes Relating to Clocks 
and Watches. — Legislation 
has on more than one occasion 
affected the material used for 
watch cases. In 1719 a duty of 
sixpence an ounce was imposed 
on articles of silver, and this 
quickly led to an increased use 
of base metal cases. In 1758 
an annual payment of forty 
shillings by dealers was sub- 
stituted for the duty, and in 
1759 the amount to be paid for 
a licence was raised to £^. 
But in 1784 the duty of six- 
pence per ounce was reimposed 
in addition to the dealer's 
licence. The effect was remark- 
able ; the use of silver inmie- 
diately declined, and for the 
next fourteen years large num- 
bers of base metal cases were 
made. In 1797 a tax of eight 
shillings an ounce was levied 
on gold articles, which doubt- 
less would have led to an 
increased use of silver gilt and 
pinchbeck cases, but that Pitt, 

not content with taxing the cases, at the same time imposed a tax 
on all persons in respect of the possession and use of watches as 
well as clocks. The Act ordained that — • 

" For and upon every Clock or Timekeeper, by whatever name the 
same shall be called, which shall be used for the purpose of a clock 

Fig. 675. — Josiah Emery, eight-day : 
pull repeating quarters on six 


Old Clocks and JVatchcs and their Makers. 

and placed in or upon any dwelling house, or any office or building 
thereunto belonging, or any other Building whatever, whether private 
or publick, belonging to any person or persons, or Company of 
Persons, or any Body Corporate, or Politick, or Collegiate, or which 
shall be kept and used, by any Person or Persons in Great Britain, 
there shall be charged an Annual Duty of Five Shillings. For and 

Fig. 676. 

upon every Gold Watch, or Watch enamelled on Gold, or Gold 
Timekeeper used for the Purpose of a Watch by whatever Name the 
same shall be called, which shall be kept, and worn, or used, by any 
Person or Persons in Great Britain, there shall be charged an 
Annual Duty of Ten Shillings. And for and upon every Silver or 
Metal Watch, or Silver or Metal Timekeeper used for the purpose 
of a Watch or any other watch, or Timekeeper used for the like 
purpose, not before charged, of whatever materials the same shall be 
made, and by whatever name the same shall be called, which shall 

The Pi'o<j:;ycssio}i of Eui^iish Domestic Clocks. 


be kept and worn, or used, by any Person, there shall be charged an 
Annual Duty of Two Shillings and Sixpence." 

It recjuires an effort to realize that such an impost prevailed but 
little over a century ago. Among other provisions of the Act was 
one declaring tliat every watch or clock maker or dealer in the cities 




Fig. 6: 

-Chiming clock by S. Rimbault. 

of London and Westminster, the parishes of St. Marylebone and 
St. Pancras, the Counties of Middlesex and Surrey shall pay an 
annual duty of two shillings and sixpence. In any other part of 
the country such a maker or dealer was let off by paying a shilling 

The produce was far from reaching the estimated yield, while the 
operation of the tax was such as nearly to ruin manufacturers. The 

c.w. L L 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

demand for clocks and watches decreased to such an extent, that in 
less than a year the general manufacture of these articles in the 
kingdom, and the various branches of trade connected therewith, had 
diminished by one-half, and thousands of persons were deprived of 

Fig. 678. 

employment. It is not therefore surprising that the Act was repealed 
in April, 1798. 

A writer in Notes and Queries mentions that he met with a printed 
form of receipt for a half-year's taxes, due from a small farmer in 
Essex, in which occurred the item, " for clocks and watches, 5 , 7^^," 

The Prot^ression of Iin;^lisJi Domestic Clocks. 


The receipt was dated 
April I o, I 798, the 
month in whicli the Act 
was repealed. 

Although the imposi- 
tion of this obnoxious 
tax paralyzed the horo- 
logical trades, it had the 
effect of creating one 
new kind of timekeeper ; 
for tavern keepers, 
anticipating a scarcity 
of timekeepers among 
individuals, with one 
mind seem to have 
adopted a bold mural 
timepiece for the benefit 
of those who visited 
their public rooms. 
Mural timepieces with 
large dials were, of 
course, in use before 

Fig. 679. 

1797, and by favour of Sir George 
Birdwood I am enabled to represent 
in Fig. 684 a handsome one, which 
is now at the India Office. It was 
formerly at the entrance to the 
Special Assistants' Room at the 
House of the East India Company 
in Leadenhall Street, and dates from 
about 1740. 

An " Act of Parliament " clock 
was altogether a plainer afifair. It 
had usually a large dial of wood, 
painted black, wath gilt figures, not 
covered by a glass, and a trunk 

L L 2 



The Pro<^i'essioii of Eii^^lisli Domestic Clocks. 


long enough to allow of a seconds pendulum. In country inns and 
other places Act of Parliament clocks may still occasionally be seen. 
The appended illustration (Fig. 685) of a specimen at Windsor Castle 
with a white dial is curious, inasmuch as the fourth hour is indicated 
by 1\'. instead of thealmost universal IIII. 

Fig. 684. — Mural timepiece, India Office. 

Fig. 68t. 

Act of Parliament " clock. 

Watchmakers obtained from Parliament in 1 798 some little recom- 
pense for the dire e.xtremity to which they had been reduced, for from 
that time watch cases have been exempt from the plate duty. But watch 
manufacturers had nevertheless to continue the annual plate licence, 
although watch case makers were absolved from the necessity of doing so. 
In 1803 the licence underwent further alteration ; for trading in gold 
over 2 dwts. and under 2 oz., or in silver over 5 dwts. and under 30 oz., 
an annual payment of £2 6s. was then demanded, and for trading in gold 
or silver articles above those weights an annual pavment of {^ 15s. 

( 5i8 ) 



The Pendulum. — It is not certain who used the pendulum as a 
controller for clocks. Galileo, the famous astronomer, in 1582 
remarked the synchronous vibrations of the lamps suspended by long 
chains from the roof of the cathedral at Pisa, and it is said that when 
blind he dictated to his son Vincent a method of using the pendulum 
as a timekeeper, which the latter carried out in 1649. From the 
drawing of this contrivance it seems to hsLve been merely a train of 
wheels and a rude escapement to keep a pendulum in motion, in 
order to determine the time by counting its vibrations. It is 
shown in Fig. 686, and a working model of it is to be seen at South 
Kensington Museum. 

In the Vienna Treasury is a clock dating from the early part of 
the seventeenth century, and furnished with a pendulum which it is 
contended was invented by the maker of the clock, J. Burgi, of 
Prague, who was appointed as clockmaker to Rudolph II. in 1602. 

Then it is stated that Richard Harris constructed a turret clock 
with a pendulum for the church of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, which 
has since been burnt down. The authority for this statement rests 
chiefly on an engraved plate affixed in the vestry-room of the old 
church, with the following inscription on it : — 

" The turret clock and bells of this church were made a.d. 1797, 
by Thomas Grignon, of Great Russell Street, Covent Garden, the 
son and successor of Thomas Grignon, who (a.d. 1740) brought to 
perfection what the celebrated Tompion and Graham never effected, 
viz., the horizontal principle in watches and the dead beat in clocks, 
which dead beat is a part of the mechanism of the turret clock. 
Thomas Grignon, senior, made the time-piece in the pediment at 
the east end of this parish church, destroyed by fire a.d. 1795. The 
clock fixed in the turret of the said church was the first long 
pendulum clock in Europe, invented and made by Richard Harris, 
of London, a.d. 1641, although the honour of the invention was 
assumed by Vincenzio Galilei, a.d. 1649, and also by Huygens in 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches. 


1657. This plate is here affixed by Thomas Grignon, of this parish, 
the son of the above Thomas Grignon, as a true memorial of praise 
to those two skilful mechanicians, his father and Richard Harris, 
who, to the honour of England, embodied their ideas in substantial 
forms that are most useful to mankind." 

It would be idle to treat this as conclusi\e evidence in favour of 
Harris ; still it is entitled 
to consideration, for the 
elder Grignon alluded to 
was regarded as a man 
of integrity. He was 
a contemporary and 
friend of James Fer- 
guson, and one of the 
first members of the 
Society of Arts, to which 
society he in 1759 pre- 
sented a regulator, which 
is yet to be seen at the 
house of the society in the 
Adelphi. Besides, that 
Galileo's observation 
would be followed by the 
application of a pendulum 
to a clock is only just 
what might have been 
expected. The weak part 
of the claim on behalf of 
Harris is that his appli- 
cation of a superior con- 
troller should have re- 
mained a solitary instance for twelve years or so, and have evoked 
no attention from scientists and others interested in the subject. 

Huygens, it is certain, studied the action of the pendulum 
between 1650 and 1655, and demonstrated the fact that the path 
described as the centre of oscillation should be a cycloid for vibra- 
tions of varying extent to be passed through in the same time. 

Dr. Hooke also saw the advantage of the pendulum about the 
same time, and proceeded to apply it. 

Fromanteel and others have also been named with confidence 
by their respective admirers as being entitled to the honour of 

Fig 686. 

520 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

introducing the pendulum ; but indisputable proof of any one's 
claim to originality in the matter there is none, and it is therefore 
useless to pursue this part of the subject further. 

Striking Work. — Recording the completion of each hour by 
strokes on a bell has always been regarded as an important function 
of public timekeepers. In some of the early clocks, notably the first 
one at St. Paul's Cathedral, the sound of the striking was the sole 
indicator of time provided, and in many later edifices, where the 
exhibition of dials was considered to be incongruous with the general 
design, timekeepers similarly restricted have been adopted and their 
convenience appreciated. The Church of St. Vedast, Foster Lane, 
may be mentioned as an instance of a public building with a tower 
clock which struck but had no dial. Clocks striking the quarters 
as well as the hours are common enough, but Westminster Abbey 
furnishes a solitary instance of striking work for the quarters only. 
This is done, not by the turret clock with the well-known exterior 
dial, but by the timekeeper in the Poet's Corner, which is also 
peculiar in being probably the largest spring clock ever made, for 
the barrels and fusees are each over seven inches in diameter. 

Some of the early Dutch and German clocks were furnished with 
two bells, one larger than the other, mounted on the top of the 
case. The hour was struck on the larger bell ; the first quarter 
noted by one stroke on the smaller bell ; at the half-hour strokes 
corresponding in number to the previous hour were given on the 
smaller bell, and the third quarter was proclaimed by one stroke 
on the larger bell. This plan has the advantage of giving fuller 
information than modern methods. Where one stroke is given at 
the half-hour, as in most modern French clocks, half-past twelve, 
one, and half-past one convey the same unmeaning sound. 

As described on page 455, the Friesland hood clocks indicated the 
half-hour by repeating on a smaller bell strokes corresponding to the 
hour last completed. 

An excellent arrangement for striking on two bells, as carried out 
by Joseph Knibb, is described on page 310. 

Unless altered very recently, the clock at the church of St. Clement 
Danes, in the Strand, strikes each hour twice. The strokes are given 
first on a large bell, weighing 24 cwt., and then repeated on the 
Sanctus — a bell in the spire which is said to date back to the 
fifteenth century, and to have been one of the bells used before 
the Reformation. On account of the roar of traffic along the road, 
the striking cannot be heard except at night, and when it is heard 

Mechanism of Clocks and ]Vatchcs. 521 

the effect is curious, for the repetition appears to the uninitiated to 
be the tardy striking of another clock in some adjacent tower. 

Clocks are occasionally to be seen which strike the hours from 
one to six four times over during the twenty-four hours. In many 
parts of southern Italy the hours were regularly sounded in this way. 

The Japanese had a decidedly ingenious method of sounding the 
hour and half-hour, which is described on page 444. 

Should the present method of s|)litting the day into two periods 
of twelve hours each be abandoned in fa\our of continuous counting 
of the hours from one to twenty-four, the striking would possibly be 
re-arranged, and the plans just described give a choice for selection. 

The earliest device for causing the hours to be struck automatically 
appears to be the locking-plate construction, as shown in De Vick's 
clock. A modification of this principle, to ensure greater exactness 
by using quicker moving parts to unlock the striking train, is still 
the most favoured for turret clocks. For house clocks the rack 
principle invented by Barlow is generally preferred, because in this 
the striking corresponds with the position of the hands on the dial, 
whereas with the locking-plate the hours are sounded successively 
without regard to the hands. 

Watch Movements. — Most of the early watches of pocket size 
were arranged to run for from twelve to sixteen hours between 
successive windings, the fusee making from ten to twehe turns. 
The train usually consisted of the great wheel which drove a pinion 
carrying the second wheel ; the second wheel drove a pinion carrying 
the contrate wheel, and the last named drove the pinion carrying the 
escape wheel. The great wheel was fixed to its arbor, one end of 
which fitted loosely into a long hole in the larger end of the fusee, 
the other end was carried in a hole in that plate of the movement 
which is nearest the dial, and on the very extremity of this end was 
a pinion, usually of the lantern kind, gearing with a wheel whose 
pipe projected through the centre of the dial and carried the hand. 
Pinions ha^ang five leaves were, so far as my observation goes, 
almost invariably used for the train, and for the wheel teeth the 
following numbers : great wheel, 55 ; second, 45 ; contrate, 40 ; 
escape wheel, 15. A projection from the verge "banked" against 
the potence to prevent overrunning. There being a wheel and 
pinion less in the train than is usual now, the escape wheel ran 
the reverse way ; its teeth and the verge therefore appear to be 
left-handed to the modern watchmaker. 

John Fitter, about 1665, made a watch with the extra wheel and 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

pinion, the contrate wheel of which turned once in a minute, but 
there is no doubt the longer train was not generally viewed with 
favour till the balance spring was introduced in 1675 ; very soon 
after that date it became universal, together with wheel-work 
arranged for a run of thirty hours. 

Among earlier and exceptional departures from the three-wheel 
train may be mentioned an unnamed watch in the Guildhall 
Museum which has four low numbered wheels. The hand work 
consists of a three-leaved lantern on the great wheel arbor, driving 
a wheel of twenty-seven attached to the hand ; the fusee being cut 
for twelve turns, the watch would run for fifteen hours only. This 
specimen dates apparently from about 1650. 

Fig. 687 is a view of a very early English watch movement. 

Fig. 687. — English watch without 
screws, about 1600. 

Fig. 688. — EngHsh watch, 
about 1650. 

certainly not later, I think, than 1600. There are no screws used 
in its construction, and the mainspring is adjusted by means of a 
ratchet and click. The train is of the numbers already given, the 
hand is driven by four pegs projecting from the great wheel arbor, 
acting with a hand wheel of thirty-six teeth. The fusee makes 
barely eleven turns. Inscribed on the plate is the maker's name, 
" Simon Bartram." Either he or possibly his namesake and 
successor was appointed in the Charter of the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany to be one of the " Assistants," as the members of the 
Committee of Management were termed. 

The first noticeable departure from the primitive arrangement 
was the adoption of a tangent wheel and screw for the regulation of 
the mainspring, which was introduced about 16 10, and is shown in 
Fig. 688. On the barrel arbor above the tangent wheel is a disc 
of silver with divisions figured as a guide in setting the mainspring 

Mechanis))! of Clocks and Watches. 


up or down ; this adjustment being evidently used to regulate in 
some measure the timekeeping of the watch. 

An alternative attempt at regulation before the ad\ent of the 
balance spring was to fix on a movable plate two pins to intercept 
the arms of the balance at longer or shorter arcs, as illustrated in 
Chap. III. pp. 79, 140, 144. 

A pendulum watch with a slit in the dial was illustrated on 
page 231. This proved to be an inconvenient arrangement, but 
in the early part of the eighteenth century many watches were made 
with a cap over the balance as in Fig. 68g. The arms of the 
balance were weighted, and a semicircular perforation in the cap 
allowed one weight to be visible, the motion of the weight as it 
vibrated resembling that of a pendulum. Pendulum watches having 

•■•■•■• ••• ^- 


Fig. GSy. 

Fig. 690. 

caps decorated with painting on enamel were very popular among 
Dutch makers. The watch illustrated is inscribed, " Flower, 
London," and dates from about 1740. 

As a rule movements of w^atches were completed without reference 
to the proximate owner, but an exceptional construction is shown 
in Fig. 690. The watch dates from about 1700, and is by " Massy, 
London." Around an heraldic shield bearing the royal arms is the 

motto, " HONI SOIT QUY MALY PENSE," and bcloW, " SEMPER EADEM." 

It is of Queen Anne period. 

The movement of the watch by Mitzell, of which a front view 
appears in Fig. 356, is covered by a silver plate, on which the royal 
arms with supporters are chased, underneath is the motto, "Je Main 

The demand for verge watches continued till late in the nine- 
teenth century, and they were made to my knowledge in Clerkenwell 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

till 1882; the manufacture ceased then only because the verge 
finishers died out. The last specimens had lever cocks, because 
there was no one left to make the orthodox patterns. 

Balance Springs. — The introduction of the balance spring, 
which marks such an important epoch in the manufacture of 
watches, appears to be due principally to the investigations of 
Dr. Robert Hooke, about 1660. There is no doubt that Huygens 
and others also experimented with various materials to find a satis- 
factory controller for a vibrating balance. Huygens' labours in this 
direction may, of course, have been spontaneous, but, as recounted 
on page 303, Hooke asserted that a communication from him to the 
Secretary of the Royal Society induced Huygens to turn his attention 

to the subject. 

The engraving (Fig. 691} repre- 
sents a watch of German origin 
from the collection of Mr. Evan 
Roberts. It has a day of the month 
ring, and is generally of the con- 
struction usual soon after the middle 
of the seventeenth century. But the 
peculiar feature of the movement 
lies in the application of a straight 
hog's bristle to regulate the balance. 
There is no sign of any other spring 
having been attached, and the acces- 
sories of the bristle are quite in character with the rest of the work. 
There are two arms which embrace the bristle and practically 
determine its acting length, and by means of a screw these may be 
shifted to act over a considerable range. 

Steel springs were, however, found to be the most suitable. The 
primitive straight ones would of course allow but a very small 
vibration of the balance, while the to-and-fro motion between pins 
where it made contact with the balance involved considerable 
friction. Of others, curved somewhat to the shape of a pothook, 
there are still examples, but eventually the more convenient and 
correct form was found to be a \-olute which had at first but one or 
two coils. The coils were increased to four or five as the advantage 
of a longer spring was understood, but the very long springs with 
which we are now familiar were not apphed till the advent of the 
lever and other detached escapements which allowed the balance to 
have a larger arc of \'ibration. 

Fig. 691. — Hog's bristle as a 
balance controller. 

Mt'cluiiiisii! of Clocks and ]]'atchcs 


To lengthen or shorten the acting length of the spring, Tompion 
appears to have used the circular slide with an index from the first. 
This arrangement, -which remained in favour for a long period, is 

Fig. 692. — Tompion's regulator. 

Fig. 693.— Barrow's regulator. 

shown in Fig. 692. Below, and attached to a silver disc, graduated 
and figured as a guide to regulation, is a pinion which gears with 
teeth on the outer edge of the circular slide ; from the inner edge 
projects an arm carryingTtwo upright pins wliicli embrace the 

Fig. G94. 

spring. The projecting end of the pinion is square, so that it 
could be turned by means of a watch key. 

Mr. Schloss has a clock-watch by Nathaniel Barrow, dating from 
about 1675, in which the outer end of the spring is continued in a 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

straight line to the stud at the edge of the plate, and the regulation 
accomplished very much in the same way as the hog's bristle watch 
already delineated. Fig. 693 is a plan of this watch movement. 
The curved stud on the left is continued in a sort of zig-zag shape 

to hold one end of the regulating 
screw. The upper end of the nut 
points to an index engraved on the 
plate, and the lower extremity is 
notched to receive the spring. 

An early application of the balance 
spring with quaintly worded instruc- 
tions for regulating is shown in Fig. 
694, which represents the movement 
of a large striking and alarum watch 
by Edward East. 

A fine movement by Daniel Le 
Count, dating from 1680, and having 
a regulator on Barrow's principle, is shown in Fig. 695. 

The chief drawback to Tompion's regulator is that owing to the 
backlash or freedom between the teeth of the pinion and slide, a 

Fig. 695. 


Fig. 696.— Watch by Baltazar Martinet, 

showing early French arrangement of 

balance spring regulator. 

Fig. 697. 

slight reversal of the index has no effect on the curb pins. The 
simple regulator now generally employed consists of a lever, fitting 
friction-tight over a boss on the balance cock ; the shorter end of 
the lever carries the curb pins which embrace the balance spring, 
while the longer end through which it is moved serves also as an 
indicator of alterations in the position of the curb pins. This device 
was patented by Bosley in 1755. 

MechaiiisJH of Clocks and Watches. 


There is one point about the stud used in those of Tompion's 
watches I have seen which might well be revived. The hole in the 
stud for the reception of the spring was square. The modern system 
of pinning, by squeezing the flat side of a spring against the surface 
of a round hole, is altogether unmechanical and must distort the 

Fig. 696 represents the top plate of an alarm watch by the 
celebrated French maker, Baltazar Martinot. The balance is very 
large, planted nearlv in tlie centre of the plate and covered by a 

Fig. 6g8. 

handsomely engraved bridge. The pinion and teeth of the slide 
for regulation of the balance spring are uncovered, and no index 
appears to have been provided. 

A very similar watch by one of the Habrechts of Strasburg has 
the bridge covered with the picture of a woman smoking a pipe, as 
shown in Fig. 697. The painting is finely executed in enamel. 

Watch Cocks. — The first of the cocks or brackets used to 
support one end of the balance staff were probably quite plain, but 
so prominent a feature of the movement speedily became an object 
of enrichment. Of the early pierced and engraved designs examples 
are given in Figs. 687, 688, 691, 693, 695, 413. These range from 

528 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

the end of the sixteenth century to 1680, and it will be observed that 
from its primal office of carrying the balance staff pivot the table 
of the cock was gradually spread to protect the balance from dis- 
turbance. In No. I of the subjoined Fig. 698, from a watch by 
"Jeremie Johnson, Royal Exchange," dating from about 1685, the 
edge of the table is of a plain circular form and coincident with the 
outside of the balance rim ; the foot is very wide, but its outer edge 
is carved, and would not correspond with the outline of the plate, to 
which it would be screwed. 

No. 2 is from a watch by Thomas Windmills, dating from about 
1700. Here the outside of the foot followed the curve of the plate. 
The narrow neck at the junction of the table and the foot seen in 
this and in the preceding example appears to have been originally 
provided as a space for pinning the cock to a stud and to have 
survived the introduction of screw fastenings. The floral pierced 
work in No. i and No. 2 is very similar, but the basket or pot in the 
first is in the latter discarded for a mask, and from this period heads 
or masks seem to have been incorporated with most of the designs 
so long as the pierced cocks lasted. Curiously enough, the streamers 
at the sides of the basket, which look appropriate, are incongruously 
retained with the head ; still, the streamers and masks were associated 
for thirty or forty years. About 1720, cocks with solid feet were 
made, though the pierced variety is met with till about 1770. 

No. 3, with a jewelled centre and a representation of a lion in a 
cage, dates from about 1770, and No. 4, with the military emblems, 
from 1780. 

With few exceptions, French and Dutch manufacturers used a 
bridge instead of a cock. No. 5, a pretty specimen, is from a 
pendulum watch made about 1740. Others are shown on pages ig8, 
236, and 526. On pages 198 and 526 are two finely enamelled. 

The beautiful pierced work was unable to withstand the utilitarian 
spirit of the nineteenth century, though it died hard. No. 6 is from 
a watch by James Wild, London, with the hall mark for 1788. The 
solid lever form of cock (No. 7) was taken from a verge watch with 
the hall mark of 1826. A few years ago a taste for watch cock 
necklaces, brooches, and bracelets arose, and thousands of interesting 
movements were destroyed in mad haste to supply material for an 
evanescent fancy. 

Watch Pillars. — Though the pillars which connect the two 
plates of a watch movement are now universally made of a plain 
cylindrical form, they have been formerly the subjects of considerable 

Mechanhin of Clocks and Watclics. 529 

enrichment. In most of the early movements of a small size the 
pillars were round ; the larger ones were usually square, and often 
engraved ; but one of the first obvious departures from the utilitarian 
form in order to please the eye, is shown in No. i of the subjoined 
engraving. This is known as the tulip pillar, and seems to have 
been introduced in deference to what may be called the tulip-mania, 
which followed the introduction of tulip bulbs into England and led 
artists to incorporate the flower with almost every kind of decoration. 
For about 25 years from 1676 many of the finest watches were made 
with tulip pillars. In some instances the vertical division shown in 
the engraving was omitted. The square Egyptian pillar. No. 2, was 
introduced about 1640, and continued in use for many years, the 
central slit being often wider than the example, with a vertical 
division and decorations on the face ; silver was the material favoured 
for the decorations and divisions. The plainer square pillar, No. 3, 
has also had a long life, for it is met with in watches nearly two 
hundred years old, and also in specimens produced in the early part 

Fig. C99. 

of the nineteenth century. No. 4 is a form favoured by Dutch and 
some English makers from about 1730 to 1770, and is occasionally 
seen applied to much later productions. Pillars like No. 5, dating 
from the first half of the eighteenth century, are more often seen in 
French and German watches than in English, and are often of silver. 
No. 6 is taken from a watch by EUicott, the case of which has the 
hall mark for 1746, and the elegant outline is quite in accord with 
the popular taste at that time. No 7 is a little later, and is taken 
from a watch by John Markham, a well-known maker for the Dutch 
market. During the period devoted to fancy pillars, repeaters and 
clock watches where room was an object did not usually conform to 
the popular taste in this particular, but were furnished with plain 
round pillars, having small bodies and collars formed at the top and 
bottom, to afford a more secure bearing on the plates. 

Watch Escapements. — The verge, the earliest escapement, was 
explained on page 33. About 1660 the Abbe Hauteville invented the 
" Virgule," illustrated in Fig. 700. Its action will be understood by 
those conversant with escapements. Tompion devised a form of 

C.W. M M 


Old Clocks and WatcJics and their Makers. 

watch escapement shown on page 273, and subsequently were intro- 
duced, among others, the cyHnder and duplex. In accordance with 
my promise to avoid technicalities and modern construction, I do not 
propose to descant on these ; they are dealt with fully in the " Watch 
and Clock Maker's Handbook." The best of all watch escapements, 
the lever, which Mudge invented and applied to a watch for Queen 
Charlotte, was analogous in its action to the present form of double 
roller escapement, except that the impulse pin was divided, for the 
purpose of ensuring the safety action after the finger enters the 
crescent, and before the impulse pin is fairly in the notch, a result 
now attained very simply by having horns to the lever. Curiously 
enough, the advantages of Mudge's invention seem to have remained 
unrecognised for many years, except by a few of his watchmaking 

friends. George Margetts and Josiah 
Emery seem to have been impressed 
with it, and the latter made for 
Count Bruhl a watch furnished with 
a lever escapement on Mudge's plan, 
which performed so satisfactorily 
that Emery was induced to continue 
its use. In 1793 he told a com- 
mittee of the House of Commons 
appointed to inquire into Mudge's 
claim to the Government reward, 
that he had made thirty-tAVO or 
thirty-three such watches, and that 
his price for them was £^50 each. 
By favour of Mr. George Burrell, I had the privilege a short time 
ago of inspecting a very fine watch which Emery made for the Duke 
of Portland. It had a lever escapement and a second roller for the 
safety action, practically similar to the arrangement in first-class 
timekeepers of to-day. The impulse pin was of steel, and pivoted 
in jewel holes, so that it rolled in and out of the notch. The watch, 
Mr. Burrell said, was originally hung in gymbals in a wooden box. 

In the collection of the Clockmakers' Company at the Guildhall 
is an interesting watch by John Leroux, of Charing Cross, who was 
admitted an honorary freeman of the company in 1781. This watch, 
by the hall mark in the case, was made in 1785, and the peculiar 
feature of it is the escapement, which is a lever, but the pallets are of 
unusual form and act with teeth resembling those of the cylinder 
escape wheel, as shown in Fig. 701. 

Fig. 700. — Virgule escapement. 

Mccha)nsni of Clocks and Watches. 


Peter Litherland in 1791 patented the rack lever escapement, in 
which the lever terminates in a segmental rack which gears with a 
pinion on the balance axis. Although this was an undetached 
escapement, and therefore wanting in the chief excellence of Mudge's 
conception, it met with considerable success, a large number being 
made in the early part of the present century by Roskell of Liverpool, 
chiefly for the American market. 

About 1800, Edward Massey, a Staffordshire watchmaker, invented 
the crank roller, in which the impulse pin is projected beyond the 
periphery of the roller, something like the hnger in the going barrel 
stopwork. Contact of the extremities of the lever with the edge of 
the roller formed the safety action. The final perfecting of the table 
roller \'ariety is ascribed to George 
Savage, a Clerkenwell watch finisher, 
some years afterwards. 

Watch Je\A/elling. — In the early 
part of the eighteenth century was 
introduced the practice of using highly 
polished surfaces of hard stone for the 
bearings of the smaller quickly moving 
watch pivots and other rubbing contacts. 

In 1704 a patent was granted to 
Nicholas Facio, Peter Debaufre, and 
Jacob Debaufre, for the application of 
jewels to the pivot holes of watches 
and clocks. Facio, the inventor, was 
a native of Basle, where he was born 
in 1664, coming to England in the early part of 1687. Here he 
seems to have busied himself with scientific pursuits, and towards 
the end of the century he was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society. His co-patentees were watchmakers, living in Church 
Street, Soho, and an advertisement in the London Gazette of 
May II, 1704, announced that jewelled watches were to be seen at 
their shop, stating also that they made " free watches." A watch 
bearing the name of " Debauffre " is to be seen at the South 
Kensington Museum. Before the patent was many months old, the 
patentees applied to Parliament for a Bill to extend it ; but this was 
opposed by the Clockmakers' Company, and on evidence produced 
by them a Committee of the House of Commons recommended that 
the Bill be rejected. In reporting the successful result of their 
opposition, the master of the Clockmakers' Company acquainted the 

M M 2 

Fig. 701. 

a. The wheel. 6. The pallets c. The 
lever, dd. Banking screws, c. The 
detaining roller, below which on the 
same axis is another roller or disc 
with a ruby pin, as usual, for receiv- 
ing impulse from the lever fork. 

532 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

court that in the proofs brought against the Bill, there was an old 
watch produced, the maker's name Ignatius Huggeford (or Hugger- 
ford), that had a stone fixed in the cock and balance work, which was 
of great use to satisfy the committee. 

But the best of the story has yet to be told. In recent years 
Huggeford's watch was taken down by Mr. E. J. Thompson, a 
member of the court of the company, and he reported that " The 
movement is not in any sense jewelled, the verge holes being of 
brass. A piece of coloured glass or soft stone, fastened in a disc of 
silver and burnished into a sink in the steel cock, gives a fictitious 
appearance of jewelling." 

About 1720 Facio settled at Worcester, where he died at the age of 
90, and was buried at St. Nicholas' Church in that city in 1753. 

Compensation. — Variation in the elasticity of the balance spring 
when subjected to changes of temperature proved a fruitful source of 
trouble to horologists after the application of that most useful 
adjunct. Harrison's account of his " Thermometer Kirb " is given 
on page 325. Mudge strove to avoid the difficulty of regulation 
experienced by Harrison by using two balance springs, as stated on 
page 334. Breguet invented a compensation curb on Harrison's 
principle, but shaped like a quadrant in order to get a greater length 
of laminae, and therefore more action. One end of the quadrant 
was fixed to the index and the other carried one of the curb pins, 
which by the movement of the laminae in changes of temperature 
was caused to recede from or approach the fixed curb pin, and thus 
to give more or less liberty to the spring. Various compensation 
balances from the time of Arnold are illustrated in Watch Springing 
and Adjusting, and need not be repeated here. 

Evolution of Winding Mechanism for Watches. — One of 
the first references to winding without opening the case of a watch 
is to be found in an advertisement which appeared in the London 
Gazette for January 10-13, 1686, where a watch by R. Bowen, 
London, is described as having one motion, and the spring being 
wound up without a key, and it opening contrary to all other 
watches. Then in Overall's " History of the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany " it is stated that in 1712 John Hutchinson desired to patent a 
watch which, among other improvements, " has likewise a con- 
trivance to wind up this or any other movement without an aperture 
in the case through which anything can pass to foul the movement." 
The Clockmakers' Company opposed the application, and a com- 
mittee of the House of Commons examined witnesses, among others 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches. 533 

George Graham and Charles Goode. Mr. Goode produced a move- 
ment made fourteen years before. Mr. Hutchinson confessed 
Goode's movement was hke his, and eventually withdrew his 

The next in order is Pierre Augustin Caron, a clever watchmaker 
of Paris, who in 1752 made for Madame de Pompadour a very small 
watch, which gained for him a prize from the Academy of Sciences. 
This appears to have been wound either by turning the bezel or 
with a slide very similar to the winding slide now used for repeaters. 
A translation of his description is as follows : " It is in a ring, and is 
only four lignes across and two-thirds of a ligne in height between 
the plates. To render this ring more commodious, I have contrived, 
instead of a key, a circle round the dial carrying a little projecting 
hook. By drawing this hook with the nail two-thirds round the dial, 
the watch is re-wound and it goes for thirty hours." Caron was an 
accomplished musician as well as a playwriter, and is better known 
under the name of Beaumarchais, as the author of " Le Barbier de 
Seville " and " Le Mariage de Figaro." 

In 1764 Frederick Kehlhoff, of London, patented a centre seconds 
and going barrel watch with a stackfreed remontoire. A watch on 
this plan by him was wound by turning the bow, the arbor of which 
terminated in a contrate wheel gearing with an intermediate wheel 
which engaged with a wheel on the barrel arbor ; but nothing was 
said in his patent respecting the keyless work. 

Lepine, who was associated with Voltaire in the establishment of 
a watch factory at Ferney, in Switzerland, devised a method of wind- 
ing in which the button at the pendant was turned partly round, and 
then pushed in several times till the winding was completed. This 
was the first of a series of what is known as " pumping " keyless 

In 1792 Peter Litherland, who patented the rack lever, claimed 
(patent No. 1889) " winding up watches, etc., by means of an external 
lever connected by mechanism by the barrel arbor." 

Robert Leslie, in 1793, patented (No. 1970) another pumping key- 
less arrangement. His claim says, " On the square on which the 
key should go is a ratch ; the pendant, being alternately moved in 
and out, turns this ratch by means of two clicks on either end of a 
fork fastened to the pendant." 

A watch, dating from about 1790, signed " Jacquet Droz, London," 
which is shown in Fig. 315, is furnished with winding work of this 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

J. A. Berrollas, in 1827 (No. 5586), patented a somewhat similar 

contrivance, but used a chain coiled round the winding wheel. I 

wore for some years a duplex watch by Ganthony with this keyless 

work, and it answered well. 

Edward Massey, in 1814 (3854), Francis J. Massey in 1841 (8947), 

and Edward Massey again in 1841 (9120), patented varieties of 

pumping keyless work. 

Charles Oudin exhibited at Paris, at 1806, an arrangement shown 

in Fig. 702 : k is the barrel, j and g intermediate wheels gearing with 

the contrate pinion // ; ^ is a disc at one extremity of the rod n h. 

The rod is supported by the cock d, and has two grooves, into one 

of which the spring / presses, 
according to the position of the 
rod. One of these grooves is 
seen at c, the other is hidden, 
owing to the position in which 
the parts are shown. When out 
of use the disc a forms part of 
the ball of the pendant. In 
order to wind, the rod n h is 
pulled up until the nib at the 
end of h comes in contact with 
the interior of the pinion h, 
where there is a catch ; the 
spring / then falls into the 
groove c, and then the winding 
is accomplished by turning the 
ball at a. There was no pro- 
vision for setting hands. 

Thomas Prest, foreman to 

J. R. Arnold, at his Chigwell chronometer factory, patented in 1820 

(No. 4501), a very similar arrangement to the foregoing as far as 

the winding is concerned, but no provision was made for disconnecting 

the wheels from the pendant knob. 

A. L. Breguet applied winding work to many of his watches, and 

an arrangement to connect with the motion work for setting hands 

by pulling out the bow. 

Isaac Brown in 1829 (5851), patented a winding-rack attached to 

the bezel, the bezel being moved round to wind. 

Adrien Phillipe, in 1843, invented the shifting sleeve keyless 

mechanism used in many foreign watches. Lecoultre and 

Fig. 702. 

Mcchaiiisj)! of Clocks ajid Watches. 535 

Audemars subsequently made alterations : the present construction 
of shifting sleeve mechanism is, however, similar in principle to the 
device of Phillipe. 

Adolope Nicole, in 1844, patented (10,355) a fusee keyless work in 
which a knob or the pendant was pushed in to niake connection with 
the fusee wheel, and pulled out to connect with the minute wheel. 

The rocking bar mechanism for winding and setting hands was 
patented in 1855 (2144), by Gustavus Hughenin. 

Self- Winding Watches. — Several methods have been devised 
for automatic winding, of which two examples are given. 

Fig. 703 shows an arrangement by Lebet for winding a watch by 
the action of closing the hunting cover. There is a short gold arm 
projecting beyond the joint. This arm is connected by means of a 
double link to a lever, one end of which is pivoted to the plate. To 
the free end of this lever is jointed a scythe-shaped rack, which works 
into a wheel with ratchet-shaped teeth on the barrel arbor. A weak 
spring fastened to the lever serves to keep the rack in contact with 
the wheel teeth. Instead of the ordinary fly spring, there is a spring 
fixed to the plate and attached by means of a short chain to the 
lever. As this spring pulls the cover open, the teeth of the rack slip 
over the teeth of the wheel on the barrel arbor. Each time the 
wearer closes the cover, the watch is partly wound. By closing the 
case eight or nine times, the winding is completed. The ordinary 
method of hooking in the mainspring would be clearly unsuitable 
with this winding work, because after the watch was fully wound the 
case could not be closed. Inside the barrel is a piece of mainspring 
a little more than a complete coil with the ends overlapping, and to 
this piece the mainspring hook is riveted. The adhesion of the 
loose turn of the mainspring against the side of the barrel is sufficient 
to drive the watch, but when the hunting cover is closed after the 
watch is wound, the extra strain causes the mainspring to slip round 
in the barrel. 

The method of winding just described can be applied only to a 
hunting watch. Fig. 704 represents a watch by Breguet wnth what 
is known as a pedometer winding. Louis Recordon, in 1780, 
patented it (No. 1249), and it has been several times re-invented. 
The motion of the wearer's body is utilized for winding. There is 
a weighted lever, pivoted at one end, and kept in its normal position 
against the upper of two banking pins by a long curved spring so 
weak that the ordinary motion of the wearer's body causes the lever 
to continually oscillate between the banking pins. Pivoted to the 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

same centre as the weighted lever is a ratchet wheel with very fine 
teeth, and fixed to the lever is a pawl, which engages with the 
ratchet wheel. This pawl is made elastic, so as to yield to undue 
strain caused by the endeavour of the lever to vibrate after the 
watch is wound. 

Repeating Watches. — While the striking mechanism of clock 
watches such as were produced by many of the early makers was 
founded on that used in De Vick's clock. Barlow's and Quare's 
repeating watches were similar in principle to the rack striking 

Fig. 703. 
Self-winding watch mechanism to act Fig. 704. — Self-winding or "Pedometer 
on the closing of the hunting cover. watch by Breguet. 

work for house clocks invented by the former. The number of 
hours or quarters struck depends on the position of the snails which 
revolve with the timekeeping mechanism. The hammers were 
actuated by a separate mainspring, which was wound every time 
it was desired that the watch should repeat. This was done by 
pushing the pendant in. Connected to the inner end of the pendant 
was a chain coiled round a pulley attached to the mainspring barrel, 
and also a lever, which, by coming in contact with the snail, stopped 
the pendant ; so that the mainspring was wound much or little 
according to the number of blows to be struck. 

M echanism of Clocks, and Watches. 537 

The chain was found to be the most unsatisfactory part of the 
mechanism, and at the beginning of the eighteenth century 
Matthew Stogden substituted a rack for it. Other alterations 
have since been made in the arrangements, one of the chief being 
the winding of the mainspring by means of a shde projecting 
from the band of the case. Barlow and Quare used a bell shaped 
to the inside of the case, such as had been used before their time 
for clock watches ; wire gongs, introduced by Julien Le Roy, are 
now used instead. 

Graham introduced a "pulse piece," which upon being pressed 
kept the hammers off the bell, but allowed the time to be ascertained 
by counting the throbs or beats on the pulse piece. 

Dumb repeaters, said to have been invented by Julien Le Roy, 
had neither bells nor gongs, the blows being struck on a solid block 
fixed in the band of the case. 

In 1804 Jobn Moseley Elliott patented (No. 2759) an ingenious 
device for dispensing with the repeating train, as well as striking the 
hours and quarters and other subdivisions with one hammer. By 
turning a rod running through the pendant to the right, a pallet on 
the inner end of it moved round a lever till it came in contact with 
the hour snail, and while this was being done, each of the teeth of 
a ratchet wheel also mounted on the inner part of the pendant rod, 
engaged with the hammer stalk and caused it to strike on the bell. 
The number of blows struck depended of course on the position of 
the hour snail. By turning the pendant to the left, another lever 
was carried to the quarter snail, and the required number of quarters 
struck in like manner. 

The time might in this arrangement be ascertained without a bell, 
by first turning the pendant rod as far as the snail allowed, and then 
reversing it and counting the number of clicks or obstructions caused 
by engagement with the ratchet. The elder Grant made some dumb 
repeaters on this plan. 

Hall Marks. — These marks are impressed on watch cases, 
jewellery, and plate after the quality of the metal has been ascer- 
tained by assay at certain official Assay Halls. The marking of 
jewellery is, with few exceptions, optional. The hall marking of 
all watch cases of gold or silver made in Great Britain and Ireland 
is compulsory. The cost is only the actual outlay incurred in 
assaying and stamping. The hall mark consists of several impres- 
sions in separate shields : there are the standard or quality mark ; 
the mark of the particular office at which the article was assayed ; 

538 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

some character by which the date of marking may be traced, and, if 

duty is chargeable, the head of the reigning sovereign. 

The oldest and most important of the Assay Halls is that presided 

over by the Goldsmiths' Company of London, which is situated in 

Foster Lane, just at the back of the old General Post Office, St. 

Martin's-le-Grand. The privilege of assaying and marking precious 

metals was conferred on the company by statute in 1300. The 

company received a charter of incorporation in 1327, and their 

powers have been confirmed subsequently by several Acts of 


Many early watch cases, especially silver ones of London make, 

are met with which have no hall mark, the powers of the company 

not being so strictly enforced then as now, or the value of the official 

assay not being so generally recognised. 

Repousse cases, with other artistic wares of a similar character, are 

specially exempted from assay. 

It was not till 1798 that a lower standard of gold than 22 carat 

was allowed, 18 carat was then recognised; in 1854 three further 

standards, 15, 12 and g carat, were introduced. 

The standard mark of the London Hall is a lion 

passant for sterling silver. A lion passant was also the 

standard mark on 22-carat gold up to 1845. 

For gold of 22 carats the standard mark is now a 

crown, and the figures 22. For i8-carat gold the 

standard mark is a crown and the figures 18. 

For 15-carat gold 15 and 0625 1 Pure gold being 24 carats, these decimals 
,, 12 ,, 12 ,, 05 '■ represent the proportions of pure geld 

,, 9 ,, 9 .. 0-375 ^ in the article so marked. 

The London Hall Mark prior to 1823 was 

a crowned leopard's head; from January ist^ 

1823, it was uncrowned; specimens of both 

styles are appended. 

Date marks of the London Hall, given on pages 542, 543, are, 

with one or two exceptions, actual reproductions which I have made 

from watch cases. Specimens of the earliest marks are not to be 


There was a duty on silver articles of sixpence an ounce from 

1 719 till 1758, but no special duty mark ; in 1784 a similar duty was 

imposed, and then the head of the reigning sovereign was impressed 

to denote the payment of duty. The Act came into operation on 

December ist, 1784, and at first the head had a curious appearance, 

being incised, or incuse as it is called, instead of in relief as the other 

MechautsDi of Clocks and Watches. 


marks were. Cases with the London mark and the letter K, which 
corresponds to the period from May, 1785, to May, 1786, have the 
duty head incuse, after which the head appears in rehef with London 
marks. The wardens of the Birmin<^ham Assay Office have a pair 
of cases with the head incuse, and the Birmingham mark with the 
letter N, which would denote the period from July, 1786, to July, 
1787. In 1804 the duty on silver was increased to is. 3^., and on 
gold to 165. an ounce. In 1815 a further increase to 15. 6d. and 
17s. 6d. respectively was made, and the duty continued at these 
amounts till i8go, when it was finally abolished. Watch cases were 
exempted from duty in 1798. 

The maker's mark before 1697 was some emblem selected by him ; 
in that year it was ordered to be the two first letters of his surname ; 
since 1739 it has been the initials of the maker's Christian and 

On March 25th, 1697, the quality of standard silver was raised 
from II ozs. 2 dwt. to 1 1 ozs. 10 dwt. of pure silver in 12 ozs. of 
plate ; a lion's head erased was then used as the standard mark, and 
a figure of Britannia as the hall mark; but on June ist, 1720, the 
old standard of 11 ozs. 2 dwts., and the old marks of a lion passant 
and a leopard's head were reverted to, although the higher standard 
with the figure of Britannia is still occasionally used. 

Marks of other Assay Oflfices. 
— Chester. — Hall mark, a sword 
between three wheatsheaves. Prior 
to 1779 it was three demi-lions and 
a wheatsheaf on a shield. Standard mark for i8-carat gold, a 
crown and the figures 18. For silver, a lion passant. Before 1839 
a leopard's head in addition. Chester date marks are given on 
page 541. 

Birmingham. — Hall mark, an anchor in a square frame for 
gold, and an anchor in a pointed shield for silver. Standard mark 

for i8-carat gold, a crown and the figures 18; for silver, a lion 
passant. Birmingham date marks are given on page 541. 

Sheffield. — A York rose and a crown. 

Exeter.— A castle with three towers. 

York. — Five lions on a cross. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Newcastle. — Three castles. 

Norwich. — A castle and lion passant. (The 
Norwich Assay Office is now closed). 

Edinburgh has a thistle for the standard 
mark, and a castle for the hall mark. 

Glasgow has a lion rampant for the 
standard, and a tree, a fish, and a bell for the 
hall mark. 

Dublin has a haip crowned as the standard 
mark for sterling silver and for 22-carat gold, 
\vith the figures 22 added in the latter case ; for 
2o-carat gold, a plume of three feathers and 20 ; 
for i8-carat gold, a unicorn head and 18. The lower qualities of 15, 
12, and 9, are marked with the same standard mark as is used at the 
London Hall. The hall mark for Dublin is a figure of Hibernia. 

Mccha)iisii! of Clocks and Watches. 



— The Date Mark is altered on 

the 1st Tu 

y of each year, 


g from the 

Date indicated in the Table till the June following. 


•■ 1773 

a ... 1799 

A ... 1825 

A ... 1850 


•■ 1875 


.. 1774 


.. iSoo 


.. 1826 

B ... 1851 


.. 1876 


•• 1775 


.. I80I 


.. 1827 

C ... 1852 


.. 1877 


•• 1776 


.. 1802 


.. 1828 

D ... 1853 


.. 187S 


•• 1777 


.. 1803 


.. 1829 

E ... 1854 


.. 1879 


•• 1778 


.. 1804 


.. 1830 

F ... 1855 


.. 1880 


.. 1779 


.. 1805 


.. 1831 

G ... 1856 

.. 1881 


.. 1780 


.. 1806 


.. 1832 

H ... 1857 


.. 1882 


.. 1781 


.. 1807 


•• 1833 

I ... 1858 


.. 1883 


.. 1782 


.. 1808 


.. 1834 

K ... 1859 


.. 1884 


.. 1783 


.. 1809 


•■ 1835 

L ... i860 


.. 1885 


.. 1784 


.. I8I0 


.. 1836 

M ... 1861 


.. 1886 


.. 1785 


.. I8II 


.. 1837 

N ... 1862 


.. 1887 


.. 1786 


.. I8l2 


.. 1838 

... 1863 


.. 1888 

.. 1787 

.. I8I3 


.. 1839 

P ... 1864 


.. 1889 


.. 1788 


.. I8I4 


.. 1840 

Q ... 1865 




.. 1789 


.. I8I5 


.. 1841 

R ... 1866 


.. 1891 


.. 1790 


.. I8I6 


.. 1842 

S ... 1867 


.. 1892 


.. 1791 


.. 1817 


.. 1843 

T ... 1868 


.. 1893 


.. 1792 


.. I8I8 


•• 1844 

U ... 1869 


.. 1894 


•• 1793 


.. I8I9 


.. 1845 

V ... 1870 


.. 1895 


.. 1794 


.. 1820 


.. 1846 

W ... 1871 


.. 1896 


•• 1795 


.. I82I 


.. 1847 

X ... 1872 


.. 1897 


.. 1796 


.. 1822 


.. 1848 

Y ... 1873 


.. 1898 


.. 1797 


.. 1823 


.. 1849 

Z ... 1874 


.. 1798 


.. 1824 


The Date Mark is altered on the ist July, lasting from the Date indicated in the 
Table till the end ol June in the following year. 




A I 




B I 




C I 




D I 




E I 



1 73 1 

F I 




G I 




H I 




1 I 




1 I 




K I 




L I 




M I 




N I 







P I 




y I 




R I 




S I 




r I 




U I 




V I 




W I 




X I 














f 17S 

g 1782 
h 1783 
1 1784 
k 1785 
1 1786 
m 1787 
n 1788 
o 1789 
P 1790 
q 1791 
r 1792 

s 1793 
t 1794 

u 1795 
V 1796 






A 1818 

B 1819 

C 1820 

D 1821 

E 1822 

F 1823 

H 1825 

I 1826 

K 1827 

L 1828 

M 1829 

N 1830 

O 1831 

P 1832 

Q 1833 

R 1834 

S 1835 

T 1836 

U 1837 

V 183S 




n 1864 
h 1S65 

Ii 1867 

t 1868 

f 1869 

1, 1S71 
i 1872 

h 1873 

1 1874 
m 1875 
It 1876 


u 1883 

* These are really Script capitals. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 


The shields represented in the subjoined tables are those used for 
shield is invariably in the shape of a rectangle, with the 

Note. — The Date Mark is altered on the 30th of May in 

the 30th of May in 






















































































' This letter appeais to have been used only from March to May, 1697. 

Britannia and a lion's head erased was used instead of the 

f Watch cases marked between December, 1784, and May, 1798, would 

Mccluniisii! of Clocks and Watclics. 543 


silver and for 22-carat gold. For lower qualities of gold the 

corners taken off like the one suorrunding the A in 1876, 

each year, lasting from the date indicated in the Table till 
the following year. 













































































































From the 25th March, 1697, to the ist June, 1720, the figure of 

crowned leopard's head and a Hon passant, see page 539. 

bear an extra stamp representing the head of George III. : see page 538. 

( 544 ) 



The dates following the names in this alphabetical list signify 
the period when the person referred to was connected with the 
Clockmakers' Company, or known to be in business, or when some 
example of his work was made. It does not necessarily follow that 
he then either began or relinquished the trade. Throughout the 
list C.C. stands for Clockmakers' Company, G.M. for Guildhall 
Museum, where the collection of the Clockmakers' Company is 
located, B.M. for British Museum, S.K.M. for South Kensington 
Museum, and h.m. for Hall Mark. Following the names or 
addresses of some of the makers is a slight description of speci- 
mens of their work which have been met with, or of some invention 
or distinguishing trait. Of the more important men, fuller descrip- 
tions are given in the body of the book, and reference is then made 
to the page where such particulars may be found. 

On estimating the age of a timekeeper by a maker the only 
reference to whom is that he was admitted to the Clockmakers' 
Company, it may in the majority of cases be assumed that he was 
at the time of his admission a young man just out of his appren- 
ticeship ; but there are numerous exceptions. Many of those 
members who constituted the first roll of the Clockmakers' 
Company were of mature years at the time of the incorporation ; 
and afterwards men who had made some mark or whom circum- 
stances had brought into notice were then induced to join. Hon. 
freemen, elected after 1780, had all made their reputation before 

It is easy to understand that the roll of membership of the company 
at no time represented the whole of the clockmakers and watch- 
makers within its sphere of action. Many who did not care to join 
would escape observation, and those who were free of other guilds 
at the incorporation made their apprentices free of the particular 
company to which they were attached. 

Although the addresses of the freemen at first are rarely given, 

Foruicr Clock and Watchmakers. 545 

it may be taken for granted that they were nearly all within a radius 
of ten miles, and among the later ones it will be found that very 
few of them resided at any great distance from the metropolis. 

Tracing the residence or business location of manufacturers is 
often more difficult than many would imagine. William Clement is 
referred to in scores of books as " an eminent London Clockmaker 
who first applied the Anchor Escapement to clocks," and was 
doubtless a leading member of his trade. He was master of the 
Clockmakers' Company, and presided when Graham took up the 
freedom on completion of his indentures, yet his name does not 
appear in any Directory of the period, and I am quite unable to dis- 
cover where he resided or practised his craft. To mention another 
instance of a century later — Earnshaw, after he had enlisted the 
interest of Dr. Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal, who tried a watch of 
his at the Greenwich Observatory, was told by the Doctor that he 
had lost an order for two watches because Maskelyne did not know 
where he lived ! 

On some of the early clocks and watches the name inscribed was 
that of the owner; but in 1777 an Act of Parliament required the 
name and place of abode of the maker to be engraved. Still it must 
not be concluded that in every instance the name engraved on a 
timekeeper indicates its maker or even that the inscription repre- 
sents any corporeal existence. In 1682 the C.C. seized from work- 
men " using the art of clockmaking four unfinished movements two 
whereof have engraven thereon Ambrose Smith, Stamford and 
William Burges fecit, and another Jasper Harmar, all of which 
names are greatly suspected to be invented or fobbed." The 
practice of using apocryphal names has continued to the present 
day. Sometimes it was adopted by manufacturers of repute for 
watches of a lower quality than those of which they cared to own 
the paternity. Occasionally in such instances the letters composing 
the name of the manufacturers would be placed backwards. Many 
watches marked " Rentnow, London," are to be met with, and they 
doubtless emanated from the Wontners, well-known makers of a 
century ago. The mark "Yeriaf" on a watch in the Guildhall 
Museum is probably another example of this reversion. Some 
watches with fictitious names would be the production of workmen 
who occasionally made a watch for a private customer, and preferred 
to thus conceal their identity rather than brave the displeasure of 
their employers. Mr. Evan Roberts has a watch marked "Notyap," 
London, which was possibly the production of Payton, a case maker 

c.w. N N 

546 Old Clocks and ]Vatches and their Makers. 

who in 1790 carried on business in Addle Street. But in most 
instances such pseudonyms appear to be really the trade marks of 
wholesale dealers, who in ordering watches would supply particulars 
of the name to be engraved. Many hundreds of watches for the 
Dutch market were marked "Tarts, London," or "Jno. Tarts, 
London." Yet I do not think anyone has been able to trace a 
manufacturer named Tarts. Between 1775 and 1825 the custom of 
having the name of the owner and not of the maker was often 
reverted to, usually with a.d. preceding the date figures, and 
occasionally also "aged 21," or "married," or "born." 

The more reprehensible act of adopting celebrated names appears 
also to have been of early origin. In Overall's " History of the 
Clockmakers' Company," it is stated that in 1704 the master of the 
C.C. reported " certain persons at Amsterdam were in the habit of 
putting the names of Tompion, Windmills, Quare, Cabrier, Lamb, 
and other well-known London makers on their works, and selling 
them as English." It is to be feared that some English makers were 
not free from suspicion of similar misdeeds both then and since. 

Watches and clocks with Turkish numerals often bore more than 
one name. It appears that only the timekeepers of certain favoured 
manufacturers or dealers whose names were registered were admitted 
into Turkey, and on watches for the Byzantine markets made by 
others a registered name would be engraved, followed by the 
name of the actual producer. This, I presume, was usually done by 
arrangement with the "maker" who had the right of entry. On 
watches for Turkey the word " Pessendede," signifying warranted, 
sometimes followed the name or names. Occasionally the first, 
and perhaps the sole name inscribed, would be merely that of a 
registered agent. 

The locality of the residences may not in all cases be readily 
recognised. A place called Swithen's Alley in early eighteenth 
century records, but more generally known as Sweeting's Alley, 
Cornhill, or Royal Exchange, evidently a favourite spot with the 
craft, was where the statue of Rowland Hill now stands. It was 
not rebuilt after the destruction of the Exchange by fire, in 1838. 
Bethlem, or Bethlehem, was in Moorfields, facing London Wall. 
In the early part of the eighteenth century the three Moor Fields 
extended from there over the space now occupied by Finsbury 
Circus and Finsbury Square to Windmill Hill Row, a continuation 
of which, called Hogg Lane, led into Norton Folgate. The whole 
of this thoroughfare is now known as Worship Street. Windmill 

Fovincr Clock and Watchmakers, 547 

Hill is now Wilson Street. The portion of the City Road by 
Bunhill Fields was then Royal Row. Love Lane now forms part 
of Southwark Street, and IMaid Lane of Southwark Bridge Road. 
Rosemary Lane is now Royal Mint Street, Coppice Row is merged 
into Farringdon Road. Pickaxe Street was so much of Aldersgate 
as lies between the Barbican and Fann Street. Butcher Row, now 
pulled down, occupied the wide part of the Strand between the 
Church of St. Clement Danes and Temple Bar. Brick Lane, St. 
Luke's, is now Central Street, and Swan Alley is Great Sutton 
Street. Swallow Street is now incorporated with Regent Street, 
and Princes Street, Leicester Square, is merged into Wardour Street. 
Cateaton Street is now Gresham Street. One side of Wilderness 
Row remains ; the row was widened and transformed into the 
thoroughfare which cut tlirough St. John's Square, and is called 
Clerkenwell Road. Union Street, Bishopsgate, or Spitalfields, is 
now Brushfield Street ; the Bishopsgate Street end, with the larger 
part of Sun Street, was absorbed in building the terminus of the 
Great Eastern Railway. Wellington Street, St. Luke's, is now 
Lever Street. King Street, Clerkenwell, is now Cyrus Street ; King 
Street, Holborn, is Southampton Row, and Kingsgate Street, which 
was adjacent and parallel to it, has disappeared altogether. Grubb 
Street is now Milton Street. The Fleet Street end of what was 
Water Lane in Tompion's time is now Whitefriars Street. 

It is stated that Prescott Street, Goodman's Fields, was the first 
London street in which the houses were numbered consecutively, 
and that this thoroughfare was so treated in 1708. Swinging signs 
were interdicted in 1762, though symbols on stiff brackets and mural 
carvings as signs for particular buildings were preferentially employed 
for some years after. 

Hicks' Hall is mentioned. This was the title given to the Sessions 
House, which at that time stood in the middle of St. John Street, near 
Smithfield Market. It was afterwards rebuilt on Clerkenwell Green. 

Taking into consideration the difficulty of obtaining precise 
information respecting the early names, added to the vagaries of 
seventeenth-century orthography, I hope and believe the list is as 
nearly as possible correct, and tolerably complete, so far as London 
makers are concerned. Outside of the metropolis I ha\e not 
attempted to do more than record the facts which happened to be 
within my reach, and I venture to beg the favour of communications 
respecting corrections and additions. 

Octavius Morgan's List'of Freemen of the Clockmakers' Company, 

N N 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

published some years ago, has been of assistance, and particulars 
of some French makers have been obtained from Havard's 
" Dictionnaire d'Ameublement " and the Book of Collections by 
Alph. Maze-Sencier. The term " garde visiteur " attached to 
members of the Paris Guild appears to indicate a committee-man 
or inspector. INIr. J. Whiteley Ward kindly placed at my disposal 
his extensive list of old makers, but he has rarely ventured to hazard 
an approximate date. For several Edinburgh makers I am indebted 
to Mr, John Smith's papers in the Weekly Scotsman. It will be noticed 
that in the seventeenth-century records of the Edinburgh " Incor- 
poration of Hammermen," the word " Knok " or " Knock " is used to 
designate a clock. 

Some of the old art metal workers of Augsburg and Nuremberg 
affixed their signatures to clock cases of their production, a custom 
often followed by French clock case designers of more recent times. 
It should be remembered that such names, as a rule, have no 
reference to the movements. 

After 1842 the names are given only of those above mediocrity, 
or concerning whom some peculiarity is known, and who have ceased 
to carry on business. Many of those who are traced to 1842 probably 
continued for years afterwards, but the list is not intended as a guide 
to clock and watch makers of to-day- 

Aaron, Benjamin, 17, Bury St., St. 
Mary Axe, 1840-42. 

Abbis, J., 37, Bishopsgate St. Within, 

Abbott, Eichard, apprenticed in 1668 
to Helkiah Bedford ; C.C. 

Abbott, Philip, London ; C.C. 1703 
(see p. 494). 

Abbott, Peter, admitted C.C. 1719. 

Abbott, John, admitted C.C. 1788 : 
charged with maliing an agreement 
to go to St. Petersburg to work at 
clockmaking, and convicted at Hicks' 
Hall of the offence ; known as a 
maker of long-case clocks, 1787-1800. 

Abbott, Thos., 41, Allen St., 1820-22. 

Abbott, Francis, 50, Market St., Man- 
chester : watch paper C.C, about 
1820 ; wrote a book on the manage- 
ment of public clocks (n.d.), about 

Abdy, William, livery Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, 5, Oat Lane, Noble St., 1768- 

Abdy, Jno., London ; watch, 1734. 

Abeling, William, 7, Wynyatt St.. 
Clerkenwell, 1817 ; 36, Spencer St.. 

Aberley, Joseph, apprenticed in 1664 to 

Isaac Sutton : C.C. 
Abraham, John, 27, Steward St., 

Bishopsgate, 1820-23. 
Abrahams, H., 21, Bevis Marks, 

Abrahams, Godfrey, 51, Prescot St., 

Goodman's Fields, 1835-42. 
Abrahams, Samuel, 23, Little Alie St., 

Abrahams, A,, D, Great Prescot St., 

Abrahams, Elijah, 27, Hanway St., 

Oxford St., 1840-47. 
Absolon, — , London ; long-case clock, 

strike-silent, sunk seconds, scroll and 

foliage corners, about 1770. 
Achard, George, et fils, Geneva ; watch, 

about 1780 (see p. 189). 
Achurch, Wm., apprenticed in 1691 to 

Wm. Jaques, C.C. 
Ackers, William, St. Andrew's, Hol- 

born ; pair-case watch in S.K.M., 

early part of eighteentli century ; 

his banlcruptcy noted Loud. Ga:., 

Oct. 28, 1706. 
Acklam, John Philip, 423, Strand, 

1816 ; 138, Strand, 1840. 

Former Clock and Watchmakers. 


Acklam, T., 14, Birchin L.ine, 1825-38. 
Acton, Jno., Clerkeiiwell, C.C. 1677. 
Acton, Chris. ; bracket clock, about 

1 7-2:). 
Acton, Abraham, appienticcil in 1691 to 

Henry Moiitlow ; admitted C.C. 1700. 
Adam, Melchior (? Melchior Adam), 

Paris ; octagonal crystal-cased watch, 

SoltykofE collection, about 158."). 
Adams, Geo., apprenticed to Jos. Dudds ; 

('.('. 1752. 
Adams, Geo., (iO, Fleet St., 177U ; tabic 

timepiece, Guildhall Museum, about 

1 71)5. 
Adams, John, 1. Dove Court, Moor- 

tiehls, 1770-72. 
Adams, Stephen, 3. St. Anne's Lane, 

1774 ; Stephen and Son, 1788. 
Adams, C. and J., 10, King St., Cheap- 
side. 1788. 
Adams, John, 31. Maiden Lane, Covent 

(iarden. 1790-04. 
Adams, Hy., Church St., Hackney : fine 

long-case clock, about 1800; watch, 

h.m.. 1808 ; on a paper in the outer 

case the following : — 

" To-inorrow ! yes, to-morrow! you'll repent 
A train of years in vice and folly spent. 
To-morrow conies — no penitential sorrow 
Appears therein, for still it is to-morrow. 
At length to-morrow such a habit gains, 
That you'll forget the time that Heaven 

And you'll believe that day too soon will be 
When more to-morrows you're denied to 


Adams, Francis Bryant, succeeded 
Benj. Webb at 21, St. John's Sq., 
Clerkenwell ; master C.C. 1848 ; 

Adams, F. B., and Son, 21, St. John's 
Sq., IS30-42. 

Adams, Thos. , partner with Widenham 
in Lombard St. : afterwards at 84, 
Cannon St. ; died at Catford, 1870. 

Adamson, Humfry, maker of a clock 
f(ir Whitehall Chapel. 1682. 

Adamson, John, admitted C.C. 1686 ; 
"A Gold Minute Watch, lately made 
by Mr. Adamson, over against the 
Blue Boar in Holborn " (^Lond. Gaz.. 
March 3, 1686). 

Adamson, — , Paris ; clockmaker to the 
lioyal Family, 1790. 

Addis, 'William, Cannon St., afterwards 
at 3, Birchin Lane, son of Robert A., 
of Bristol ; apprenticed to George 
Sims, 1738 : admitted C.C. 174'5, 
master 1764. 

Addis, George Curson, 3, Birchin Lane, 
afterwards 47, Lombard St.; livery 
C.C. 1787 ; 1780-98. 

Addis, George, 79, Cornhill, 1786-94. 

Addison, Edmond, apprenticed in 1678 
to Josejih Ashby. C.C. 

Addison, Josh., London; watch, 1770. 

Addison, Josh., Lancaster, 1817. 

Adeane, Henry, apprenticed to Rich. 
Scrivener ; admitted C.C. 1675. 

Adeane, Henry, admitted C.C. 1705. 

Adkins, Thos., Shoe Lane, 1735. 

Adney, Richard, Bull and Monk St., 

Agar, Jno., York ; bracket clock, about 
1710 : Mr. Thos. Boynton has a fine 
regulator by liim, 1756. 

Agar, Jno., son of the foregoing, 1765-90. 

Agar, Thos., London ; watch, 1804. 

Airy, George Biddell, Astronomer 
Royal 1835-81 ; K.C.I?. 1874 ; died 
1892, aged 90; devoted much atten- 
tion to the perfecting of timekeepers. 

Aitken, John, 55, St. John's St., 
Clerkenwell; receive*! in 1824 a 
prize of twenty guineas from the 
Society of Arts for a clock train 
remontoiro ; 1800-26. 

Aitkins, Robt., London ; watch, 1780. 

Akced, Jno., London ; watch, 1795. 

Akers, Jas., Derby ; watch, 1805. 

Alais, M., Blois ; watch, about 1680. 

Albert, Isaac, admitted C.C. 1731. 

Albrecht, Michael George, gold repeat- 
ing watch in the S.K.M., bearing the 
royal arms, otiter case repousse, about 

Alcock, Thomas, petitioner for incor- 
l)oration of C.C. 1630 (see p. 251). 

Alder, J. , London ; bracket clock, 
crown wheel escapement, about 1700. 

Alderhead, Jno., 114, Bishopsgate 
"Within ; livery Goldsmiths' Company 
1775-94 : card Ponsonby collection 
" at the Ring and Pearl, Bishopsgate 
St., near the Southsea House." 

Alderman, Edwin, 22, Barbican, 
1818-34; livery C.C. 1822. 

Aldred, Leonard, C.C. 1671. 

Aldred, Jno., apprenticed in 1686 to 
Hy. Reeve, C.C. 

Aldred, "Wm., 54, Wood St., 1793 ; 
watch-sjiring maker. 

Aldridge, Daniel, apprenticed in 1680 
to Hy. Young, C.C. 

Aldridge, Edward, striking and pull 
quarter repeating bracket clock, 
about 1710. 

Aldridge, Chas., Aldersgate, 1714. 

Aldridge, John, admitted C.C. 1726. 

Aldridge, James, 11, Northumberland 
St.. Strand. 1816-30. 

Aldworth, Samuel, brother C.C. 1697. 
]\lr. C. E. Atkins has a lantern clock 
by him, inscribed " Saml. Aldwortli, 
Oxon," about 1700 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Alexander, Eobt., Edinburgh, 1709. 

Alexander, Isaac, Nottingham ; watch, 
about 1760 (seep. 211). 

Alexander, Wm., 10, Paiiiameut St., 

Alexander, A., and Co., 25, Bedford 
St., Bedford Sq., 1840; Gray's Inn 
Passage, 1847. 

Alexandre, Jacques, Paris ; a priest 
who devoted much attention to time- 
keepers ; published in 1734, " Traite 
General des Horloges." 

Aley, Thomas, 18, Park Side, Knights- 
bridge, 1840-42. 

Alibut, — , Paris ; watch, 1800. 

Alkins (? Atkins), London, about 1730. 

Allam, Andrew, Grubb St. ; apprenticed 
in 1 6.")6 to Nicholas Coxeter ; admitted 
C'.C". 1G64 ; maker of lantern clocks. 

Allam, Michael, London, 1723. 

Allam, Eobt., Fleet St., 1736-65. 

Allam, William, Fleet St., 1770-80. 

Allam and Stacy, 175, Fleet St., 1783. 

Allams, Gabriel ; repeating watch, 
silver cases, inner one pierced, outer 
one repousse, with Minerva, &;c., 
about 1760, Hilton Price collection. 

Allan, George, 9, New Bond St., hon. 
freeman CO. 1781 ; 1760-83; maker 
of a watch found in a chimney at 
Newton St., Holborn, in 1895, and 
said to have belonged to Lord Lovat, 
who was beheaded in 1747 ; unfor- 
tunately for the legend, the hall-mark 
corresponded to 1768. 

Allan, Robert, London ; maker of re- 
peating watches, 1780-90. 

Allan and Clements, 119, New Bond 
St., 178.5-94. 

Allan, John, 119, New Bond St., 1798- 

Allan and Caithness, 119, New Bond 
St.. 1800-4. 

Allaway, John, apprenticed to Bernard 
Rainsford ; admitted CO. 1695. 

Allcock, Jno., 30, St. ]\Iartin's Lane : 
card, B.M.. 1787. 

Allcock, William, watch-hand maker, 
36, Allen St., Clerkenwell, 1820. 

Allen, Jas., brother C.C. 1635. 

Allen, Elias, brother CO., master 1636 ; 
died 1654. 

Allen, Nathaniel, apprenticed in 1650 to 
Wm. Bowyer, C.G. 

Allen, Thos., apprenticed in 1663 to 
Robt. Whitwell, C.C. 

Allen, John, admitted C.C. 1720. 

Allen, John, In-other C.C. 1753. 

Allen, John, 42. Poultry, 1772-75. 

Allen, George, Fleet St. ; liveryman C.C. 

Allen, John, watch-case maker,Barbican; 

convicted in the Mayor's Court for 
refusing to become a member of 
the C.C, although he was at the 
time free of the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, 1785-89 ; Aldersgate St., 1794. 

Allen, James, 76, New Gravel Lane ; 
an ingenious watchmaker to whom 
the Board of Longitude awarded £105 
for engine dividing, 1790-1800. 

Allen, George, 14, Red Lion Passage, 
Holborn; watch paper C.C, 1812-42. 

Allen, Jno., London ; watch, 1820. 

Allett, George, apprenticed in 1683 to 
Solomon Bouquet, but turned over to 
Thos. Tompion ; C.C. 1691 ; bracket 
clock, ebony case, Wetherfield col- 
lection, about 1705. 

Ailing, Eichard, admitted C.C 1722. 

Ailing, James, 22, Red Lion St., White- 
chapel ; " foreman to Mr. Hatton, 
London Bridge" ; watch paper C.C, 
1 838-42. 

Allison, Thos., London ; watch, 1790. 

Allkins, Horncastle ; watch, 1785. 

Allman, W., Prince's St., Storey's Gate, 
Westminster ; card, B.M., 1798. 

Allory, — , Moorfields, 1774. 

AUsop, Joshua, Northamptonshire ; 
brother C.C. 1689 ; handsome long 
Oriental lacquer-cased clock belong- 
ing to the Blecker family. New York ; 
long-case clock, richly inlaid, inscribed 
" Josh. Alsope, East Smithfield," about 

Allvey, Hy., 5, Old St. Sq., about 1795. 

Almond, William, Lothbury ; maker of 
a clock for Hall, Bishop of Exeter ; 
C.C 1633. 

Almond, Ealph, apprenticed to Oswald 
Durant in 1637 ; admitted C.C. 1646, 
master 1678. 

Almond, John, admitted C.C 1671. 

Alston and Lewis, 30, Bishopsgate St., 
1820 ; Alston and Hallam, 1830-42. 

Alvey, Samuel, apprenticed to Jas. 
Wood: admitted C.C 1757. 

Alysone, Jas., Dundee, 1663. 

Amabric, Abraham, Geneva, 1660-80 ; 
barrel - shaped gold watch with 
rejjousse ornament enamelled, Hil- 
ton Price collection. 

Amabric Freres, Geneva, 1793. 

Amant, '■ maitre horloger, Paris " ; 
spoken of by Thiout in 1741 ; he 
invented the pin wheel escapement 
about ] 749. 

Ambrose, Edward, apprentice of Elias 
Volard. 1634. 

Ambrose, David, admitted C.C 1669. 

Ames, Eichard, apprenticed in 1648 to 
Peter Closon ; admitted C.C 1653 ; 
died in 1682, after election as master ; 

Former Clock and Watchmakers. 


a clock of his make has dolphin frets 
and bob pendulum working between 
going and striking. In 1684 llobert 
Browne was apprenticed to Katherine 
Ames, William, apprenticed to Richard 

in It;?:. : admitted C.C. 1682. 
Amey, Robt., London ; watch, 1780. 
Ampe, Abraham ; watch, Napier col- 
lection, ltj07. 
Amyot, Peter, Norwich ; maker of 

lantern clocks, about 1660. 
Amyot and Bennett, Brigg's Lane, Nor- 
wich : in 1793 they issued a little 
book by J. Bennett on the manage- 
ment of a watch. 
Amyott, Peter, Norwich ; watch, Nel- 

thnipp cUection, about 1720. 
Amyott, Thos , I-ondon ; watches, h.m., 
17.">1-71 ; one Nelthropp collection, 
about 177i>. 
Anderson, Wm., apprenticed in 164() to 

Simon liai tram. 
Anderson, Robt., apprenticed in 1691 

t(i 'I'liDs. Tompion, C.C. 
Anderson, Richard, Lancaster, 1767. 
Anderson, Alex., London ; watch, 1770. 
Anderson, J., London ; watch, 1775. 
Anderson, Geo. ; sued in 1777 by Cabrier 
for putting his name on five watches. 
Anderson, R., Preston ; watch, 1778. 
Anderson, Hugh, London ; watcli, 1792. 
Anderson, R., London : watch, 1812. 
Anderson, Edward C, Xewington Butts ; 
a successful watchmaker who carried 
out the not unreasonable rule of 
making a charge for furnishing a 
repairing estimate if it involved 
taking a watch to pieces : 1835-8.5. 
Anderton, Jno., Little Wild St. ; re- 
peating watch, about 1750. 
Andrew, J., 14, Queen St., Eatcliff 

Cross, 1S20. 
Andrews, Robert, apprenticed in 1661 

to Benj. Hill ; admitted C.C. 1709. 
Andrews, Isaac, apprenticed in 1674 to 

Edm. Fowell, C.C. 
Andrews, Thos., apprenticed in 1686 to 
Joshua Hutchiu ; admitted C.C. 1705. 
Andrews, John, Leadeuhall St. ; ad- 
mitted C.C. 1688, 
Andrews, Richard, C.C. 1703 ; watch. 

Andrews, James, admitted C.C. 1719. 
Andrews, William, Bishopsgate St. ; 

C.C. 1719. 
Andrews, Benj., Bartholomew Lane, 

Andrews, Abraham, Bank Coffee House, 

Threadneedle St., 1759. 
Andrews, Thos. Steyning, 1760 (see 
p. 174). 

Andrews, Rich., 1 24, Leadenhall St., 1775. 
Andrews, Eliza. 85, Cornhill, 1790- hSdO. 
Angel, Richard, repairer of clock at 

Wigtcift. Boston, Lincolnshire, 1484. 
Annat, Nicholas, apprenticed in 1673 

to Henry Jones, C.C. 
Anness, William, 102, Cheapside, 1798- 

1S20 : livery C.C. 1802. 
Annis, Jno., 13, Sparrow Corner,1810-18, 
Annott, Chas., apprenticed in 1673 to 

Jas. Ellis, VX\ 
Ansell (or Anselme), Richard, appren- 
ticed to Jeffery Baily ; achnitted C.C. 
Ansell and Son, watch-spring makers, 

22. Whitecross Place, 1798-1820. 
Ansell, Hy., 17, Colchester Sq., Savage 

(iardens, 1830 ; 74, Leman St., 1838. 
Anstey, Jno., apprenticed to George 

Nau in 1683. 
Antes, Jno., London ; appi'cnticed to 
Wm. Addis ; pocket chronometer, 
G.M., h.m. 1787. 
Anthony, — ; clockmaker to Henry 

VUL, 1529. 
Anthony, William, 55, Red Lion St., 
St. John's S(i., Clerkenwell. There 
was in the Dunn Gardner collection 
a magnificent long oval watch by 
him, in a gold case, bearing the hall- 
mark for 179(;. It was rather a large 
size, back enamelled and decorated 
with diamonds and pearls ; but the 
peculiar feature was that the dial 
was also oval ; the hands were jointed, 
and automatically lengthened and 
shortened as they travelled around. 
This watch fetched £200 at Christie's 
in 1902. Another example is an 
eight-day watch of similar shape, 
duplex escapement, movement beauti- 
fully engraved, formerly in the Ben- 
tinck- Hawkins collection. He is 
reputed to have been one of the most 
expert watchmakers of his day, and 
such specimens of his work as remain 
quite bear out this belief. He 
carried on a successful business in 
Red Lion Street, St. John's Square, 
and most of his watches bore the 
inscription "Wm. Anthony, St. John's 
Square." At one time he was in good 
circumstances, and took an active 
part in founding the Watch and 
Clockmakers' Benevolent Institution 
in 1815, though he lived to be a reci- 
pient of its bounty. Apart from his 
art he did not exhibit particular 
sagacity. He engaged in litigation 
with Grimaldi & Johnson, which 
ended disastrously, and expended a 
large amount in the purchase of 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

royal and other wardrobes of the thne 
of Charles I. Of these he formed an 
exhibition at the Somerset Gallery, 
next door to Somerset House, and 
now 151, Strand. This also turned 
out an expensive failure. He had a 
considerable sum invested in good 
leasehold property on the Doughtj' 
estate. He died in Jerusalem Passage 
in 1844, and was then about eighty 
years of age. After his death the 
leases of this property were found in 
his safe. Curiously enough, the term 
for which he held had just about 
expired, but he had not troubled to 
collect any rents for at least twenty 
years previously, and it was con- 
cluded he had forgotten all about his 
possessions. Mr. Wm. Bailey has a 
miniature painted when he was about 
fifty-five years of age. 

Antis, Jno., Fulneck, near Leeds ; re- 
ceived in 180.5 £21 from the Society 
of Arts for a clock escapement. 

Antoine, — , Rue Galande, Paris, 1770. 

Antram, Joseph, London ; apprenticed 
to Chas. Gretton ; admitted C.C. 1706 : 
long walnut-case clock, square dial, 
cherub corners, circles round winding 
holes, about 1700 ; watch, about 1720 ; 
"watch and clock maker to his 

Antt, G., 158, Strand, 1769-88. 

Apiohn (Upjohn), Henry, apprenticed 
in 1649 to Robert Whitwell, C.C. 

Appleby, Edward, London ; watch, 
about I 700. 

Appleby, Joshua, Bread St. ; apprentice 
of Daniel Quare ; admitted C.C. 1719, 
master 1745. 

Appleby, Thos., Charing Cross, 1800 
(see p. 47.5). 

Appleby, P., London ; watch, 1825. 

Applegarth, Thomas, apprenticed in 
1664 to Hugh Cooper ; C.C. 1674. 

Appleton, Henry, 50, Myddelton Sq , 
1840-42 : afterwards in partnership 
with Birchall in Southampton Row. 

Appley, Edmund, Charing Cross ; appren- 
ticed to Jeffery Bailey 1670 ; admitted 
C.C. 1677 ; small repeating bracket 
clock, black case, basket top, about 

Appleyard, E., London ; watch, about 

Archamho, Jnc, Prince's St., Leicester 
Fields ; fine marqueterie case cloclv, 
arch dial ; also a rej^ousse csise watch, 
hall-mark 1730, and another watch of 
a later date; 1720-45. 

Archer, Henry, admitted C.C. 1630 ; 
subscribed £10 for incorporation 

of C.C, and was the first warden ; 

Archer, John, apprenticed in 1650to Jas. 
Starnill ; admitted C.C. 1660. 

Archer, Edward, admitted C.C. 1711. 

Archer, Walter, long-case clock, about 
1715, at the Van Courtland Mansion, 
New York. 

Archer, Samuel, 15, Leather Lane, 1794 ; 
33, Kirby St., Hatton Garden, 1810 ; 
a prominent man in the trade. In 
1820 he was treasurer to the Watch 
and Clockmakers' Benevolent Insti- 

Archer, Sam. Wm., Hackney, 1805-12. 

Archer, Thomas, 6, Long Lane, Smith- 
field, 1 SI 4-20. 

Argand I'Aine, Geneva, about 1740. 

Argand, J. L., Place Dauphine, Paris, 
1770 (see p. 188). 

Ariel, James, watch movement maker, 
10, Wilderness Row, 1815-20. 

Ariel, John, 10, Percival St., 1822-39. 

Aris, Samuel, Leicester Fields ; long- 
case clock, about 1760. 

Aris, Jno., and Co., Old Jewry, 1794. 

Arlandi, John, chain - maker for 
watches. Red Rose St., Covent 
Garden, 1680 ; C.C. 1682. 

Arlaud, Henry, fine calendar watch, 
Schloss collection, about 1630, silver 
case, back inscribed " Richard Bailie, 
at the Abbay." This watch was 
probably English work (see p. 234). 
Another specimen of a rather later 
date was inscribed " Arlaud, London." 

Arlaud, Anthoine, cruciform watch, 
Marfels collection, late sixteenth 

Arlaud, Benjamin, maker of a large 
silver repeating-watch in the B.M., 
about 1680. 

Armitage and Co., 88, Bishopsgate 
Witliin, 1798. 

Armstrong, John, C.C. 1724. 

Arnold, Thomas, apprenticed in 1687 to 
Xat. Chamberlaine, jun. ; admitted 
C.C. 1703. 

Arnold, John, Devereux Court, Fleet St., 
1 760 : 112, Cornhill, 1780 (see p. 335). 

Arnold, Hy., 46, Lombard St., 1769-88. 

Arnold, Edward, London ; watch, 1790. 

Arnold and Son, 112, Cornhill, 1798. 

Arnold, John Roger, Bank Buildings, 
102, Cornhill, 1804 ; 26, Cecil St., 

Arnold, John R., and Dent, 84, Strand, 

Arnold, John R., 84, Strand, 1842. 

Arnolts, — , Hamburg, 1635 (see p. 165). 

Arnott, Richard, 18, Red Cross St., 
Barbican, 1810-25. 

Former Clock and Watchmakers. 


Arthanel. Aron Louis, table clock, 

Arthaud, Louis, i'l Lyuu ; silver alarum 
watch, nicely pierced case, Schloss 
collection, about 1(550 (p. 209). 

Arthur, William, apprenticed in 1G69 
to Nicli. Coxeter ; C.C. 1676. 

Ascough, see Ayscough. 

Ash, — . subscribed £2 for incorpora- 
tion of C.C. 1630. 

Ash, Ralph, admitted C.C. 1648. 

Ash and Son, 64. St. James St.. 1822. 

Ash, Joseph, 146, Aldersgate St., 

Ashbourne, Leonard, at the Sugar 
Loaf in Paternoster Row, next 
Clieapside ; inventor and maker of 
a cloclc lamp, 1731. 

Ashbrooke, Thos., apprenticed to Cuth- 
bcrt Lee in 168.J ; C.C. 

Ashbrooke, Jno., apprenticed to Zach. 
Mountfoid ill 1686; C.C. 

Ashby, Joseph, apprenticed in 1663 to 
Matthew Crockford : C.C. 1674. 

Ashley, Jas., apprenticed in 1647 to 
Robert Smith. C.C. 

Ashley. Chas., London ; watch, 1767. 

Ashley, Jno., English watch, 1780. 

Ashley, J. P., <J1»," Baches Row, City Ed., 

Ashley and Manser, 34, Rosoman St., 
Clerlcenwell, 1825-35, afterwards at 
15, Garnault Place ; watch by them, 
h.m. 1823, cylinder escapement, 
brass escape wheel ; the teeth, instead 
of being in one horizontal plane, 
were on three different levels, touch- 
ing on different parts of the cylinder, 
and so spreading the wear over a 
larger surface. 

Ashley, Edward, 9, John St., Penton- 
ville, 1842. 

Ashman and Son, 462, Strand, 1822. 

Ashton, Miles, apprenticed in 1663 to 
Benj. WolvL-rstone, C.C. 

Ashton, Jno., apprenticed in 1672 to 
Jno. Saville, C.C. 

Ashton, Thos,, apprenticed 1687 to Thos. 
Bradford, C.C. 

Ashton, — , Tideswell, long-case clock, 
about 1710. 

Ashton, Thos., Leek, 1790. 

Ashton, Jno., Leek, 1830. 

Ashurst, William, C.C. 1699. 

Ashwell, Nicholas, apprenticed in 1642 
to Robt. Grinkin ; C.C. 1649. 

Aske, Henry, apprenticed in 1669 to 
Edward N orris ; admitted C.C. 
1676 ; George Graham was appren- 
ticed to him in 1688 ; 1676-96. 

Askell, Elizabeth, apprenticed in 1734 
to Elinor Moseley. 

Aspinwall, Thomas, small oval watch 

(see p. 163). aliout 1(;05. 
Aspinwall, Samuel, clock watch in 

possession of Lord Torphichen, about 

1655 ; clock watch, similar period, 

I'lvan iloberts' collection. 
Aspinwall, Josiah, brother C.C. 1675. 
Aspinwall, John, Liverpool ; long-case 

clock, about 1750. 
Asprey, Wm., 4, Bruton St., 1820. 
Asselin, Francis (French), C.C. 1687 ; 

bracket clock, case covered with 

tortoise-shell on a red ground, about 

1690 ; another somewhat similar 

clock, inscribed " Stephen Asselin " 

(see p. 502). Uv. W. T. Harkness has 

a 28-day long-case clock by Asselin, 

London, about 1700. 
Astwood, Joseph, apprenticed in 1659 

to Ben. Bell. C.C. 
Atchison, Kobert, apprenticed to 

Robert Harding 1753 ; admitted 

C.C. 1760 ; 1760-1819. 
Athern, Jno., Liverpool ; long-case 

clock, Mr. E. H. Coleman ; above 

dial motto, " Time shows the way of 

life's decay," about 1780(.'). 
Atherton, T.. London ; watch, 1780. 
Atherton and Hewett (tools), 49, Red 

Lion St., (_'lfvken\vell, 1789-94. 
Atis, Leonard, London ; lantern clock, 

about icon. 
Atkins, Joseph, apprenticed to Robt. 

Fowler 1654 : C.C. 
Atkins, Jonathan, apprenticed in 1659 

to Sam. Clay, C.C. 
Atkins, Francis, 35, Clement's Lane ; 

burn 1730 ; apprenticed to Joshua 

Hasselll746; admitted C.C. 1759, 

master 1780, clerk 1785 ; died 1809. 
Atkins, Samuel, Palgrave Court, Temple 

Bar, 1752-65. 
Atkins, Samuel, and Son, Palgrave 

Court. Temple Bar, 1759-63. 
Atkins, George, son of Francis, born 

1767 ; 35, Clement's Lane; warden C.C. 

1809. afterwards clerk ; died 1855. 
Atkins, Robert, Palgrave Court, Temple 

Bar, 1769. 
Atkins, Robert, 20, Salisbury St., 

Strand, 177(J-88 ; Snow Hill, 1800. 
Atkins, Danl., London ; watch, h.m., 

Atkins, S., watch-case maker, 14, Bridge- 
water Sq., 1810. 
Atkins, W., watch-case maker, 7, Upper 

Ashby St.. Clerkenwell, 1820. 
Atkins, William, 71, High St., Poplar, 

Atkins, W., 3, High St., Hoxton, 1835. 
Atkins, George, and Son, 6, Cowper's 

Court, Cornhill, 1840-42. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Atkins, Samuel Elliott, son of George, 
whom he succeeded in business and 
as clerk of C.C, which office he 
resigned in 1878 ; chosen master in 
1882: born 1807 ; died 1898. 

Atkinson, James, admitted C.C. 1667, 
assistant 1697. 

Atkinson, Lnncaster ; Thos., 1767 ; 
Richard, 1785 ; Wm., 1817 : Robert, 
apprenticed to W. Bell, died 1900, 
aged 57, a clever mechanician. 

Atkinson, Thos., 38, Piccadilly, 1814-17. 

Atlee, Henry, apprenticed in 1662 to 
Charles Rogers ; admitted C.C. 1671. 

Atlee, Roger, apprenticed in 1664 to 
Job Ketts, C.C. 

Attbury, J., watch-movement maker, 
1."), York St., St. Luke's, 1835. 

Attemstetter, David, Augsburg ; a 
celebrated enamellcr, 1610. 

Attwell, Thos., London ; clock, about 

Attwell, — , near the Court House, 
llomford ; watch paper C.C, about 

Attwell, Robt., Brown's Lane, Spital- 
tields, IS 10-18. 

Attwell, Wm., 11, Pitfield St., 1815-25. 

Attwood, Geo., born 1746, died 1807; 
an eminent mathematician ; studied 
watch work, and reported to Parlia- 
ment on Mudge's timekeeper, 1793. 

Atwood, Richard, 41, Poultry, 1800-10. 

Atwood, George, 17, Leonard St., 
Shoreditch, 1820. 

Auber, Daniel, Whitefriars, 1750. 

Aubert, Jean Jacques, Paris ; " horloger 
du Roy," 1737. 

Aubert, D. F., Geneva, 1820 ; afterwards 
partner in London with C. J. Klaften- 

Aubert and Klaftenberger, 157, Regent 
St., 183:)-42. 

Audemars, Louis, La Vallee, Switzer- 
land, 1811. 

Audley, Jos., apprenticed to Thos. 
Tompion in 1683. 

Augier, Jeban, Paris ; maker of large 
watches, about 1650. 

Aukland, Wm., London ; watch, 1790. 

Auld, William, Edinburgh ; friend and 
partner of Thomas Reid, 1790-1818. 

Ault, Thomas, 34, Prince's St., 
Leicester Sq., 1820-25. 

Aussen, — , French cruciform watch, 
Wallace collection, about 1650. 

Austen, John, Shoreditch ; admitted 
C.C. 1711 ; maker of a bracket clock 
with square dial, puU-chimc, black 
bell-top case, 1711-25. 

Austin and Co., 176, Oxford St., 1820. 

Austin, John, 136, Oxford St., 1830-40. 

Aveline, Daniel, "7 Dials" ; died 1770, 

when warden C.C. ; 1760-70. 
Avenall (or Avenell), a family well 

known as clockmakers in Hampshire 

for two centuries. 
Avenall, Ralph, Farnham ; balance 

escapement clock, about 1640. 
Avenell, Edwd., apprenticed to Joseph 

Duke ; admitted C.C. 1706. 
Avenell, Jno., son of Edwd. ; admitted 

C.C. 1735. Wm. Avenall, Alresford, 

1770 (see p. 474). 
Avery, Amos, Cheapside, 1774. 
Avery, Philip, Red Cross Sq., 1790-94. 
Aylosse, Elizabeth, apprenticed in 1678 

to Joane Wythe (widow) ; C.C. 
Aylward, Jno., Guildford ; lantern 

clock, about 1695 ; another specimen, 

about 1710, said to be inscribed "John 

Aylward, Braintford." 
Aymes, see Ames. 
Aynsworth, J., Westminster ; maker 

of lantern clocks, 1645-80. 
Ayres, Samuel, apprenticed in 1664 to 

Edwd. Norris, C.C. 
Ayres, Richard, apprenticed in 1670 to 

Hy. Jones ; C.C. 1680. 
Ayres, Thos., 160, Fenchurch St., 

Ayres and Bennett, 160, Fenchurch St., 

Ayscough, Ralph, livery Goldsmiths' 

Company ; St. Paul's Churchyard, 

1758 ; 18, Ludgate St., 1766-76. 

Baccuet, — , watch enamelled, painting, 
"Roman Piet}'," on back, about 

Bachan, Henry, London ; long - case 
clock, about 1770. 

Bachoffiier, Andrew, 112, Shoreditch, 

Backhouse, Jas., Lancaster, 1726. 

Backler, Benj., London ; long - case 
clock, Mr. R. Eden Dickson, about 

Backquett, Davyd, C.C. 1632. 

Bacon, John, brotner C.C. 1639. 

Bacon, — . " Paid Mr. Bacon, clock- 
maker, of Tewkesbury, for a clock and 
case, y« summe of six pounds and five 
shillings," 1708. — Diary of Thos. 

Bacon, Charles, admitted C.C. 1719. 

Bacon, Jno., London; watch, 1810. 

Bacott, Peter, London, about 1700. 

Baddeley, Phineas, apprenticed to Evan 
Jones 1652 ; admitted C.C. 1661 ; 
long-case clock, signed " Baddeley, 
Tong," about 1720; long-case clock, 
dead beat escapement, about 1750, 
signed " Juo. Baddeley, Tong." 

Former Clock and Watchmakers. 


Badger, Hy., apprenticed 1672 to Jno. 
Ihinis. O.C. 

Badger, John, ajipronticed to Brounlcer 
Watts ; adiuitted C.C. 1720. 

Badollet, J. J., Geneva, 1770. 

Badollet, John, .50, Greek St., 1842. 

BafFert, a I'aiis ; clock, Joues coUec- 
lioii S.l-C.M.. about 1780. 

Baggs, Samuel, 3, South St., Grosvenor 
s.|., 1S20 :i.-,. 

Bagley, Thomas, apprenticed to Richard 
,M(,r>,'aa Ujno : admitted C.C. IGfi-l. 

Bagnall (or Bagnell), W. H., 12, 
Union St., I!ishoi)sgate, 18:^5-10; 
11)3, Bisliops.-ate Without, 1812. 

Bagnell, William, C.C. 1719. 

Bagnell, Wm., watch-spring maker, 
Gieeiihill's llents, Smithfield, 1791. 

Bagot, Jno., Lancaster, 1823. 

Bagshaw, Edwd., aj)prenticed in 1681 
to Thos. Wh(,'e!er: C.C. 1691. 

Bagshaw, William, C.C. 1722. 

Bagshaw, Hy., London ; watch, 1820. 

Bagwell, Richard, 3, Queen St., Cheap- 
side, i7;i()-"Ji. 

Bailey, Jeffery, " at ye Turn Style in 
Holburn" : admitted C.C. 1648, 
master 1674 ; maker of lantern clocks. 

Bailey, Jeremiah, admitted C.C. 1724. 

Bailey, Ed., 13, Oxford St., 1730. 

Bailey, Jno., London ; bracket clock, 
about 1730. 

Bailey, Catherine, watch-case maker, 
22, Clerkenwell Green, 1790-94. 

Bailey and Upjohn, 12, Red Lion St., 
Clerkenwell, 1798. 

Bailey, Chas., London, about 180o. 

Bailey, Jno., London ; watch, 1812. 

Bailey, W., 19, Radcliff Row, Clerken- 
well, 183."). 

Baillon, Jean Baptiste, Paris ; horloger 
de la Reine ^Marie Leczinska 1751, 
later on horloger de la Reine Marie 
Antoinette ; enamelled watch formerly 
in the Dunn Gardner collection, 
S.K.M., inscribed "J. B. Baillon, 
horlog. du Roy" (see p. 193). 

Baillon, Francis, a Choudens, 1780. 

Bailly I'Aine, I'aris ; an eminent maker 
1 750-75 ; clock on elephant's back, 
about 1760 (see p. 421). 

Bailly Fils, a Paris, about 1780. 

Bain, Alexander, Edinburgh ; inventor 
of electric clocks, 1838-58. 

Baird, John, 190. Strand, 1770-83. 

Baird, W. and J., 4, Hatton Garden, 

Baker, Richard, brother C.C. 1685 ; 
pull quarter repeating bracket clock, 
Wetherfield collection, square ebony 
case, brass basket top, about 1680 ; 
8-day clock, ebony marqueterie case, 

square thai, cherub corners, no door 
to hood ; also a similar clock in oak 
case, fine hands, 1685-1710. 

Baker, Henry, Maidstone ; one hand 
lantern clock, about 1700. " A silver 
Minute Pendulum watch with a silver 
outcase and a coat-of-arms engraven 
on it (A Lyon Passant with three Cross 
Croslets, made by Richard Baker, 
London), lost in Dunghil Fields nigh 
Whitechapel Church" (^Lund. Gaz., 
March 3-6, 1689). 

" A silver watch with a shagreen 
case, with G. M. on it, and with 
Baker on the Dval Plate " {Loud. 
Gaz., Ai)ril 15-18,' 1685). 

Baker, Richard, admitted C.C. 1726. 

Baker, Francis, Poultry, 1738. 

Baker, Thos., Gosport ; watch, about 

Baker, Pointer, London ; repeating 
watch, h.m., 1772. 

Baker, John, 5, King St., Covent 
Garden ; hon. freeman C.C. 1781 ; 

Baker, Hy., hon. freeman C.C. 1781. 

Baker, Edward, 33, White Lion St., 
17S.")-l.S(,i5, afterwards at Angel Ter- 
race, I'entonviUe ; duplex watch, 
G.M., h.m., 1787. 

Baker, Thos., Upper Stamford St., 1833. 

Baker, W., 35, Long Acre, 1835-42 ; 
afterwards at 30, Cranbourne St. 

Bakewell, — , lantern clock, about 1700, 
inscribed '"Thomas Bakewell, on 
Towur Hill, fecit." 

Baldwein of Marburg. In conjunction 
with H. Bucher, he made a clock 
similar to Fig. 38, 1563-68. 

Baldwin, Chris., apprenticed 1656 to 
.Jno. Freeman, C.C. 

Baldwin, Thos., apprenticed 1672 to 
.Jno. Benson ; C.C. 1685. 

Baldwin, Robt., apprenticed 1682 to 
Thos. Virgoe, C.C. 

Baldwin, Jno., C.C. 1685. 

Baldwin, Jno., apprenticed 1691 to 
Stephen Rayner, C.C. 

Baldwin, T., 69, Curtain Rd., 1830-35. 

Baldwin, Thomas, 50, Brudeuell Place, 
New North Road. 1840-42. 

Baldwyn, Thomas, C.C. 1706. 

Bale, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1724. 

Bale, Robert Brittel, Poirltry ; sold 
dials bearing his name, 1813. 

Balestree, J., 2, Queen St., Soho, 

Baley, Thos., C.C. 1786. 

Balfour, Gilbert, London; watch, 1760. 

Ball, Victor, 1630-50. 

Ball, John, C.C. 1637. 

Ball Edwd. 32, Ironmonger Row, 1794. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Ball and Macaire, watch-case makers, 

32, Northampton Sq., 1820 ; 26, 

Myddelton St., 1835. 
Ballantyne, Wm., 6, Cable St., 181.5-20 ; 

2. White Lion St., Goodman's Fields, 

183.5 ; 1820-42. 
Balliston, Thos., 5, Banner St., 1842. 
Baltazar, Chas., Paris : about 1710, 
Baltazar Cadet (the younger). Place 

Dauphine, Pai'is, 1769; " clockmaker 

to Mesdames filles de Louis XV." 
Baltazar, Noel, Paris ; about 1770. 
Banbury, John, admitted C.C. 1685. 
Banfield, Juo., 116, Cheapside, 1814-17. 
Banger, Edward, apprenticed to Joseph 

Ashbjr for Thomas Tompion 1687 ; 

athnitted C.C. 1695 (see p. 282). 
Bangiloner, — , London ; clock-watch, 

about 1660. 
Banister, Thos., Norton ; long - case 

clock, about 1765 (see also Hedge 

and Banister). 
Banister, Joseph, Colchester : patented 

a crutch for clocks in 1836 (No. 7083). 
Banister, Henry, succeeded Jno. Grant 

the younger at 75, Fleet St., 1852, 

and remained there till 1860. 
Bankes, William, apprenticed 1690 to 

Ben. Bell ; admitted C.C. 1698 ; on a 

large lantern clock " Wm. Bankes in 

Sheffield," date about 1680. 
Banks, J. C. and B., London ; watch, 

Banks, J., 68, Long Allev, Finsbury 

Bannister, Anthony, C.C. 1715 ; watch 

with sun aud moon indicator, signed 

'•Anthony Bannister," on dial 

" Bannister, Liverpool," about 1705. 
Bannister, James, 14, Clerkenwell 

Close, 1820-35 ; 32, Prince's St., 

Leicester Sq.. 1810-42. 
Bannister, Thomas and James, 39, Kirbj- 

St.. Hatton Garden. 1825. 
Banting, William, C.C. 1646. 
Barachin, Stephen (French), admitted 

C.C. 1687. 
Barbaull, see Widman, J. 
Barber, Jonas, Eatcliffe Cross, brother 

C.C. I(;s2. 
Barber, J. Winster, Windermere ; died 

Barber, Wm., 30. Cornhill, 1785-94. 
Barber, Benjamin, 21, Picd Lion St., 

Clerkenwell, 1788-94. 
Barber, Josh., 168. Borough, 179.5-1817. 
Barber, Hy., London ; watch, h.m., 1805. 
Barber, Thos., 75, Lamb's Conduit St., 

Barber, Abraham, 56, Cheapside, 1835-42. 
Barberet, Jacques. Paris ; octagonal 

watch, Garnicr collection ; cruciform 

watch, about 1620 ; splendidly 
enamelled watch, formerly in the 
Hawkins collection, about 1640 (see 
p. 181). 

Barbier le Jeune, sur le Pont Marie, 
Paris, 1770. 

Barbot, Paul, Great St., Seven Dials, 

Barcelet, Mathieu, Paris, about 1570. 
M. Leroux has a square table clock, 
with dome over, by him. 

Barclay (.' Barkley). Samuel ; appren- 
ticed to George Graham ; admitted 
C.C. 1722. 

Barclay, Hugh, Edinburgh, 1727. 

Barclay, C, London ; watch, 1815. 

Barclay, James, 7, Jamaica Terrace, 
Commercial lid., 1820 ; James Pyott 
succeeded him in 1873. 

Barcole, John, admitted C.C. 1648. 

Bareham, Samuel, 9, Chapel St., Pen- 
ton ville. 1842. 

Barford, Thos., apprenticed 1655 to 
Thos. Daniell, C.C. 

Bargeau, Peter, London ; long Oriental 
lacquer case clock (^Temjnts fugif), 

Baril, Lewis, Tokenhouse Yard, 1754-59. 

Baril, Bercher, 29, Prince's St., near 
Mansion House, 1763-72. 

Barilon, — , Paris ; watch, 1770. 

Barin, John, livery C.C. 1776. 

Barjon, John, admitted C.C. 1685. 

Barked, Edward, 2, St. Martin's Church- 
yard. 1820. 

Barker, William, admitted C.C. 1632. 

Barker, Wm., Wigan ; about 1760. 

Barker, Benj., 21, Red Lion St., 1788. 

Barker, Thos., London ; watches, 1792- 

Barker, R. (tools), 4, Benjamin St., 
Clerkenwell, 1820-25. 

Barker, James, 38, Colet Place, Com- 
mercial Boad, 1840-42. 

Barkham, Geo., 1630-50; C.C. 

"Barkley and Colley, Graham's Sue- 
cessors " ; on a long-case clock, with 
ingenious mechanism for a perpetual 
diary, about 1760. 

Barling, — , Maidstone, 1835. 

Barlow (Booth), Edward, invented the 
rack striking work and cylinder 
escapement ; born 1636, died 1716 
(see p. 267). 

Barlow, — . served as steward C.C. 1677. 

Barlow, Thos., C.C. 1692. 

Barlow, Mat., Brumhill, Wilts, 1770. 

Barlow. Jas., Oldham : long-case clock, 

Barlow, J., London': watch, 1798. 

Barlow, J. H., and Co., 7, Vere St., 

Former Clock and Watchmakers. 


Barnard, Nich., apprenticed 16(52 to 

Thds. Claxtoii, C.C. 
Barnard, Jno., appicnticcd 1()75 to 

Fiiinris Diiinis ; C.C. 1G82. 
Barnard, Ralph, apprcuticocl 1(178 to 

Jno. Cotsworth. C.C. 
Barnard, Wm., Newark, 171)0-80. 
Barnard, Wm., Loudon ; watch, h.m., 

1 liVl. 
Barnard, Thos., 72. Strand, 1783-1823. 
Barnard and Savory. 1 78(;-<)9. 
Barnard and Kidder, 72, Strand, 

Barnard, Jno., 3(). Little Sutton St., 

Barnard, Jas., Peckhani ; bracket clock, 

about 182.T. 
Barnard, Franz, 57, Loman St., 1840—12. 
Barnardiston, Jno., London ; long-case 

clock, 1760. 
Barnes, Ri., Worcester ; oval watch, 

S.K.M., about 1600; also an oval 

watch, now in the Schloss collection, 

about 1610. 
Barnes, Geo., apprenticed 1603 to Josh. 

AllsoiK C.C. 
Barnes, Jno., Badger Row, Bed Lion 

St.. 1770-94. 
Barnes, Thos,, Lichtield county, U.S.A.; 

maker of American clocks, 1790. 
Barnett, John, *' at y^ Peacock in Lothe- 

bury " : apprenticed 1675 to Jno. 

Ibsworth : admitted C.C. 1682 ; long 

marqueterie case clock, ebonized dome 

top 10-iuch dial, Wetherfield collec- 
Barnett, J., " the corner of Shake- 
speare's walk, near Shadwell Church, 

RatclifE Highway"; card Hodgkin 

collection, about 1790. 
Barnett, G., 10, Staining Lane, Wood 

St., 1800. 
Barnett, J., 48. Shadwell High St., 

Barnett, J. W., watch-case maker, 43, 

Galway St., St. Luke's, 1835. 
Barnett,' Montague, 16, Swan St., 

Minories, 1842. 
Barnish, — , Rochdale ; long-case clock, 

Barns and Co., 53, Duke St., Smith- 

tield, 1800. 
Barnsdale, Thos., Bale, Norfolk, 1770. 
Barnsdale, John, City Rd., a well- 
known clockmaker, 1840. 
Baron, Edmd., apprenticed 1692 to Thos. 

Feilder. C.C. 
Baroneau, Louys, Paris ; clockmaker to 

the Queen 1760 ; fine enamel watch. 

about 1680. 
Barr, Thos., Lewes ; lantern clock, 

about 1700. 

Barratt, P., Strand, 1785 ; 71, Swallow 
St., ISIL' ; 83, New Bond St., 1830. 

Barraud, Hy., presented a spoon to 
C.C. 1636. See r.craud. 

Barraud, Francis and Paul Jno., Wine 
Office Court, 1759-94; watch, h.m., 

Barraud, Paul Philip. 86, Cornhill ; 
master i\i'. ISIO. Isll ; r79(i-I813. 

Barraud, Fredk. Joseph, Committee of 
C.C. 1813. 

Barraud and Sons, S5, Cornhill, 1813-36 ; 
41. (/(iruliill. 1S3S. 

Barraud and Lund, 4 1 . Cornhill, 1838-42. 

Barret, — . lu the churchwardens' 
book at Halifax Parish Church in 
1 720 is " Paid Wm. Barret for Clock 
work Ct) 9.S'. Or/." 

Barrett, Simon, apprenticed 1668 to 
.loseph Wells ; C.C. 1678. 

Barrett, Robert, admitted C.C. 1687. 

Barrett, Henry, aj)i)renticed to Chas. 
G ret ton : admitted C.C. 1692. 

Barrett, Samuel, admitted C.C. 1701. 

Barrett, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1702. 

Barrett, Joseph, Chcapside, 1738 ; clock- 
watch 4^ inches in diameter, pair of 
metal gilt cases, the inner one pierced, 
the outer chased, about 1760, in- 
scribed " Barrett, London." 

Barrett, "William, 50. Aldersgate St., 
1 7S3. 

Barrett, Henry William, 24, Queen St., 
Bloomsburv, 1815 ; 25, Museum St., 
1820 ; 18, Plumtree St., 1835-42. 

Barrett, John, 47, New Compton St., 

Barridge, Jno., apprenticed 1654 to 
Hugh Cooper, C.C. 

Barrington, Vrian, apprenticed 1677 to 
Nat. Uelander ; C.C. 1684. 

Barrister, Jas., 33, Fetter Lane, 1815-17. 

Barron, — , London ; watch, 1830. 

Barrow. Nathaniel, apprenticed to Job 
Betts 16.53; admitted C.C. 1660, 
master 1689. In the Guildhall 
Museum are an astronomical watch 
and a repeater by him (see p. 306). 
" A large silver chain watch, having 
two motions, the hour of the day, and 
the day of the month, with a black 
case studded with silver, lined with 
red sattin, and a silver chain to it, 
made by Xatluiidcl Barruir, in 
London "' [Land. Gaz., July 26-30, 

Barrow, John, apprenticed 1671 to 
Francis Ireland; admitted C.C, 1681, 
master 1714. 

Barrow, Samuel, apprenticed to Jno. 
Barrow 1688: admitted C.C. 1696 ; " at 
the Spring Clock in East Smithiield, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

near Hermitage Bridge" (see Gate- 
wood). Eight-day long marqneterie 
case clock, " Samuel Barrow at the 
Hermitage," about 1705. 

Barrow, James, see Brown, Andrew. 

Barrow, William, admitted C.C. 1709 ; 
Hatton, 1773, highly esteems the work 
of a watchmaker named Barrow. 

Barrow, Wm., Lancashire ; came to 
London before 1744 ; left London 
soon after 1746 (Ludlam). 

Barry, Walter, Still Yard, Tower, 

Bartholomew, Jno., C.C. 1675. 

Bartholomew, Josiah, 25, Red Lion St., 
Clerkenwell ; maker of a watch, B.M. 
He was a witness before the select 
committee of the House of Commons 
to inquire into the causes of the de- 
pressed state of the watch trade in 
1817; 1800-42. 

Bartlett, Edward, London ; watch, 1818. 

Bartlett, H. and G., watch-case makers, 
3, King S(i., 1880-35. 

Bartlett, Patten Sargent, born 1834, 
died 1902 ; entered the employ of the 
watch company at Waltham, Mass., 
in 1855, where he designed several 
watch movements ; was connected in 
1864 with the inception of the 
National Watch Company, Chicago, 
afterwards the Elgin National Watch 

Barton, Samuel, brother C.C. 1641. 

Barton, Jas., Prescott, about 1750. 

Barton, Thomas, Cheapside, 1750-78 ; 
Earnshaw challenged him to a con- 
test of worlc in 1776. 

Barton, T. and J., Market St. Lane, 
Manchester ; watch, h.m., 1770. 

Barton, John, 64, Eed Lion St,, Clerken- 
well. 1780-83. 

Barton, Wm., London ; large watch 
with Turkish numerals. Captain H. D. 
Terry, on dial " Markwick Markham, 
Wm. Carpenter," about 1780. 

Barton, Thos., 7, Bermondsey Sq., 
1799-1823 ; Thos. Mudge, jun., refers 
to Thos. Barton as " eminentlv 

Barton, James, 194, Strand, 1819-23. 

Bartram, Simon, petitioner for incor- 
poration of C.C. and one of the first 
assistants, master 1646 (p. 164). 

Bartram, William, admitted C.C. 1684. 

Bartram and Austin, 109, 103, Oxford 
St. ; card B.M. 1808. 

Bartrand, see Bertrand. 

Barugh, William, C.C. 1715. 

Barwick, A., Great Alie St., 1788-93. 

Barwick, H. and B., 35, Wapping, 

Barwise, Nathanael, Loudon ; clock 
watch, 1710. 

Barwise, John, 29, St. Martin's Lane, 
1790 ; Weston and Jno., 1820-42 ; in 
1841 John Barwise was associated 
with Alex. Bain in a patent for 
electric clocks, and in 1842-43 chair- 
man of directors of the ill-fated 
British Watch Company. 

Barwise and Sons, 24, St. Martin's 
Lane, 1819-23. 

Basil, John, 76, St. Paul's Churchyard, 

Baskerville, Thos., Bond St. Stables, 

Baskerville, Richard, London ; clock in 
the sacristy of Brirges Cathedral, 
about 1750. 

Bass, George, admitted C.C. 1722, 

Bassereau, Gui., Palais Eoyale, Paris, 

Basset, Thos., apprenticed 1668 to Isaac 
Webb, C.C. 

Bassett, Chas., 58, Upper East Smith- 
tidd, 1788-93. 

Bassold, Edwd., 55, King Sq., 1855 
(afterwards Money & Bassold). 

Bateman, — , seventeenth-century oval 
watch belonging to the Rev. Chas. 
Beck, mentioned in vol. xxiii. Archaeo- 
logical Journal. Nathaniel Bate- 
man said to have worked for Delander 
in 1730. 

Bateman, Nathaniel, apprenticed to 
Nathaniel Delander ; admitted C.C. 

Bateman, Hy., 10, BunhillRow, 1780-85. 

Bateman, P. and A., 10, Bunhill Row, 

Bateman, H., Dublin, 1802-5. 

Bateman, Andrew, 5, Great Tower St., 
1 804-20. 

Bateman, Teresa, 5, Great Tower St., 

Bateman, Wm., 108, Bunhill Row, 

Bates, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1684. 

Bates, Joseph, Wh'te Alley, Holborn ; 
admitted C.C. 1687. 

Bates, T. P., Liverpool, 1780 ; issued 
a token "works, Duke St., Retail, 
Exchange St." 

Bates, Ed., London ; a good workman 
mentioned by Earnshaw, 1780-90. 

Bates, John, watch pinion maker, 40, 
Great Sutton St., 1820. 

Bath, Thomas, 4, Cripplegate, 1740. 

Batten, John, brother C.C. 1668. 

Batten, Edwd., apprenticed 1670 to Jno. 
Mark ; C.C. 1677. 

Battershee, — , Manchester, 1770. 

Batterson, Robert, C.C, 1693, 

Forinev Clock and Watchiiiakers. 


Batterson, Henry, ailmitted CO. 1701. 
Battin, Thomas, apprenticed 16.')4 to 

lul. Wind; admitted C.C. 16*51; a 

contratc second wheel of a "dyal" 

taken from him, and judged by C.C. 

to be bad, 10:)8. 
Batting, — , Camomile St., 1842. 
Batty, Anthony, Wakefield, 1750. 
Batty, Jno., Halifax ; long-case clock. 

Batty, Joseph, Halifax, 1760-70. 
Batty, Jno., Wakefield, 1770. 
Batty, Jno., ]\loorfields, 177.5. 
Batty, Edwd., Lancaster, 1826. 
Bandit, Peter, 4, St. Martin's Lane, 

Baufay, B., and Son, 3, Bridgewater 

Sq.. 1790-94. 
Baugham, John, Bridgewater Sq., 

about 174.5. 
Bauldwin, see Baldwin. 
Baume and Lezard, Paris ; clock, about 


Baumgart, Charles, 37, Dean St., Soho, 
1840-42, afterwards in Maddos St. 

Bautte, J. F., Geneva, 1820-25 ; 
splendid watch by him, decorated 
with enamel, belonging to Dr. 

Bavis, Geo., C.C. 1(;87. 

Bawdyson, Allaine, clockmaker to 
Edward VI., 1550. 

Baxter, Wm., C.C, about 1640. 

Baxter, Charles, admitted C.C. 1681. 

Baxter, Matt., St. Neots ; watch, 1723. 

Baxter, Pointer, London, 1772. 

Baxter, Wm., London ; watch, 1790. 

Baxter, J. John, watch-case maker, St. 
Luke's, 1835. 

Baxter, Thos. (Grimshaw and Baxter), 35, 
Goswell Rd. ; died 1897, aged 54. 

Bayes, John, brother C.C. 1647, warden 
1658 ; maker of a watch given by 
Charles I. to Mr. Worsley on his 
removal to Hirst Castle, November, 
1647 ; another example, a lantern 
clock, inscribed " Johannes Bayes. 
Londini," date on fret 1643 ; watch, 
S.K.M. (see p. 169). 

Bayes, Benjamin, apprenticed to Jno. 
Bayes 1661 : admitted C.C. 1675. 

Bayford, George, Upper Shadwell. 

Bayle, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1703. 

Bayles, Chas., Loudon ; bracket clock, 
about 1760. 

Bayley, William, apprenticed 1654 to 
Ralph Ash : C.C. 1663. 

Bayley, Edward, C.C. 1658. "A silver 
watch with a silver studded case 
engraven Edwardus Bayley, London " 
{Lond. <?«-'., December 19-22, 1687). 

Bayley, Jno., Harrow, 1725. 

Bayley, Geo., London ; watch, 1750. 

Bayley and Street, Bridgwater ; long- 
case clock. Col. J. B. Keeno, about 
1 750. 

Bayley, S., London : watch, 1765. 

Bayley, John, 106, Wood St., 1768-75. 

Bayley, Thomas, summoned to take up 
livery C.C. 1786. 

Bayley and Upjohn, Red Lion St., 
Clerkenwell, 1794. 

Bayley, Barnard, and Son, 3, Bridge- 
water Sq.. 1800-5. 

Bayley, Richard, 12, Red Lion St., 
Clerkenwell, 1807. 

Baylie, see Bailey. 

Baylis, J., Tewkesbury ; lantern clock, 
about 1 700. 

Bayly, John, admitted C.C. 1700. 

Bayly, Richard, Ashford ; watch, 1770. 

Bayse, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1695. 

Bazeley, Nathaniel, C.C. 1694. 

Bazin, Paris, about 1700. 

Beach, Thomas, Maiden Lane, Covent 
(iardcn, 1765-70. 

Beadle, Wm., apprenticed 1667 to Wm. 
Rayncs, C.C 

Beake, Jonathan, Savage Gardens, 1725. 

Beal, Martin, 19, Gerrard St., Soho, 

Beale, Jno., apprenticed 1658 to Nich. 
Coxeter, C.C. 

Beale, Robert, apprenticed 1677 to 
Bernard Rainsford, C.C. 

Beale, Chas., London; watch, 1767. 

Beale. Wm., London ; watch, 1805. 

Beale^ Jas., 38, Regent St., 1820-25. 

Beard, Wm., apprenticed 1667 to Jas. 
Ellis, C.C. 

Beard, Wm., Drury Lane, 1812-17. 

Beard, Chris., apprenticed to Jas. Atkin- 
son 1670 ; C.C. 

Beasley, Thos., C.C. 1683. 

Beasley, Nat., apprenticed 1686 to Hy. 
Hammond, C.C. 

Beasley, John, C.C. 1719. 

Beaton, Andrew, 22, Cannon Street Rd., 
St. George's East, 1835. 

Beaton and Campbell, 110, High St., 
Whitechapel, 1840. 

"Beatson, 32, Cornhill " ; McCabe's 
lowest grade full-plate watches, in 
silver cases, were so engraved. 

Beauchamp, R., 147, Holborn Hill, 

Beaumarchais, see Caron. 

Beaumont, — , said to have made a 
clock at Caen in 1314 (see p. 26). 

Beaumont, Philip, apprenticed 1689 to 
Wither Cheney, C.C. 

Beauvais, Simon, admitted C.C. 1690 ; 
a celebrated maker ; among his pro- 
ductions is a double-case verge, with 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

a rack and pinion motion work, the 
hour hand travelling round the dial 
in twelve hours, but the minute 
hand travelling only from IX. to 
III., in one hour, and, when arrived 
at the III., jumping back to the 
IX. The hand-setting is between 
III, and IIIL, and the centre of 
the dial and motion work are hidden 
by a small painting on ivory. There 
is in the B.M. a similar watch of a 
later period by a German maker ; 

Beavin, Hugh, 34, Marylebone St., 
Golden Sq., 1800-30. 

Beck, Richard, "near ye French 
Church," admitted C.C. 1653. 

Beck, Nicholas, apprenticed 1660 to 
Thos. Webb : admitted C.C. 1669. 

Beck, Joseph, admitted C.C. 1701. 

Beck, Christopher, Bell Alley ; appren- 
ticed to Francis Perigal ; admitted 
C.C. 1761, livery 1787. 

Beck, James, 5, Sweeting's AUev, Corn- 
hill, 1815-23 (see Bentley). 

Beeke, John, apprenticed to John White, 
but served Daniel Quare ; admitted 
C.C. 1681. 

Beckett, M., long-case clock, Mr. T. F. 
Walker, about 1710. 

Beckett, Jno., 23, Greenhill's Eents, 
Smithfidd. 1796-1803. 

Beckman, Daniel, admitted C.C. 1680. 
" A watch with a double case of 
Silver, with Minutes, Seconds, and 
Hours, the name [Beckman] under 
the Crystal" (Lond. Craz., March 
27-31, 1701). 

Beckman, John, admitted C.C. 1695. 

Beckman, Daniel, admitted C.C. 1726. 

Beckner, Abraham, Pope's Head Alley ; 
admitted as a brother C.C. 1652, 
warden and died 1665 ; known as a 
maker of oval watches ; 1650-65. 

Beckwith, Wm., Rotherhithe St., 1794. 

Beddel. See Biddle. 

Bedford, Helkiah, in Fleet St.; ad- 
mitted C.C. 1667 ; maker of lantern 

Bedford, Sam., apprenticed 1691 to 
Joseph Windmills, C.C. 

Bedford, Wm., London ; watch, Nel- 
thropp collection, about 1790. 

Beefield, — , London ; watch, 1760. 

Beeg, Christiana, admitted C.C. 1698. 

Beesley, Jno., Dean St., 1725. 

Begulay, Jno., Swanton, Norfolk ; 
church clock at Ludham, 1676. 

Bell, Benjamin, apprenticed tc Thos. 
Claxton 1649 ; admitted C.C. 1660, 
master 1682 ; maker of a large verge 
watch weighing over 8 oz. 1660-83. 

" Taken way by 4 Highwaymen in 
Maiden-head Ticket, A plain silver 
chain watch made by Benjamin 
Bell, the case lined with Red Satten, 
on the back of the case a Perpetual 
Almanack and little spikes placed at 
every Hour " {Lond. Ga:., July 7-10, 

" Lost on the 2nd inst., a gold 
watch with one motion, having a 
gold chain and a steel hook ; made 
by Benjamin Bell. Whoever brings 
it to Mr. Sweetapple, a Goldsmith in 
Lombard Street, shall have 2 guineas 
reward " {Lond. Gaz., May 4-7, 1691). 
" Lost a silver watch with a black 
case studded with Silver, made by 
Benjamin Bell, with an Onyx Stone 
in a gold Ring tied to the watch in 
which is engraven the Head of King 
Charles the First. Whoever brings 
the said watch and seal to Mr. Wil- 
liam Penrice, at the Black-Boy in 
Gracechurch Street, shall have 2 
guineas reward " [Lond. Gaz., 
December 3-7, 1691). 

Bell, Joseph, admitted C.C. 1691. 

Bell, Thos., apprenticed 1691 to Sam. 
Mather, C.C. 

Bell, John, admitted C.C. 1719 ; 30-hour 
long-case clock, "fecit 1751," Mr. C. 

Bell, Jno., New York, 1734. 

Bell, Joseph, Shoe Lane, 1759. 

Bell, James, watch, h.m., 1792; 131, 
Mount St., Berkeley Sq., 1842. 

Bell, Thos., London ; long-case clock, 
about 1800. 

Bell, Wm., 2, Clement's Lane, 1812-18. 

Bell, John, musical clock maker, 8, Elm 
St., Gray's Inn Lane, 1835-40. 

Bell, Henry, Mount St., 18.50 (see p. 440). 

Bellamy, Adey, 10, Poultry, 1779-85. - 

Bellard, John, admitted C.C. 1674. 

Bellard, Francois, Paris ; horloger du 
Roy 17S3. ' 

Bellefontaine, A., 59, Brewer St., 
Summers Town, 1835. 

Belliard, Chas., Pall Mall, 1769-94. 

Bellin. See Mott and Bellin. 

Bellinger, Richd., apprenticed 1676 to 
Edwd. East ; C.C. 1686. 

Bellinger, Ch., apprenticed 1686 to 
Jno. Bellinger, C.C. 

Bellinger, John, admitted C.C. 1725. 

Bellinghurst, Henry, Aldersgate St. ; 
livervman C.C. 1776 ; 1765-77. 

Bellis,'jas., 9, Pall Mall, 1769-88. 

Bellune, Peter, 1630-50 ; C.C. 

Belon, Pierre, Paris ; clockmaker to the 
dowager Queen 1649. 

Belsey, John, Poland St., 1835. 

Former Clock and Watchmakers. 


Belson, Thos., 1630-50 ; C.C. 

Benbrick, Jas., apprenticed 1671 to 
Hi'lkiah I'.edford, C.C. 

Benbridge, Thos., apprenticed to Robt. 
Starr \M\> : (".(". 1683. 

Benfey, B., and Son, 3, Bridgewater 
S(i., 17'.M. 

Benford, John, 1. Garnault Place, 
Clerkenwfll. 1832-38. 

Benjamin, Joel, 12, Bury St., St. Mary 
Axe, 1820-35 ; J. Benjamin and Co., 

Benjamin, M., Berner St., Commercial 
1!(1.. IS2U : 77, Leman St., 1810-42. 

Benjamin, A., Myrtle St., Hoxton, 1835. 

Benn, Thos,, apprenticed 1660 to Ben. 
llill. C.C. 

Benn, Jno., C.C. 1678. 

Benn, Eobert, Fleet St. : C.C. 1716. 

Benn. Anthony, 1 750 : died when master 
C.(\ 1763. 

Bennett, William, admitted C.C. 1607. 

Bennett, Thomas, apprenticed 1667 to 
Henry Harper ; movement of his con- 
demned bv C.C. 1677. 

Bennett, John, Fleet St. ; C.C. 1678. 

Bennett. Mansell, Dial and 3 Crowns, 
Charinjj Cross ; C.C. 1685-99 ; fine 
lung-case chick, S.K.M., about 1695. 

Bennett, John, Bristol ; C.C. 1712. 

Bennett, Richard, admitted C.C. 1715. 

Bennett, Samuel, admitted C.C. 1716. 

Bennett, Thomas, apprenticed to Thos. 
Windmills : admitted C.C. 1720 ; fine 
long-case clock in the Wetherfield 
collection, on the inside of the door 
directions for winding, and at the 
foot thereof "Thos. Bennett, at the 
Dial in Excliange Alley, 1722." 

Bennett, William, New St. Hill ; C.C. 
1 729. 

Bennett, R., 1.59, Fleet St., 1817. 

Bennett, Joseph, 60, Red Lion St., Hol- 
liorn, 1830-38, 

Bennett, Wing, and Co., 60, Red Lion St., 
Holborn, 1840 ; ''to H,R,H,the Duke 
of Sussex" ; watch paper C,C. 

Bennett, E., Stockwell St., Greenwich. 

Bennett, John, 45, Seymour Place, 1842. 

Benoit, J. E., watch, apparently English, 
about 1780. 

Benoit, A, H,, Versailles ; born 1804, 
died 1895 ; many fine watches, signed 
"A. Benoit a Paris." 

Bensley, J., maker of a watch for the 
Duke of Sussex, 1790-1820. 

Benson, Jno., apprenticed 1652 to .Jas. 
Starnell ; admitted C.C. 1669 ; long- 
case clock dated 1709. 

Benson, Samuel, C.C. 1700 ; watch, 

Benson, — , Whitehaven ; long-case 

cldck. about 1760. 
Benson, William, watch and clock spring 

maker, 60, St. John's St., 1818-23. 
Benson, Robt., 16, Wilderness Row, 

1818-40; auditor Watch and Clock- 

makei's' Pension Society 1820. 
Bent, Wm., Chadwell St.", 1840-42. 
Bentele {! Bentley), Jacobus ; clock, 

Imperial collection, X'ienna, 1735. 
Bentley, Sam., Kingsbridge ; watch, 

1 790. 
Bentley and Beck, 1815 (see p. 440). 
Bentley, John, 5, Pope s Head Alley, 

1820; Sweeting's xVUey, 1823 ; "fore- 
man to Jas. McCabe" ; watch paper 

Benton, Wm., London ; watch, h.m., 

Benwell, B., Loudon ; watch, 1785. 
Berain, J., Paris ; designer and chaser 

of clock cases, 1655-1711. 
Beraud, Henri, Sedan, 1565. 
Beraud, — , oval watch, about 1600, 

signed '• A. Beraud a Bloys," Garnier 

Beraud, Jas., 1632. 
Beraud, Hy., maker of a watch in the 

form of a shell, silver case enamelled, 

crystal. over dial, about 1650; C.C, 

but date of election uncertain. 
Berault, Jno., apprenticed 1691 to Thos. 

Jones, C.C. 
Beresford, Thos., London ; watch, 1828. 
Berg, F. L.. Augsburg; table clock, 

Nelthropp collection, 1719. 
Bergier, S., Grenoble ; watch, Marfels 

collection, about 1550. 
Bergstien, Lulam, 113, Great Titch- 

field St., 1840-42. 
Berguer, John, 44, Great Russell St., 

Bloomsbury, 1810-20. 
Berguer, Frederick, 201, High Holborn, 

ISIU; 135, High Holborn, 1818-20. 
Berguer, Franz, 17, Vere St., 1817. 
Berguer, Charles, musical clock maker, 

13, Richmond Buildings, Soho, 1825. 
Berkenhead, John, 31, Gutter Lane, 

n 83-94. 
Berkley, — , London ; watch, 1810. 
Berman, J., and Co,, wooden clock 

makers, 40, Norton Folgate, 1830-35. 
Berman and Co., 30, Park Terrace, 

Regent's Park Rd.. 1830-42. 
Bernard, Nicholas, Paris; watch. S.K.M., 

about 170(J. 
Berninck, Jan., Amsterdam ; watch, 

B.M., a French enamelled inner case 

by G. Bouvier, outer repousse case by 

H. Mauley, about 1750. 
Berquez, Francis, 17, Vere St., 1822 ; 6, 

Thayer St., Manchester Sq., 1825-35, 

o o 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Berquin, TJrbain, Paris ; clock, 1680. 

Berraud, see Barraud. 

Berres, T., London ; watch, li.m., 1793. 

Berridge, Jno., made a clock with com- 
pensated pendulum in 1738 to the 
order of Mr. Fotheringham, a Quaker 
of Lincolnshire. 

Berridge, Wm., 69, Oxford Ed., 1770- 
94 (see p. Hi). 

Berridge, Robert, 2, John St., Oxford 
St., 1790-95. 

Berridge, William, 4, Holies St., Caven- 
dish Sq., 1800-20 (see Bowra). 

Berrington, Uriah, apprenticed to 
Nathaniel Delauder ; C.C. 1684. 

Berrisford, Edwd., apprenticed 1663 to 
Ben. Wolverstone, C.C. 

Berrollas, Joseph Anthony, Denmark 
St., St. Giles-in-the-Fields, 1808 : 
Coppice Kow, Clerkenwell, 1810 ; 
afterwards 51, Wellington St., Gos- 
well Rd. ; an ingenious watchmaker. 
In 1808 he patented a repeater some- 
what similar to Elliott's (p. 537), in 
1810 a warning watch, in 1827 an 
alarum watch, also pumping keyless 
work (p. 534) ; 1800-30. 

Berry, John, St. Clement's Lane ; ap- 
prenticed 1674 to Eichd. Pepys ; 
admitted C.C. 1688, master 1723 : 
maker of a long-case clock at Mer- 
chant Taylors' Hall, arch dial, brass 
figures holding trumpets on top of 
case; 1 688-1730. "Lost Nov. 14th, 
1705, from a Gentlewoman's side 
between Honey Lane market and 
Great Eastcheap, A plain Gold 
"Watch case. Whoever brings it to 
John Berry, watchmaker at the Dial 
in Cleraenfs Lane, Lombard St., shall 
have 20.y. reward for so doing" (?7/e 
Daily Conru?it,'NoY. 15, 1705). 

Berry, Francis, Hitchin ; maker of lan- 
tern clocks, about 1700. 

Berry, Samuel, admitted C.C. 1705. 

Berry, John, St. Clement's Lane ; C.C. 

Berry, Jas., Pontefract; about 1740. 

Berry, Wm., London; watch, 1815, 

Berry, Frederick, 2, Arcade, Hunger- 
ford Market, 1842. 

Berthoud, Ferdinand, born in Switzer- 
land 1727 ; went to Paris when 19 
and settled there ; died 1807 ; an 
eminent watchmaker, author of " Essni 
sur I'Horlogerie," "Traitedes Hoi- 
loges Marines," " Histoire de laMesure 
du Temps," and other works contain- 
ing a mass of useful information 
concerning the history, theory, an<l 
practice of the horological art, deal- 
ing with Harrison's, Sully's, and Le 

Eoy's inventions, and, indeed, every 
thing known in Berthoud's time (see 
p. 416). There are three clocks by 
him in the Wallace collection, one 
a splendid regulator in case of ebony 
with boldly chased mounts of gilt- 
bronze ; around the dial is a serpent 
with the head and tail meeting — an 
emblem of eternity. This clock is 
said to have been taken from the 
Tuileries in 1793, having been white- 
washed to hide its value. It and a 
commode were sold in Paris some 
years ago to the Marquis of Hertford 
for 100,000 francs. 

Berthoud, Louis, Paris ; nephew of 
Ferdinand ; died 1813. 

Bertram, William, died in 1732, when 
master C.C. 

Bertrand, Josephe, Paris (garde visi- 
teur), 1769. 

Bertrand, Robert, 2, Stev/art St., 
Spitalfields, 1790-94 ; Mr. A. E. 
Owen has a long-case clock signed 
"Robert Bartrand, London," dating 
from about 1770. 

Besse, Jeremy, 4, Richmond Buildings, 
Soho Sq., 1840-42. 

Best, Robert, 5, White Lion Court, 
Birchin Lane ; a watch by him, 
S.K.M., hall mark 1769 ; 1765-88. 

Best, Thos., 3, Red Lion St., Clerken- 
well; between 1770 and 1794 he 
made a large number of watches 
for the Dutch market ; he was also 
known as a maker of musical clocks 
and watches. 

Best, T. , at the Dial in Lewes ; card, 
B.M., 1780. 

Best, Thos., Newcastle ; watch, 1785. 

Best, Robert (formerly foreman to 
Brockbank), 4, White Lion Court, 
Birchin Lane, 1790 ; 4, Sweeting's 
Alley, 1798 ; 1, Windsor Place, St. 
Raid's, 1810-20. He attested the 
value of Earushaw's improvements 
in 1804. 

Best, Richard, Z, Fountain Court, 
Strand, 1830-42. 

Bestwick. In 1672 Jas. Dearmar was 
apprenticed to Katherine Bestwick, 
widow, C.C. 

Bestwick, Henry, admitted C.C. 1686. 

Bethell, R., London ; watch, 1760. 

Betson, J., London ; watch, 1 797. 

Betterton, — . London ; watch, about 

] 78(_). 
Bettinson, Solomon, Newark, 1776-92. 
Betts, Samuel, back of Exchange ; 
short train watch by him, about 
1645 (see p. 268). He was an early 
member of the C.C, and in 1656 

Former Clock and WatcJiuiakcrs. 


attested the genuineness of Jas. Lcllo's 
masterpiece. Died prior to 167") (see 
Manpiet). "Lost on the 8tli Inst, 
betwixt Kntteld and Wormley, on the 
rode to Warre, a gold watch with a 
case and chain of gold, the Chrystall 
out, and the case lined with Pink- 
coloured Sattin, made by 5Ir. Betts in 
Lumbard Street. Whoever shall dis- 
cover and return or cause it to be 
returned to Mr. Austin, (ioldsmith at 
the Starre in Fenchurch St., shall 
have 40.s\ for his peynes" {'I/u; 
I/ttcllit/encer, June 13, 1664). 

Betts, Job, C.C. 16r)6. "Stolen from 
Cheyne Howe, of Walthamstowe, in 
Essex, Esq., a gold watch with a gold 
chain made by Job Belts, witli a 
silver Drinking Cup and other I'late. 
Whoever brings the said watch and 
chain or the watch only to Mr. John- 
son, Jeweller, at the 3 Flower-de- 
laices in Chcapside, shall have 20.«. 
reward, and charges, or if pawned 
or sold their money again with con- 
tent " {Land. Ga:., August 1]-1.'). 

Betts, Samuel, apprenticed to Samuel 
Davis for Job Betts 167;"); admitted 
C.C. 1682 ; calendar watch with 
revolving ring dials, to which a figure 
of Time points, in Dover Museum. In 
the G.M. is another specimen of 
his work : bracket clock, square dial, 
walnut case, Wethertield collection, 

Beverley, Jas., ai»preuticed 1683 to 
Robt. Doore ; C.C. ; watch pendulum 
balance, about 1700, inscribed '■ Ja. 
Beverly, London." 

Bewley, — . Whitecross St. ; C.C. 1780, 

Bezar, Stephen, brother C.C. 1648. 

Bibberton, Thos., Silver St., 1774. 

Bibley, Jno., Corporation Row, 1790-94. 

Bickerton, Benjamin, 14, Jewin St., 

Bickerton, T, W., 14, Jewin St., 1816-20. 

Bickley, Thomas, 195, Rat cliff High- 
way, 1790-94. 

Bicknell, Francis, apprenticed to Job 
Betts 16.')3 ; C.C. 1665. 

Bicknell, Joseph, and Co., 119, New 
Bond St., 1807^13. 

Bickton, Geo., London; watch, 1775. 

Bidard, — , watch mentioned by Thiout, 
aljout 1730. 

Bidault, Paris (see p. 384) ; a long succes- 
sion of Court clockmakers : Claude 
1628, he lodged at the Louvre 1642 ; 
Henri Auguste, succeeded his father 
at the Louvre 1652 : Augustin Fran- 
90is 1693. 

Biddle, Joseph, admitted C.C. 1684. 

Bidlake, Jas., 31, Minories. 1765-94. 

Bidlake, James, 16, Sun St., 1798-1804 ; 
liverv C.C. 1816; 48, Chiswell St., 

Bidlake, Thomas, 16. Sun St., Bishops- 
gate St., 1804-18 ; livery C.C. 1818. 

Bidlake, James, and Son, 48, Chiswell 
St., Finsbury, IS20-45. 

Bidles, Thomas, London ; maker of 
bracket clocks, about 1760. 

Bidley, Wm., 24, Rahere St., Clerken- 
well, 1810-12. 

Biefield, Chas., London ; watch, 1780. 

Bigaud, Paris, about 1750. 

Bigg, Ben., apprenticed 1678 to Robt. 
Cooke, C.C 

Biggs, Roger, 5, Crescent, Jewin St., 

Bilbee, — , London : long-case 30-hour 
clock, one hand, about 1710. 

Bilbie. A well-known Somerset family 
of clockmakers. The Hon. H. Hannen 
has a lantern clock by Thomas Bilbie 
dating from about 1660: the fret in 
front shows the royal arms, and the 
side frets are of the dolphin pattern. 
Among other specimens arc a long 
case clock by Edward Bilbie, Chew- 
stoke, about 1700 ; one of later date 
by Thos. Bilbie, Chewstoke ; an 8-day 
long-case clock by William Bilbie, of 
the same place. 

The following is from an upright 
gravestone at Oxbridge : — 

"Bilbie, thy 
Movements kept in play 
For thirty years or more, 
We say. 
" Thy Balance or thy 
Mainspring's broken, 
And all thy movements 
Cease to work. 
"John Bilbie, of this parish, clockmaker, 
wlio died Sept. 13, 1767, aged 33 years." 

Bilger, Matthias, watch spring maker, 

4, New St., Covent Garden, 1790-94. 
Billie, John, C.C. seized watches ami 

movements bv him 1687. 
Billing, H. C. Cheapside. 1835. 
Billinger, Jno., C.C. 1637. 
Billinghurst, Wm., apprenticed to Thos. 

Feun 1668 ; C.C. 
Billinghurst, Anthony, apprenticed to 

Plelkiah Bedford 1673 ; C.C. 
Billinghurst, Wm., apprenticed 1694 to 

Sam Watson, C.C. 
Billinghurst, Henry, 67, Aklersgate 

St. ; livery C.C. 1766 ; 1760-71. 
Billings, Jno., Bishopsgate, 1775. 
Billop, William, admitted C.C. 1688. 
Bindley, — , apprenticed 1674 to Rich. 

Peirce, C.C. 



old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Bindley, William, 24, Rahere St., 1842. 

Bingham, Thos,, watch chain maker, 3, 
Middle Row. Holborn, 17()9-81. 

Bingham, "William, 27, Bucklersbury, 

Bingley, Giles, apprenticed 1C92 to 
Edwd. Eyston, C.C. John Bingley, 
watchmaker, advertised for in Lond. 
Gaz., June 1, 1596. 

Bings, Edward. "Whereas there was 
stolen from the House of Mr. Thos. 
Dummer in W'ellclose on Saturday 
night, between the hours of 9 and 1 1 
o'clock, a Gold Pendulum Watch with 
a chain made by Mr. Edward Bings. 
You are desired to stop them and 
give notice to Mr. Thos. Beach, Gold- 
smith, at the Black-a- Moors Head in 
Cheapside, and jow shall have 2 
guineas Reward " {Daily Courant, 
Sept. 23, 1706). 

Binks, — , London ; watch. G.M., about 

Binley, J. W., Ironmonger Row, Old 
St., 1790. 

Binns, George, 187, Strand, 1832-38. 

Birch, Thomas, apprenticed to Thos. 
Mills 1049 ; admitted C.C. 1658. 

Birch, Thos,, apprenticed 167.5 to Sam 
Clyatt : C.C. 1682. 

Birch, William, succeeded Wm. Turner 
at 173, Fenchurch Street, about 1840 ; 
died 1903, aged 88. 

Birchall, Wm., o, St. James's Walk, 
Clerkenwell. 1816 ; o, Wellington St., 

Birchall, Peter, a well-known chrono- 
meter maker. In partnership with 
Appleton, he succeeded Molyneux at 
Southampton Row ; shortly after 
Appleton's death he disposed of the 
business to AVm. Cribb ; lived sub- 
sequently at Islington : died I880, 
aged 80. 

Bird, Michael, apprenticed to Ed. Gilpin 
in 1648 ; brother C.C. 1682 ; bracket 
clock inscribed " Michael Bird, Lon- 
don." On a 30-hour clock, one 
hand, about 1650, was inscribed 
" Michael Bird, Oson." 

Bird, Wm., apprenticed 1667 to Hy. 
Crump, C.C. 

Bird, Luke, apprenticed 1675 to Jas. 
Delander'; C.C. 1682. 

Bird, Nat,, C.C. 1693. 

Bird, Thos., London ; watch, h.m., 
1753 : 10, Salisbury St., Strand, 1816. 

Bird, Wm., London ; watch, 1760. 

Bird, John, one of the examiners of 
Harrison's timekeeper, 1765. 

Bird and Branstor, 30, Cheapside, 1775. 

Bird, Jacob, 7, Cornhill, 1783. 

Bird, Eich., watch chain maker, Bart- 
lett's Buildings, 1794. 

Bird, Samuel Joseph, watch case maker 
(apprenticed to jasper Swindells), 
Little Compton St. ; C.C. 1813. 

Bird, John, and Son, 19, Bartlett's 
Buildings. Holborn, 1822-25. 

Bird, John, 11, St. .John's Sq., 1840-42. 

Birdwhistell, Francis, C.C. 1687. 

Birdwhistell, Isaac, admitted C.C. 
1692 ; maker of a plain pair-case 
gold watch, small swivel bow to the 
inner case, larger bow on the outer 
one, high movement, very rich gold 
dial, nicely wrought square pillars, 
finely engraved and pierced balance 
cock, excellent work throughout ; 

Birdwhistell, Thomas, C.C. 1693. 

Birdwhistell, John, admitted C.C. 1718. 

Birkhead, Nicholas, removed from 
King's Head, Holborn, to White 
Hart, Knightsbridge {Lond. Gaz., 
May 29, June 1, 1693). 

Birley, J., Sheffield : curious watch, 
one hand, '' 1638 " on metal dial in 
place of name, probably made a 
century after that date. 

Birt, Nathaniel, London ; long-case 
clock, square dial, about 1710. 

Bishop, Samuel, Portland St., 1769-94 ; 
hon. freeman of C.C. 1781. 

Bishop, Thos., AVych St., 1774 ; watch, 
date on movement 1810. 

Bishop, James Griffin, 97, Fetter Lane, 

Bishop, William, 70, New Bond St., 1830. 

Bisot, Jacques, Paris ; clockmaker to 
the Duchesse d'Orleans 1681. 

Bisse. See Bysse. 

Bissett, Jas. (late Gibson), 12, Sweet- 
ing's Alley, Royal Exchange, 1815-20. 

Bittleston, John, 207, High Holborn, 
1765-94 ; hon. freeman C.C. 1781. 
Example of his work — a very curious 
astronomical watch, with two elabo- 
rate enamel dials — one at the front, 
and one at the back — showing the 
hour and minute both sides, two 
centre seconds — one the usual long 
hand, the other having a small 
rotating enamel dial — day of the 
month, day of the week, the month, 
moon's age, the tide, and a regulator, 
case pinchbeck, with a border each 
side of fine old paste in imitation of 
rubies and diamonds. 

Bittner, William, 2(1, Dean St., 1840-42. 

Blackborow, James, admitted C.C. 
1711 ; died 1746, when warden. 

Blackhourn, Saml., London ; watch, 
about 1780. 

Former Clock and Watclnnakcrs. 


Blackbourne, William, ratenioster Row, 

Blackburn, William, summoned to take 

up livery OX' . 1780. 
Blackburn, Jno., watch-spring maker, 

20, Aklersgate St., 178U-ill> ; watch so 

named, 17iU). 
Blackburn, Robt., Lancaster, 1817. 
Blackball, J., London; watch, 1800. 
Blackie. George, born in Scotland ; 

settled in t'lerkenwell as a <luplex 

escapement nudvcr and manufac- 
turer ; afterwards had a shop at 431, 

Strand ; dietl I880, aged 74. 
Blackmore, Jno., apprenticed 1689 to 

Ben. licll. G.C. 
Blacknell, Peter, Loudon ; bracket, about 170."). 
Blacksmith, Robt., London ; watch, 

Blackwell, Thos., C.C. l()r)4. 
Blackwell, J., 43, Plumber St., City 

l!d., 1S20. 
Blake, Wm., Whitecross St., 1789-90. 
Blake. Chas., 14. Bishopsgate Within, 

Blancbard, Robt., within Temple Bar, 

Blancbard, Abraham, London : watch, 

1 730. 
Blancbard, Charles, London ; maker of 

a chiming quarter bracket clock, 

scjuare black case, strike-silent, bronze, 

hanille on top, about 1760. 
Bland, Jas., 33, Norton Folgate, 

IS 16-23. 
Blandford, Hy. W., London ; watch, 

Blay, William, 6, I'rinces St., Leicestei 

S.i.. 182.-). 
Bligh, Thomas, watch-case maker, 37, 

Great Sutton St., 1820. 
Bliss, Ambrose, admitted C.C. 1653 ; 

signed a jietition in 1656. 
Blissett, Isaac, 70, Leadenhall St., 1823. 
Block, Francis, apprenticed 1689' to 

Jno. Bellinger, C.C. 
Blog, — , 129, Aklersgate St., 1825. 
Bloud, Ch., a Dieppe, 1660. 
Blundell, Jno., apprenticed 1678 to Geo. 

Xau : I'.C. 
Blundell, Richard, threatened with 

prosecution by C.C. for exercising 

the art, not being admitted ; he 

promised to take up his freedom at 

the next quarter court, 1682. 
Blundell, William, C.C. 1715. 
Blundell, Jos., Dublin ; bracket clock, 

about 1770. 
Blundell, Henry, musical clockmaker, 7, 

lied Lion St., 1830. See also Walker 

and Blundell 

Blundy, Joseph, 21, St. .John St., 
Clcrkenwell, 1781 ; Brookes Market, 

Blunt, Morris, 1630-50; C.C. 

Boad, Thos., apprenticed 1684 to llobt. 
Nemes ; C.C. 1692. 

Boak, Samuel, Golden Spread Eagle, 
without Aldgate, 1692. 

Boardman, T., Loiulon ; watch, 1774. 

Bobinet, Chas. (French), watch in 
circular crystal case. S.K.M., about 
1 650, also (Salting collection) a cruci- 
form watch in crystal and silver case. 

Bock, Johann, Frankfort ; clock by 
him, Vienna Treasury, about 1630 ; 
another example of his work is a 
watch showing days of the month, 
about 1640. 

Bockel, Mathys, Haarlem ; oval watch, 
S.K.M., 1610, 

Bockels, — , Amsterdam ; in the Ros- 
kell collection was a handsome oval 
alarm watch by him, of large size, 
dating from about 1()40 ; the inner 
case is of silver, and the outer one 
coveretl with fish skin ; on the dial is 
inscribed "Oliver Cromwell"; the 
watch now belongs to Mr. Evan 

Bockelts, Jan Janss, watch, Napier 
collection, 1620 (see pp. 140, 145). 

Bockelts, — . watch, B.M., about 1640. 

Bockett. Richd., London, 1712. 

Bodd, Thos., London ; watch, 1715. 

Boddell, Josiah, apprenticed to Daniel 
Delaiuler; admitted C.C. 1741. 

Bodenham, Edward, apprenticed to 
Brounker Watts ; C.C. 1719. 

Bodham, Steph., apprenticed 1680 to 
Ed. Envs : C.C. 

Bodily, Elizabeth, C.C. 1692. 

Bodily, N., 21, Butcher's Hall Lane, 
Newgate St.. 1823. 

Boekett, Jan Janse, Hague ; oval watch, 
about 1610, stolen from the Horo- 
logical Institute in 1873. 

Bohm, Marcus, Augsburg : jjendulum 
cluck, about IGtJO (see p. 111). 

Boisson, Etinne, Loiulon; watch, 1700. 

Boisson, M., London ; watch, 1745. 

Bolt, Jno., London ; watch. 1820. 

Bolton, — , Wigan, about 1760. 

Bompard, — , a Paris ; timepiece, G.M., 
about 1800. 

Boucher, A., musical watch maker, 23, 
Frith St., Soho, 1835. 

Bond, Tho., appi enticed 1685 to Wither 
Cheney, C.C. 

Bond. G., London ; watch, 1800. 

Bond, l>oston, U.S.A. It is claimed 
that in 1812 the founder of this 
business made the first marine 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

chronometer produced wholly in the 
United States, and that, in default of 
a mainspring, he used a weight to 
drive it. Richard F. Bond in 1850 
invented a remontoire, or spring 
governor, to be applied to a clock 
for ensuring continuous motion to an 
equatorial telescope. 

Bone, Wm , Essex, about 1790. 

Boney, Caleb, a well-known Cornish 
clockmaker : died at Padstow 1827. 

Bonfanti, Joseph, 305, Broadway, New 
York ; advertised in 1823 " German 
clocks, some plain with music and 
some with moving figures, and French 
clocks, some with music, and will play 
difEerent tunes." All sorts of novel- 
ties could be purchased at Joseph 
Bonfanti's shop, and in 182-1 he 
constantly endeavours to attract 
customers by verses proclaiming his 
wares, for example — 

" Large elegant timepieces playing sweet tunes, 
And cherry stones too that hold ten dozen 

spoons ; 
And clocks that chime sweetly on nine little 

And boxes so neat ornamented with shells." 

Bonna Freres, Geneva, 1780-1800. 

Bonner, Charles, apprenticed to Nich. 
Cark ir.50 ; admitted C.C. 1658. 

Bonner, Jasper, admitted CO. 1704. 

Bonner, Thos., Fair St., Southwark, 

Bonnington, Wm., clock-case maker, 6, 
lied Lion St., Clerkenwell, 1793-99. 

Bonnington and Thorp, clock - case 
makers, 22, Bed Lion St., 1793-1816. 

Bonny, — , London ; maker of a repeater 
centre-seconds watch for the Duke of 
Sussex 1790-1820. 

Boole, Jonathan, apprenticed 1676 to 
Sarah Payne, C.C. 

Boone, Edward, apprenticed to Kobert 
Dent, and came by several appoint- 
ments to Thos. Tompion ; admitted 
C.C. 1691. 

Boot, Jno., clock, about 1735. 

Booth, W., long-case clock, about 1700. 

Booth, Ben., watch, silver dial, red 
tortoiseshell case, pique, inlaid land- 
scape in silver, about 1780, Hilton 
Price collection. 

Booth, Jno., London ; watch, 1780. 

Booth, Jas., 20, Little Tower Hill, 

Booth, R., Church Hill. Woolwich, 

Bor, J., Paris ; fine clock in a square 
brass case, minutes shown on a small 
circle below the hour dial, minute 
hand driven from fusee ; about 1590. 

Bordier, Denis, watch, crystal case, 
about 1630 (see pp. 151, 164). 

Bordier, A,, Geneva ; watch, Schloss 
collection, case beautifully enamelled, 
about 1785 ; watch in octagonal case, 
" Leonard Bordier," S.K.M.. 1800. 

Bordier Freres, Geneva ; 1820-.S0 (see 
also Roux). 

Borellas, J., 15, Spencer St., 1840. 

Borelli, J., 8. Aldersgate St., 1790-95. 

Borgin, Henry, Without Bishopsgate, 
issued a token bearing a dial and 
hands about 1677. 

Borrel, A. P., Paris ; pupil and suc- 
cessor of A. Wagner ; born 1818, died 

Borrell, Henry, 15, Wilderness Row, 
1798-1840 ; watch in finely enamelled 
cases, Turkish numerals, on dial 
'• Markwick Markham, Borrell, Lon- 
don," h.m. 1813 (see p. 197). 

Borrell, Maximilian J., 19, Wilderness 
Row, 1830-42. 

Borret, P., 5. Staining Lane, Wood St., 

Borrett, Geo., Stowmarket ; watch, 
G.M., about 1750. 

Borrett, M. M,, London, about 1790. 

Bosch, Ulrich, C.C. 1652. 

Bosley, Joseph, Leadenhall St. ; admitted 
C.C;. 1725 ; Clerkenwell Green, 1730. 
In 1755 he obtained a patent for 
using in watches pinions with more 
teeth than usual. This involved an 
extra wheel and pinion, and the 
balance wheel turned the contrary 
way. Also for (secondly) a slide 
index for watches, which has no 
wheel, but turns upon a brass socket 
and points to an arc of a circle, 
with the word " faster " at one 
end, and " slower " at the other. 
Patent unsuccessfully opposed by 
C.C. 172.5-63. 

Bosley, Chas., Ratcliff Cross ; succeeded 
AVni. Kipling; 1750-66; livery C.C. 

Bosley, Charles, livery C.C. 1766. 

Boucher, W., 4, Long Acre, 1820. 

Boucheret, Jacob, C.C. 1728. 

Boucheret, Jno., London, 1750. 

Bouchet, Jean Louis, Rue Saint Denis, 
Paris ; clockmaker to the King 1 769. 

Boudon, — , octagonal watch inscribed 
'•J. Boudon a St. Flour," about 1600 
(see p. 158). 

Boudry, Gustavus, 64, Frith St., Soho, 

Boufler. See De Boufler. 

Bouguet. See Boi^quet. 

Bouhier. Octagonal watches said to 
have been introduced by Bouhier a 
Lyon 1538. 

Former Clock and Waiclmiakers. 


Bouillard, Paul, " at the Eagle and 
IVarl in (Jreat Suffolk St., near the 
Hayinarkct " : card, Pousonby collec- 
tion, about 1 77."). 

Boulanger, David, apprenticed 1691 to 
Wm. Bertram, CO. 

Boult, Joseph, admitted C.C. 1709. 

Boult, Michael, Chcapside, 1738. 

Boulter, Samuel, 12, Gloucester Place, 
t'lu'Isca. 1X10-42. 

Boulton, Job, at the '■ Bolt and Tun," 
Lomliard St., had a gold and a silver 
watch with other jcwellerv stolen in 

Boulton, T. , watchcase maker, -19, Gray's 
Inn Lane, 1820. 

Boulu, "616ve de Lepine, horloger 
de rimpdratrice, k Paris," about 

Bouquet, David, London ; C.C. 1632 ; 
(lied It!!)") (the books of the C.C. in 
1(1 76 and for some years after refer to 
Dorcas Bouquet, who was probably 
the widow of David (see Knight, 
Thos., and Walkden, Thos.) ; maker 
of a watch in the B.M., fine case 
enamelled in relief and encrusted 
with jewels ; another and earlier ex- 
ample, Mainwaring collection, an oval 
watch with covers back and front 
(see p. 172) ; in the Dunn Gardner 
collection, S.K.M., is a watch in a 
finely enamelled case, the movement 
clearly signed " D. Bouguet, Londini," 
1610-40." " Lost lately a steel watch, 
finely cut, and the work of it made by 
Bouquet, in a black shagreen case. 
Whoever hath found the same, if they 
bring it to Mr. Michael Scrimi)shirc, 
Goldsmith, at the sign of the Golden 
Lvon in Fleet St., shall have 20s. 
reward " (Land. Gaz., Jan. 10, 1680). 
" A Pocket Clock made some years 
since by Mr. Boguett, of Black Fryars, 
Watchmaker, it hath two Silver Cases, 
the outmost plain, the other wrought ; 
two Brass Keys, one of the usual form, 
the other forked for turning the hand 
of the Alarum, tied to a Silver Chain ; 
it hath the day of the Month, Tides, 
age of the Moon, and some other 
motions ; it strikes everv hour ' ' 
(Lond. Gaz., March 3-7, 1689). 

"Lost the 15 instant, between 
Eosse and Linton in Herefordshire, 
a watch with an alarum in a Silver 
Case, with a Silver Chain, the case 
lined with Crimson Satten, being an 
old piece : the name of the maker 
being exprest thus : Daniel Bouquet, 
Londres" {Lo?id. Gaz., June 19-22, 

Bouquet, Solomon, admitted C.C. 1650; 
a celebrated maker 16r)()-70. 

Bouquet, Solomon, admitted C.C. 1683 ; 
in the B.M. is a watch of his with 
highly engraved gold cases, 1680- 

Bouquet, N., calendar watch, Schloss 
collection, about 1700. 

Bouquett, David, apprenticed 1652 to 
Solomon Bouquett, C.C. 

Bourchier, W., 13, Broad St., Long 
Acre, 1835. 

Bourdon, Pierre, master engraver of 
Paris ; did much to advance the art 
of engraving as applied to clocks and 
watches. He published an essay on 
the subject in 1703. 

Bourelier, John Francis, Arundel St., 
Strand, 1 769-83. 

Bourne, Aaron, Maiden Lane, Covent 
Garden. 17(;9. 

Boursault, Helie, Chatellerault, about 

Boutevile and Norton, 175, Aldersgate 
St., 1 810-1 ;». 

Boutevile, Wm, Hy., 1823. 

Bouts, David, last representative of 
Parkinson and Bouts, Gracechurch 
St. ; died 1883, aged 61. 

Bouvet. Geo., Coleman St., 1730. 

Bouvier, G., a well-known French 
painter of watch cases in enamel, 
about 17+0 (see p. 185). 

Bouvier Freres, watch with performing 
automata (Swiss), 1780. 

Boverick, — . •' To be seen at Mr. 
Boverick's, Watchmaker, at the dial, 
facing Old Round Court, near the 
New Exchange, in the Strand, at one 
shilling each person, the furniture 
of a dining-room in a cherry-stone, 
a landau with horses complete, so 
minute as to be drawn along by a 
flea ; 4-wheeled open chaise weighing 
one grain, so small, drawn by flea 
also ; a flea chained. 200 links, pad- 
lock and key all weighing one-third 
of a grain ; and steel sizzors so 
minute that six pairs could be 
wrapped in wing of fly. but cut 
large horse hair " (handbill 1745). 

Bovet, — , Fleurier, began making 
watches for the Chinese market in 

Bowden, Jno., London ; long-case clock, 
about 1740. 

Bowen, Richard, apprenticed to Robt. 
Smith 1050 : admitted C.C. 1657. A 
" Richard Bowen ' ' was maker of a 
large silver watch with two cases, the 
outer one chased and engraved with 
a border of flowers and the figure of 


Old Clocks and Watches and tJieir Makers. 

the king praying, find the words. 
" And what I sai to you I sai unto all. 
Watch." It was said to have been 
given by Charles I. while at Caris- 
brooke to Colonel Hammond, 1647. 

Bowen, Francis, apprenticed to John 
Bowyer ; brought his masterpiece on 
completion of his indentures, and was 
admitted C.C. 1654. 

Bowen, Richard, apprenticed to Richard 
Bowen 1670 : admitted C.C. 1678. 
In 1677 Jno. Bowen was apprenticed 
to Mary Bowen. "Lost, a watch in 
black shagreen studded case, with a 
glass in it, having only one Motion 
and Time pointing to the Hour on the 
Dial Plate, the spring being wound up 
without a key, and it opening con- 
trary to all other watches, ' E. Bowen, 
Londini, fecit,' on the back plate ' ' 
(Lond. Gnz., Jan. 10-13, 1686). 

Bowen, Thos., apprenticed to Hy. 
Bridgen 1684. 

Bowen, John, admitted C.C. 1709. 

Bowen, Thomas, 6, Charing Cross, 1797- 
1813 ; livery C.C. 1811. 

Bowen, John, 143, Long Acre, 1807-10 : 
2, Tichborne St., Haymarket, 1812- 
42 (Bowen and Holt 1814-18). 

Bower, Jno., London ; large lantern 
clock, dolphin frets, about 1690. 

Bower, Peter, Eedlynch, 1760-80. 

Bowles, Jno., Poole!^ 1790. 

Bowley, Devereux, .54, Lombard St.: 
a well-known maker of repeating 
clocks ; born 1696, died 1773 ; appren- 
ticed to Wm. Tomlinson ; admitted 
C.C. 1718, master 1759 ; wasa member 
of the Society of Friends, and be- 
queathed a large sum to their school 
in Clerkenwell, as well as £500 to the 
C.C. ; a clock belonging to Mr. G. 
P. Osbaldeston bears the signature 
' Devereux Bowly. ' ' 

Bowley, Jno., London : watch 1760. 

Bowman, James, apprenticed to Daniel 
Delander ; admitted C.C. 1743. 

Bowman. Jas , I>ondon ; watch, 1815. 

Bowness, Geo., Lancaster, 1820. 

Bowra, John, 4, Holies St., Oxford St:, 
1820-28 ; " successor to W. Berridge" ; 
watch paper C. C. 

Bowtell, Samuel, admitted C.C. 1681. 

Bowtell, William, C.C. 1703. 

Bowyer, Wm., a good maker. Sub- 
scribed for incorporation of C.C. In 
1642 he presented to the C.C. a great 
chauiber clock, in consideration of 
his being thereafter exempted from 
all office and service, as well as quar- 
terage and other fees (see p. 447) : 

Bowyer, Jno., possibly successor to Wm. 
See Bowen, F., and Bower. 

Box, John, 17, Ludgate St., 1775-83. 

Box, William B., Clerkenwell ; died 
1892, aged 76. 

Boyce, Thos., apprenticed 1687; C.C. 

Boyce, Jas., admitted C.C. 1692 ; long 
marqueterie case clock, square matted 
dial, circles round winding holes, 
silvered ring, angel and crown corners, 
about 1720." 

Boyer, T., London ; lantern clocks, 
about 1690. 

Boyle, Eichd., apprenticed 1652 to Jno. 
Bayes : C.C. 1660. 

Boyle, William, 11, Arundel St., Strand, 

Boys, A., and Duduict. Jaques, makers 
of a large clock-watch. G.M., about 

Bracebridge and Pearce, Coppice Row, 

Bracebridge, Edward, 8, Eed Lion St., 
Clerkenwell, 1805-15 (Bracebridge 
and Sons 1816-18). 

Bracebridge, J. and E. C, 8. Red Lion 
St., Clerkenwell, 1820-90. For a 
short time in 1865 they also had the 
shop 119, Bond St. 

Bracebridge, James, treasurer to the 
AVatch and Clockmakers' Benevolent 
Institution ; died 1892, aged 66. 

Brackenrig, Robert, Edinburgh ; made 
an escapement similar to the duplex 

Brackley. George, C.C. 1677. 

Bradford, Thomas, C.C. 1680. 

Bradford, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1692. 

Bradford, Robert, London ; Mr. Eden 
Dickson has a small watch by him, 
with tine gold dial, about 17t'0. 

Bradford, Thomas, Strand ; son of Eobt.; 
watch G.M. ; C.C. 1710-70. 

Bradford, Hy., 89, Bethnal Green Rd., 

Bradin (or Braen), Caspar, Westminster 
Churchyard ; C.C. 1715. 

Bradl, Anthony, Augsburg, 1680 (see 
p. 243). 

Bradley, Henry, admitted C.C. 1681. 

Bradley, Langley, Whitechapel, after- 
wards in Fenchurch St. ; apprenticed 
to Joseph Wise 1687; admitted C.C. 
1695, master in 1726 ; maker of the 
St. Paul's and other turret clocks 
(see p. 313). "Stolen out of Mr. 
Bradley's Shop, the 'Minute Dj^all ' 
in Fanchurch St., on the 8th Inst., a 
Gold minute watch in an engraven 
case," etc. {Flyhuj Post, Oct. 8, 1698). 

Bradley, Benjamin, apprenticed to 
Langley Bradley; admitted C.C. 1728. 

Former Clock and Watchiuakers. 


Bradley. L. and B., made a clock for 
I'aiuTort'.s School, Mile End, the date 
oil tlie bell being 1734. The clock is 
now in Bancroft's new school at 

Bradley, Wm., London; watch, h.m.. 


Bradley, John H., ^^. Great Russell St.. 
I'.lu.misbiin-. 1812. 

Bradshaw, Jno,, apprenticed IG")! to 
Lancelot Meredith, G.C. 

Bradshaw, Jno., CO. 1658. 

Bradshaw, Hy., apprenticed lti87 to 
Wni. Shuii,'h, CO. Thos. Reynohls was 
apprenticed to liini in IGDK. 

Bradshaw. Edwd., Tuddle Dock Hill : 
('.('. 171'.".. 

Bradshaw, John, admitted C.C. 1731. 

Bradshaw and Ryley, Coventry, 17(jO. 

Braemar, Gerrett P., Amsterdam ; re- 
peating watch. S. K.M., about 1735. 

Braene, Caspar, London. 1729 : C.C. 

Brafield, William, admitted C.C. 1678 ; 
fined 5.V. by C.C. in 1088 for making 
a bad watcli-case. 

Brafield, Thos., London ; long-case 
clock, about 1705. 

Braithwaite, Geo., Lombard St., 1738. 

Braithwaite and Jones, Cockspur St. ; 
the H<in. Gerakl I'onsouby has a fine 
re[.)eater by them, about 1800. 

Bramble, Joshua, 407, Oxford St.. 

Bramble, Wm. and Edwd., 407. Oxford 
St.. 1840. 

Bramble, Eliza, ;». AVells St., Oxford St.. 

Brambley, Joseph, 10, Maiden Lane. 
Wood St.; in 1797 founder and citi- 
zen ; petitioned against being com- 
pelled to take up freedom in C.C. 

Brand, Basil, apprenticed 1(>60 to Jno. 
Matchett, C.C. 

Brand, Alexander, Edinburgh, 1727. 
Though not apprenticed in Edinburgh, 
he was by favour admitted to the In- 
corporation of Hammermen, and in 
return presented a clock which is 
still in Magdalen Chapel, Cowgate, 
then the meeting-place of the In- 

Brand, C. (see Brandt), musical watch 
maker to H.M., 2:^ Frith St., 1814-19. 

Brandon, Benjamin, C.C. 1689. 

Brandreth, Joseph, C.C. 1718. 

Brandt, Chas., musical watch maker, 
74, New Compton St., 1815 ; 82. 
Theobald's Rd., 1820 ; 145, Regent 
St., 1825 ; 22, Upper Belgrave Place, 
Pimlico. 1835. 

Branston and Bird, 39, Cornhill, 1775 

(Thos. Branston, livery Glovers' Com- 

Brant, Richard, api)renticed to Sam 
Davis 1(119 ; C.C. 

Brant, Richd., apprenticed 1692 to Jno. 
Dickens ; C.( '. 1 700. 

Brasbridge, Joseph, 98, Fleet St., 1794. 

Brasbridge and Son, 198, Fleet St., 1825. 

Brass, Thos., (inildford, 1725. 

Brass, — , London ; long-case clock, 
about 1750 ; Mr. B. L. F. Potts has a 
bracket clock signed " Thomas Brass, 
London," about 1760. It formerly 
belonged to Jno. Thorpe, the anti- 

Brasseur, — , Rue Bourg I'Abbe, Paris, 

Bray, Robert, admitted C.C. 1728. 

Bray, Thomas, St. Margaret's Church- 
yard, 1798-1804 : 8, Little Queen St., 
Westminster, 1807-25. 

Bray, Wm., 171, Tottenham Court Rd., 

is 1(1. 

Brayfield, William, apprenticed to Thos. 
Williamson 1671; C.C. 1678. " Drop'd 
the 21st December in Little Weld- 
St., or thereabout, a middle siz'd 
Silver Minute Pendulum watch, 
going Thirty hours, with a chain, 
in a silver case, the name • William 
Brayfield, London.' Whoever brings 
it to Remond Regard, Clockmaker, 
at the upper end of Russell St., near 
Drury Lane, shall have 40^. reward" 
(Loml. (iaz., January 25-28, 1691). 

Brayfield, Thos., apprenticed 1675 to 
Erasmus Micklewright ; C.C. 1682. 

Brayfield, John, admitted C.C. 1716. 

Brayley, Joseph, 6, Little Guildford 
St.. Bernard St., Russell Sq., card, 
Hodgkin collection, about 1810. 

Breakspear and Co., Oxford St., 1807. 

Breames, Leonard, C.C. 1633. 

Brearley, — . Spa Fields ; C.C. 1782. 

Brebent, Peter, London ; repeating 
watch, about 1690. 

Breese, Jas., 5. North Place, Gray's 
Inn Rd., 1842. 

"Breghtel, J. H. C, Hagae," signature 
on case of late seventeenth century 
cLick, S.K.M. (see Van den Bergh). 

Breguet, Abraham Louis, born 1747, 
died 1823 : a French watchmaker of 
raie attainments and inventive power. 
Berthoud, who was Breguet's senior 
by two years, ends a brief notice of 
his brilliant contemporary thus : "II 
n"a rien public." Breguet lived sixteen 
years longer than Berthoud, but. un- 
fortunately for us, it must still be 
recorded '• he published nothing'' 
(see p. 360). 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Breguet, Louis Antoine, son of the above; 
retired 1833. 

Breguet, Louis, sou and successor of L. A. : 
born 1804, died 1883. (See Brown, 

Brentwood, Wm., London ; watch, 1775. 

Breton, Henry, keeper of the West- 
minster clock 1413. 

Bretonneau, Auguste, Paris ; a watch 
by him belonging to Earl Amhurst, 
described in ArchcBolofi'ical Journal, 
vol. xvii., eiramelled, Holy Family 
on one side, St. Catherine on the 
other, about 1680. In the Hilton 
Price collection is a clock-watch by 
him of later date, with white enamel 
dial enclosing a gilt centre, sil ver case 
beautifully pierced with flowers and 
bird, a coat of arms on the back. 

Brett, Jas., lantern clock, about 1695. 

Brett, Thos., London ; bracket clock, 
about 173U. 

Brewer, Edwd., apprenticed 1665 to 
Stafford Freeman, C.C. 

Brewer, John, admitted C.C. 1677. 

Brewer, Richd., Lancaster, 1783. 

Brewer, J., 25. New Surrev St., Black- 
friars, 1810-15. 

Brewer, W., 149, Great Surrev St., 
Blackfriars, 1825. 

Brewton, Roht., apprenticed 1660 to 
Jno. Archer. C.C. 

Breynton, Vaughan, C.C. 1693. 

Brickenden, Nat., apprenticed 1651 to 
Robt. Whitwell, C.C. 

Bricker, Wm., Hosier Lane, 1730. 

Brickie, William, 5, Church St., Mile 
End. 1S42. 

Bridgden, Henry, C.C. 1682. 

Bridge, Wm., C.C. 1674. 

Bridge, Thos., Wigan, 1690-1720. 

Bridge, Thos., London ; clock, about 

Bridge, R., London ; watch, 1748. 

Bridge, Edwd., London ; watch, 1802. 

Bridgeman, Edwd., apprenticed 1655 to 
.Jno. Matchett, Russell St., Co vent 
Garden : C.C. 1662. 

Bridger, Samuel, admitted C.C. 1703. 

Bridges, Henry, Waltham Abbey (see 
]). 371). about 1740. 

Bridges, Roht., London; watch, 1784. 

Briggs, John, "a cutter of glasses for 
watches" ; brother C.C. 1669 : several 
generations of Briggses, clockmakers, 
in Gargrave and Skipton, Yorkshire. 

Bright, J., 72, Long Acre, 1790-94. 

Bright, Richard, 9, Foster Lane, 1815- 

Brimble and Rouckliife, Bridgwater, 
1770 ; clock by them belonging to 
Mr. Edwin Ash ; their names are also 

on the weathercock of St. Mary's 
Church, Bridgwater. 

Brind, Walter, livery Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, 34. Foster Lane, 1773-88. 

Brinkinan, George, 12, Union St., 
Bishoijsgate, 1815-40. 

Brinkman and Gollin, 1842. 

Briscoe, Stafford, at the " Three Kings 
and Golden Ball,'' Cheapside, 1738-59. 

Briscoe and Morrison, 1768 (see Morri- 
son, Richd.). 

Briscoe, Sam., London ; watch, 1810. 

Bristow, Jno., aporenticed 1653 to 

• Richd. Craile, C.C. 

Bristow, Tim., apprenticed 1691 to 
Vrian Berrington, C.C. 

Bristow, Wm. G., 6, Hoxton Fields, 
1790-1835 ; trunk dial, Guildhall, 
about 1800, inscribed " Bristow, 

British Watch Company, 75, Dean St., 
Soho, formed in 1843, to manufac- 
ture watches with duplicating tools 
invented by P. F. Ingold. John 
Barwise was chairman of the direc- 
torate, and he with Thos. Earnshaw 
and Thos. Hewitt formed a committee 
of managers. John Frodsham and 
Son, Gracechui'ch St., were to be the 
London " agents." An excellent 
watch was designed, and several were 
made, but the "trade" successfully 
opposed the application to Parliament 
for an Act of Incorporation, and the 
enterprise came to a close. Ingold 
afterwards went to America ; and 
although he was not successful in 
forming a company there, it is said 
that some of the tools made for the 
British "Watch Company formed the 
nucleus of the American factory 

Brittaine, Boaz, apprenticed to Wm. 
Speakman 1670; C.C. 1679. 

Brittaine, Stephen, C.C. 1692. 

Britten, S., watch-glass maker, 11, 
Charles St., Hatton'^ Garden, 1835. 

Britton, Stephen, admitted C.C. 1728. 

Britton, Sandys, 48, Wynyatt St., 1835. 

Broad, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1682. 

Broad, Wm., 53, Leadenhall St., 1804-30. 

Broad, R., 2(i4. Bermoudsey St., 1820. 

Broadhead, Benjamin, C.C. 1709. 

Broadley, Jas., 24, Wood St., 1772. 

Broadwater, Hugh, C.C. 1692. 

Brock, John, foreman to E. J. Dent, 
afterwards at 18, George St., Port- 
man Sq. ; died 1893. 

Brockbank, John, apprenticed to 
Joseph Hardin 1761 ; admitted C.C. 
1769, livery 1777 ; 7, Queen St., 
Cheapside (card Hodgkin collection); 

Foruier Clock and Watcliuiahcrs. 


aftei'wards at .", Cowper's Coiirt, 

Brockbank, John and Myles, (i, Cowpcis 
Court. Mvles was the son of Edward 
Brockbank. of Corners, in Cumber- 
laud, and was apprenticed to his 
brother John at 17, Old Jewry, 1769 ; 
admitted C.C. 177(i. They were 
eminent chronometer makers ; John 
ilied early in the nineteenth century, 
and Myles retired about 1.S08. They 
were succeeded by their nephews, 
John and Myles Brockbank, who for 
a few years carried on the business 
as John r>r(K'kbaiik and Company. 

Brockbank and Grove, (j, Cowper's 
Court, 1812 11. 

Brockbank and Atkins, (>, Cowper's 
Court. 1S1.",-.H."). 

Brockbank, Atkins, and Son, 6, Cowper's 
Court, 1840-42. 

Brocke, Samuel, oval watch, Whitcombe 
Greene collection, 1600-25. 

Brockett, Eichd., London ; bracket 
clock, about 17.")(>. 

Brockhurst, Thos., Coventry ; clock, 
about 172(1. 

Brocot, Acbille, I'aris ; a celebrated 
clocknutker : born 1817. died 1878. 

Brogden, James, 1 48, Aldersgate St. ; 
liveryman C.C. 176.">-94. 

Brogden and Marriott, 148. Aldersgate 
St., 1770-LS04. 

Brogden, James, 0. Bridgewater Sq., 

Brogden and Garland, 1830. 

Bronson, Jno., London : maker of long- 
rase and bracket clock : 1760-80. 

Brook, Edmund, admitted C.C. 170D. 

Brook, Richard, and Son, Poultry, 1795- 
1802; Richard Brook 1804-18; C.C. 

Brooke, John, admitted C.C. 1632. 

Brooke, George, admitted C.C. 1681. 

Brooke, William, 192. Upper Thames St.. 

Brooker, Richard, C.C. 1694. 

Brookes, Jno., apprenticed 1685 to Wm. 
Clement, C.C. 

Brookes, Edward, C.C. 1690. 

Brookes, George, London; watch, 1700. 

Brookes, Josh., London : watch, 1810. 

Brookes, Samuel, watch-case maker, 5, 
Ashhy St., Clerkenwell, 1835. 

Brookhouse and Tunnicliffe, Derby ; 
watch, Mr. H. Cook, on plate 
'■Brookhouse's Improved Eolling 
Lever" : the impulse pin was a 
pivoted roller such as Emery made, 
h.m. 1819. 

Brooks, Jno., apprenticed 1693 to Mat. 
Crockford. jun., C.C. 

Brooks, William, Church Row, Aldgatc ; 
liveiyman C.C. 1776 ; watch, 1790, 
•• Wm. Hrooks, Pentonville." 

Brooks, John, 115, Bunhill Row; liverv- 
nuin C.C. 1786-88. 

Brooks, Thomas, watch-case maker, 22, 
(iolden Lane, 1790-94. 

Brooks, John, 4. Bridgewater Sq., 1794- 
1 s 1 :;. 

Brooks, W., 14. Clerkenwell Green, 1825. 

Brooks, J. W., watch-spring maker, 5, 
Itcrkley Court, Clerkenwell, 1885. 

Brooksted, Jno., apprenticed 1671 to 
,lno. White, C.C. 

Broome, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1652. 

Broomhall, Chas., 41, Stanhope St., 

Bross, John, 106, Britannia St., City 
r.oad. 1S20-35. 

Brosy, Michael, London ; alarm watch, 
about 1(;40. 

Browmer. London ; watch, 1830. 

Brown, James (Croydon), C.C. 1687. 

Brown, Andrew, Edinburgh ; apprentice 
to Humphrey Mylne, made a free- 
man of the Incorporation of Ham- 
mermen in 1675, his essaj' being, 
"Ane knock with a watch luminary 
globe upon the dial." Died 1712. 

"James Barrow, aged about 
twenty, of a low stature, a little pock- 
marked, speaks the English accent, 
had on when he went away a short: 
Haxen coU-cut wig, in an ordinary 
habit, run away from his master the 
nineteenth instant with a plain gold 
watch without a crystal (glass), with 
an enambiled dial. The enambling 
on the figures is broken off. A silver 
pendulum watch, made by William 
Young, at Charing Cross, London, 
with a shagreen case ; the centre and 
balance wheels pierced. A plain 
silver watch and an oval brass watch 
and several other things. Whoever 
can secure the said youth, and give 
notice thereof to Captain Aiadrew 
Brown, watchmaker in Edinburgh, 
shall have two guineas reward" 
(^Edinlmrfih Gazette, 1699). 

The title of "Captain" refers to 
Brown's position in the Trained Band 
which was organized to defend the 

Brown, Jno., Edinburgh, 1720. 

Brown, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1703. 

Brown, Henton, Borough, admitted C.C. 
1726; master, 1753; livery, 1766; 
a maker of fine watches ; 58, Lom- 
bard St., in 1754. 

Brown, Thos., Chester ; member of the 
Goldsmiths' Company, 1773. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Brown, Nathaniel, Whitefriars, livery- 
man C.C. 1776. 
Brown, John, 118, Fleet St., 1775-83. 
Brown, John, 76, St. Paul's Chyd., 

Brown, Thos., Birmingham ; watch, sil- 
ver cock, h.m. 1761. 

Brown, John Wm,, 11, Cheapside, 

Brown, John, 30, Grafton St., Soho, 

Brown, — , 119, Holborn : card B.M. 

Brown, J., King St., Seven Dials; an 
excellent cutter of clock-wheels on an 
engine designed by Hindlev, 1780- 

Brown, Thos., 14, Cheapside, 1788- 

Brown, Richard, watch-key and pendant 
maker, Greenhill's Kents, 1790-94. 

Brown, John, 65, Charing Cross, 1783- 

Brown, Wm., 40, Piccadilly, 1800-10. 

Brown, Geo., 8, Great Sutton St., 1820. 

Brown, James, 56, George St.. Portman 
Sq., 1810-42. 

Brown, Isaac, 32, Gloucester St., Clerk- 
enwell, maker of bezel winding 
watches, patented 1829, No. 5851 ; 

Brown, James, 60, Kaherc St., 1842. 

Brown, Roger, 25, Shepherd St., Mav- 
field, 1842. 

Brown, Edwd., an accomplished horolo- 
gist, head of the house of Breguet, 
died at Paris, 1895 ; aged 66. 

Browne, Matthew, C.C. 1633. 

Browne, John, admitted C.C. 1652; 
master 1681. 

Browne, Thos., apprenticed 1653 to 
Richd. Beck; C.C. 1676. 

Browne, Richard, C.C. 1675 ; at 
y« Green Dragon in Cheapside, on 
lantern clock, gallery frets, bob 
pendulum. " A watch having two 
motions, Richard Brown being en- 
graved on it, in a studded case " 
{Lond. Ga:., June 16-20, 1687). 

Browne, Philip, apprenticed 1680 to 
Nich. Beck; C.C. 1688. 

Browne, Robt., apprenticed 1684 to 
Katherine Ames, C.C. 

Browne, Moses, apprenticed 1687 to 
Robt. Kemes, C.C. 

Browne, Chas., apprenticed 1692 to 
Thos. Brayfield, C.C. 

Browne, Chas., London ; watch, 1820. 

Browning, Jas., apprenticed to Thos. 
Piatt, 1650 ; C.C. 

Brownlie, Alexander, Edinburgh, 1710- 

Brownson, Thos., London ; watch, 1799. 
Bruce, James, admitted C.C. 1721. 
Bruce, George, Loudon ; long-case clock, 

about 1740. 
Bruce, — , Cranbourne St., Leicester 

Sq. ; watch, 1830. 
Brugercia, C, musical snufiE-box and 

clockmaker, 13, Richmond Buildings, 

Dean St.. 1820. 
Brugger, John, 252, High Holborn, 1830. 
Brugger, Beck, and Co., 15, Crown St., 

Finsbury, 1840-42. 
Brugger, L. A., wooden and musical 

clockmaker, 79. High Holborn, 

Brulefur, Jean, London ; clock in fine 

marqueterie case, S.K.M., about 1690. 
Brumwell, Pall IMall, about 1760. 
Brunette, Samuel, 13, Castle St., 

Bloomsbury, 1814 ; 34, Gloucester 

St., Queen's Sq., 1825. 
Brunner, Gaspard, made a clock at 

Berne. 1557. 
Brunsley, William, apprenticed to Thos. 

Carrington, but turned over to Thos. 

Gray ; admitted C.C. 17()6. On re- 
verse of a token " William Brunsley" ; 

at Lilly House, against Strand Bridge, 

his halfpenny, on obverse a clock dial 

and hands. 
Brunwin, Henry, Whitecross St., 1770- 

85 ; watch, Newington Free Library, 

about 1780, having engraved on the 

plate an eagle and a snail as a guide 

to regulation. 
Bruton, J., dial cuameller ; died 1863. 
Bryan, Robt., ajiprenticed 1663 to Wm. 

Seabinirne, C.C. 
Bryan, Sam., apprenticed 1685 to Jas 

Hassenins, C.C. 
Bryan, Richard, admitted C.C. 1696. 
Bryan, Henry, Strand, 1768. 
Bryan, Jno., 3, Shadwell Dock, 1790-94. 
Bryan, Saml,, 104, Golden Lane, 175.5- 

94 ; japanned long-case clock, about 

1 760. 
Bryant, Geo., apprenticed 1657 to Wm. 

Smitli, C.C. 
Bryant and Son, 47. Threadneedle St.. 

Bryant, John, Hertford, maker of good 

clocks, 1790-1829. 
Bryce, Clement, apprenticed 1689 to 

Vere Martin, C.C. 
Bryer, John (apprenticed to E. J. Dent), 

20, Northampton Sq., 1838, afterwards 

at Barbican ; died 1894. 
Bryson, Alexander, Edinburgh; ''Her 

Majesty's clockmaker for Scotland," 

1830-60 ; succeeded by Robert Bryson. 
Bryson, Jno., Dalkeith ; apprenticed to 

Thos. Pringle, 1842. 

Former Clock and Waiclunakcrs. 


Buchan, Henry, 37, Wiudmill St., Fins- 
l)uiy. is:5()-l2. 

Buchanan, Arch., Dublin ; long-case 
cicick. about 17(10. 

Buck, Edward, exhibited his master- 
piece, and was admitted C.G. 1632. 

Buckenhill, Jno., apprenticed 16(54 to 
Win. ThDVogood, (_".C. 1672. 

Buckenhill, Edward, CO. 1687. 

Bucket (?r)<)Ui|uet) subscribed to in- 
corporation of C.C. 1630. 

Buckhill, Jas., apprenticed 1768 to 
Hobt. Folo. ('.('. 

Buckingham, Joseph, Black-moor's Head 
and Dial, Minories, 1(!'J0-172.-) ; long- 
case clock with fine maniueterie case, 
about 170(1, inscribed "Joseph Buck- 
ingham, lAindon." " Stolen from Mr. 
liicluird Parke, in Pey Alley, Fan- 
church St., a gold watch made by Jos. 
Buckingham" (^""'^. Ga:.,i\x\y 13-16, 
1691). "^ 

Buckingham, Joseph, Junior, Minories. 

Buckland, Jno., bracket clock, 1795. 

Bucklie, David, Bridgewater Stj., 1780- 
".14 : livrry C.C. 1787. 

Bucknell, W., 20, Kirby St., 1810. 

Bucknell, Wm., 10, Parliament St., 
1S1()-2S : succeeded by Wm. Alex- 

Buckner, Philip, ai>prenticed 1658 to 
Nich. Coxeter ; admitted C.C. 1667. 

Buckner, Richard, C.C. 1701. 

Bucksher, J., 37, Three Colts St.. Lime- 
house, 1817. 

Bucquet, Dan., .■')6. Cannon St., Eatcliff, 

Budgen, — , Croydon, about 1740. 

Buifet, Jno., Colchester ; watch, silver 
cock, 173."). 

Bugden, — , 20, Brydges St., Covent 
Garden ; watch paper C.C, about 1800. 

Bukingham: see Buckingham. 

Bulet, D., Geneva, about 1750. 

Bull, Rainulph, keeper of the " great 
clock in His Majesty's Palace of 
Westminster" (see p. 247); watch, 
probably by him, B.M., inscribed 
"Puindolph Bull" and dated 1590. 
Bull, Edmd., Fleet St. ; about 1610 

(see p. 248). 
Bull, John, subscribed to incorporation 

of C.C. 1630 ; admitted 1632. 
Bull, Jno., apprenticed 1691 to Ben. 

Graves, C.C. 
Bull, Jas., 124, Leadenhall St., 1813-18. 
Bullby, John, admitted C.C. 1632. 
Bullimore, Hy., apprenticed 1687 to 

Jno. Fitter, C.C. 
Bulline, Ben., London ; watch, h,m., 
1763 ; long-case clock, about 1770. 

Bulman, Jacob, Xuremburg : clock- 
maker and master of the Locksmiths' 
(iuild, 1780-98. 

BuUman, Thos., Swan Alley, maker of 
large marqueterie case clock, twisted 
pillars, square dial, about 1690. 

Bullock, Jas., Furnival's Inn Court, 
1 790-94. 

Bullock, Christopher, London ; bracket 
clock, mahogany case, painted dial, 
about 1800. 

Bullock, Widcombe, Bath ; Zephaniah, 
about 1740 ; Thos., son of Z., 
176.5-95; Wm., son of Thos., died 
1846, succeeded by his nephew Wm. 
Yokes, who died 1870, aged 59. 

Bulstrod, "Wm., apprenticed 1671 to 
Henry Hester, C.C. 

Bult, Jas,, Loudon; watch, silver ease 
with landscape painted on the back, 
Schloss collection, about 1780. 

Bult, James, and Co., 86, Cheapside, 

Bultry, Dan., apprenticed 1655 to Ralph 
Greatoicx ; C.C. 1663. 

Bumstead, Kobert, in Holborn ; C.C. 
1707 ; fine \:iMY-c&sq repousse repeater 
in leather case. 

Bunce, Matthew, C.C. 1698. 

Bunch, Nich., Bramshot ; 30-hour long- 
case clock, about 1730. 

Bunnett, Wm. , London ; watch, 1 780, 

Bunon, — , rue Coquilliere, Paris, 1770. 

Bunting, William, Pope's Head Alley, 

Condiill ; admitted C.C. 1646 ; maker 

of a watch in the B.M., on the dial of 

I which is inscribed, " loanni Miltoni, 


Bunting, Joshua, apprenticed to Wm. 
Bunting, 1648, C.C. 

Bunting, Josh,, apprenticed in 1651 to 
Wm. Bunting for Thos. Wolverstone, 

Bupert, Michel, Paris ; clockmaker to 
the Duke of Orleans 1641. 

Burchett, John, admitted C.C. 1731. 

Burckhardt, J. C, 14, Northumberland 
St., Strand. 1816. 

Burden, Francis, 3, HoUeu St., 1816. 

Burgar, John W., 23, Banner St., 1842. 

Burge, Caleb, apprenticed 1(582 to 
Simon Barrett. 

Burges, Jno., London ; about 1720. 

Burges, Chas., London ; watch, pendu- 
lum-balance under dial, 1750. 

Burges, Thos., Gosport, 1750-(50. 

Burgess, Edwd., Londini ; long-case 

clock, about 1690. 
Burgess, Elias, London ; long marque- 
terie ease clock, 11-inch dial. Wether- 
field collection, about 1 700. 
Burgess, Jno,, Wigan, 1690-1740. 


Old Clocks and Watches and tJicir Makers. 

Burgess, Geo., 10, Bishopsgate St. 
Without. 1790, watch by him, 1768. 
Burgess, — , Old Bailey, 1771. 
Burgess, — , 20, Cheapside ; card B.M., 

Burgess, — , 20, Cheapside ; '• from T. 
Wright, watchmaker to the King," 
watch paper, Ponsonby collection, 
about 1 79.5. 
Burgess, E., clock-case maker, 23. 

Percival St., 1835. 
Btirgi, Jobst. (De Burgi or Burgius), 
Prague, born 1552, died 1632 ; a 
talented mechanician, who in 1602 
was appointed clockmaker to Rudoli^h 
II. In the Vienna Treasury is a clock 
with a pendulum attributed to him. 
There are two oval dials of rock 
crystal framed with plates of smoky 
topaz. One dial shows the minutes 
and hours, and the other the days of 
the week, as well as the age and 
phases of the moon. Striking work 
for the hours is behind one dial, and 
quarter hour striking mechanism 
behind the other. The case, in the 
form of an obelisk, is of agate, 
adorned by three circlets of garnets. 

Burgis, John, subscribed to incorpora- 
tion of O.C. 1630 ; admitted 1632 ; 
oval calendar watch, in Dover 
Museum, about 1625 (see p. 162). 

Burgis, Thomas, apprenticed to Thomas 
Knifton, 1654. 

Burgis, John, London, 1680. 

Burgis, Elais, admitted C.C. 1681. 

Burgis, Charles Edward, apprenticed to 
James Clowes, 1678 ; bracket clock, 
black bell-top case, back plate nicely 
engraved and inscribed, " Edward 
Burgis, Londini, fecit" ; about 1720. 

Burgis, George, London ; maker of a 
tall oak-case clock, 1720-40. 

Burgis, William, London ; maker of a 
watch about 1720. 

Burke, — , 1630-50 ; C.C. 

Burkham, — , London ; watch about 

Burleigh, Ninyan, C.C. 1692 ; bracket 
quarter clock, ebony case, finely en- 
graved back plate, inscribed, "Nin 
Burleigh, Durham," about 1730. 

Burlingham, D. C, King's Lynn, died 
1901, aged 78. 

Burnap, Daniel, maker of brass clock 
movements at East Windsoi', Con- 
necticut, U.S.A., 1780-1800. 

Burnet, Thomas, Bow, 1700. 

Burnett, Richard, C.C. 1705. 

Burnett, Philip, admitted C.C. 1715. 

Burnett, Jno., London ; watch, 1755. 

Burnett, Chas,, London ; watch, 1760. 

Burnett, Jno., Rosemary Lane, 1822. 

Burns, James, 76, Lisson Grove North. 

BurpuU, John, Tooley St., 1720-50; a 
long-case clock dating from about 
1735, appeared to be inscribed "John 
Burputh, Tooley St., near London 
Bridge," and Mr. J. Terry has one 
signed John Burputt. 

Burpur. -'Lost Oct. 29, about 11 of 
the clock, at the Queen's Head Ale 
House, a plain watch with a silver 
case made by one Burpur. Any 
person that shall see this watch 
offer'd to be sold or pawn'd are 
desired to send word to the Red 
Lyon behin'd the Royal Exchange, 
and thej" shall have a guinea reward." 
—T/n- Poxtinan, Nov. 1, 1705. 

Burrill, Boys Err, Great Sutton St., 

Burrows, Joseph, apprenticed to Wm. 
Addis ; C.C. 1777 ; livery 1803. 

Burrows, James, 30, Goodge St., 1820-25. 

Burrows, E., 4, America Terrace, King's 
Rd., Chelsea, 1830-42. 

Burton, Abraham, apprenticed in 1650 
to Richd. Masterton, C.C. 1657; 
watch, 1700. 

Burton, Jno., apprenticed 1672 to 
Richd. Warren, C.C. 

Burton, Roger, apprenticed 1678 to 
Ch. Bonner, C.C. 

Burton, William, London ; repeating 
watch, about 1740 ; known also as a 
maker of spring clocks about 1760. 

Burton, John, Blue Anchor Alley, 
liveryman C.C. 1776. 

Burton, Jas., Lincoln's Inn Gate, Carey 
St., 1806-20. 

Burton, Hy., London ; watch, 1810. 

Burwash, William, 45, Red Lion St., 
Clerkenwell, 1 790. 

Burwash, William, watch-case maker, 3, 
Red Lion St., Clerkenwell, 1782-1804. 

Burwash, Thomas, 91, Bishopsgate 
Without, 1825. 

Busby, Nich., 1630-.o0 ; C.C. 

Busch, Abraham, Hamburg ; watch, 
alxiut 1710. 

Buschman, Hans, Augsburg ; astrono- 
mical clock by him, Vienna Treasury, 
about 1600. 

Buschman, David, Augsburg ; watch by 
him, Vienna Treasi;ry, about 1620 ; 
large alarum watch in pierced brass 
case, Schloss collection, inscribed, 
" David Buschman Augusta," aboirt 
1680 (see p. 244). 
Buschman, Hanns, clock, 1690 (see 

p. 123). 
Buschman, John (German), C.C. 1692. 

Former Clock and ]]*atchiiiakrrs. 


Buschman, John Baptist, (\C. 1725. 

Bush, James, atlmitred C.C. 1721). 

Bush, James, lUl, High St., Shoreditch, 

Bush, James, fi, Hackney Rd., 1835. 

Bushby, — , I.ciidon ; watch, 1780. 

Bushel], Edward, apprenticed 1687 to 
Will. IJeniiett, O.C. 

Bushell, Samuel, ai)prenticcd 1690 to 
Wither Cliesiic}', C' C. 

Bushman, Jno., watch, Nelthropp col- 
lect imi. tuli|) iiillais, revolving hour 
circle, alHUii 1670. 

Bushman, John Baptist, livery C.C. 1786. 

Bushman, Wm., Stratford, Essex ; watch 
liapcr, CC, about 1800. 

Bushnells, Thos., at the Dial in East 
Siiiillilield, l(i<l2. 

Butler, John, admitted C.C. 1724. 

Butter, Joshua, 36, New Bond St., 1804 ; 
23;i, Oxford St., 1807. 

Butterfield, a Paris ; silver pocket sun- 
dial. al)out 1690. 

Butterfield, — , Todmorden, 1770. 

Butterfield, Thos., London ; large-sized 
I'ailianient type of clock in japanned 
case, about 1790. 

Button and Putley, 204, Boro'. 1788; 
card I'.M. 

Buz, Johannes, octagonal striking calen- 
dar watch, in brass case. German, 
about 1640. 

Bye, Henry, clockmaker to the City of 
I'aris, 1413. 

Byford, William, 23, St. Marv-at-Hill. 

Bysse, Edward, curious watch, at the 
B.M., about 1620 ; prohibited from 
working by C.C. 1632, but afterwards 
joined the company. 

Byworth, Thos., 28, King St., Snow 
Hill ; and 12, Bridge St., Lambeth, 

Cabrier, Charles, Broad St., admitted 
C.C. 1697. In the B.M. is a very 
thick rounded repeater watch, period 
1690 ; in the centre of the outer case 
is an enamel medallion ; this is sur- 
rounded by a circle of reiumssi work, 
outside of which the case is nicely 
pierced. Another example of his 
work is a silver verge watch, outside 
case embossed, 1690-1726. 

Cabrier, Charles, 79, Broad St., a cele- 
Ijiated maker; admitted C.C. 1726; 
master, 1757 ; Pig St., Threadneedle 
St., in 1759. 

Cabrier, Charles, C.C. by patrimony, 1756. 
In 1777 an action was tried in the 
King's Bench, Cabrier v. Anderson, 
the defendant having pu.t on five 

watches the plaintiff's name, without 
his knowledge or consent. A verdict 
was given for the plaintiff with £100 
damages. Specimens of Cabrier's 
work are in the Guildhall Museum. 
One of them is a bell repeating verge 
watch movement, with nicely wrought 
and pierced pillars having broad bases 
and caps. 

Cabrier, Charles, Stepney, C.C. 1692. 

Cabrier, John, son of Chas., admitted 
C.C. 1730. 

Cabrier and Leeky, 15, Basinghall St., 

Cabrier, Favey, and Exchequer, 14, Wil- 
derness luiw, 1791. 

Cabrier, Favey and Son, 1 798. 

Cachard, — , •' suceesseur de Charles Le 
Hov a Paris," about 1780. 

Cachard, Gaspar, 13, Oxendon St., 1820, 
afterwards at Henrietta St., Covent 

Cade, Simon, admitted C.C. 1688. 

Cade and Robinson, 153, Leadenhall St., 

Cadgell, Thos., apprenticed 1682 to Wm. 
Elmes. C.C. 

Caesar, Daniel, admitted C.C. 1703. 

Caflfieri, Philip, born at Rome 1634, 
died at I'aris 1716; Jacques, Paris, 
lt)78-1755 : Philip, son of Jacqixes, 
1 714-74. Noted designers and makers 
of clock cases. 

Caillate, A., Geneva, about 1725. 

Caille, — , London, about 1770. 

Cainden, Wm., London ; long-case clock, 
about 1760. 

Caithness, — , New Bond St. ; verge 
watch, about 1750. (See Allan and 

Calbeck, Jno,, appienticed 1672 to Jas. 
Field, C.C. 

Calcot, Tobias, admitted C.C. 1664. 

Calderwood, Thomas, C.C. 1724. 

Callam, Alexander, 74, Lower East 
Smith field, (_'.C. 1790-96. 

Callam Brothers, Castle St., Long Acre; 
celebrated makers of repeating 
mechanism, 1795-1825. 

Calledon, — , London ; watch, 1795. 

Calliber, John, admitted C.C. 1703. 

Calliber, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1727. 

Calvert, Nich., apprenticeil 1655 to 
Kobt. Grinkin, C.C. 

Cam, William, C.C. 1686 ; lantern 
clock, inscription, " William Cam, 
Londini. fecit," 

Cambridge, Samuel, C,C. 1697. 

Camden, William, Plumtree Court, Shoe 
Lane ; admitted C.C. -1708. Mr. 
Alfred Bedford has a splendid long- 
case clock by him. It is still a really 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

excellent timekeeper, and is in a 
handsome mahogany inlaid case ; also 
maker of a watch reputed to have 
belonged to Charles XII. of Sweden. 
It had a silver case, handsomely chased 
silver dial, silver balance cock, the 
movement altogether a very fine one, 

Cameel, C, Strasburg ; octagonal watch, 
S.K.M., about 1610. 

Camerer, Bopp, and Co,, 2, Broad St., 
Bloomsbury, 1788. 

Camerer, A., and Co., wooden clock- 
maker. 2. Broad St., Bloomsbury, 

Cameron, D., 318, Strand, 1820-25. 

Cammerer, M., wooden clockmaker, 13, 
Brownlow St., Drury Ijane, ISiO. 

Campart, Jno., Bishopsgate, 1774. 

Campbell, John, 3 Crowns. Strand, 

Campbell, Alex., 393, Strand, 1800-05. 

Campbell, W. F., 60, Hatton Garden, 

Campe, Tho., apprenticed 1672 to Corn. 
Harbottle. C.C. 

Camper, James, 99, Bridge Ed.. Lam- 
beth, 1800-40. 

Canche, Jacques, London, brother C.C. 
1692 ; silver alarum watch, in the 
B.M. ; plain silver cases, the outer 
one perforated. 

Cann, John, brother C.C. 1649. 

Cann, Judah, apprenticed to Jno. Cann, 

Cannans, John, London ; maker of 
clocks, about 1790. 

Cannon, Joseph, London : long Chip- 
})endale case clock, day of week, day 
of month, age of moon, high tide, dead 
beat escpt., centre seconds, about 1790. 

Capper, Sam., apprenticed 1674 to Wm. 
Bridge, C.C. 

Capt, Henry, 56, Frith St., 1840-42. 

Card, Edmund, admitted C.C. 1679. 

Carey, George, admitted C.C. 1679. 

Carey, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1705. 

Carey, George, 3, Singleton St., 1842. 

Carfoot, Chas., 32, Aldersgate St., 

Carleton, Robt., apprenticed 1687 to 
Joseph Bates, C.C. 

Carley, George, 18, Wilderness Eow, 
1842 ; afterwards at Ely Place ; died 

Carlow, P., maker of a watch for the 
Duke of Sussex, 1780-1800. 

Carncel, C, Strasburg, maker of octa- 
gonal pillar timepiece in S K.M., 
about 1600. 

Carolan, James, 69, Red Lion St,, 
Holborn, 1816-25. 

Car on, Andreas Charles, Paris; horologer 
of Louis XV.. 1720-60. 

Caron, Peter Auguste, Paris ; son of the 
foregoing, an eminent watchmaker ; 
he and Lepaute claimed the invention 
of an improved Virgule escapement, 
and in 1753 the Academy of Sciences 
decided the point in favour of Caron, 
who had by then made a watch for 
the King and a very small one for 
Madame de Pompadour, see p. 533 ; 
tine enamelled watch, see p. 190; he 
was an accomplished musician as well 
as a playwriter. and is better known, 
under the name of Beaumarchais, as 
the author of '• Le Barbier de Seville," 
and " Le Mariage de Figaro," born in 
the Rue St. Denis, 1732, died 1799, ■ 

Carovagius, — , Paris, 1550. 

Carpenter, Thos., C.C. 1767, 

Carpenter, William, 10, St. Martin's 
Court ; hon. freeman, C.C. 1781 ; 15, 
Frith St., 1793; 5, Haberdashers' 
Walk, Hoxton, 1817 ; 1770-1817, 

Carpenter and Son, 4, Andrew St., 
Seven Dials. 178.5-90. 

Carpenter, Thomas, 5, Islington Rd., 
summoned to take up livery, C.C. 
1786. (See T. and R. Carpenter). 

Carpenter, Thomas and Richard, watch- 
case makers, 5, Islington Rd., 1776- 

Carpenter, F., 21, Percival St., 1830. 

Carpenter, William, 4, Percival St., 

Carr, Fred, 18, Bridge St., West- 
minster, 1822-25, 

Carre, Daniel, calendar watch, Nel- 
thropj) collection, about 1690. 

Carrington, James, posting oiEce, 1730; 
warden, C.C. 1767. 

Carrington, Richd., London ; clock, 
about 1760 ; watch, 1765. 

Carrington, Robert, Noble St.. 1730, 22, 
Old Bethlem, 1760 ; hvery C.C. 1766, 

Carrington, Thos., St. Paul's Church- 
yard, 1730, afterwards Bishopsgate St,; 
liveryman, C.C. 1766. 

Carrington, Geo,, livery, C.C. 1786, 

Carrington and Son, 22, Old Bethlem, 

Carruthers, Geo., Blewett's Buildings, 
Chancery Lane, 1789-94. 

Carswell, Joseph, Hastings ; maker of 
long-case clocks, about 1 760. 

Carswell, J.. London ; watch, 1770. 

Carswell, Wm., 58, Bishopsgate Within, 

Carte, John, C.C. 1695 ; a large thick 
watch by him, inscribed " John 
Carte, in Garden Court, in the Middle 
Temple ' ' ; double sets of hour and 

Former Clock and Wntcliumkers. 


minute numcmls in relief on silver 
dial ; hour hand rotates once in 24r 
hours, minute hantl onee in 12 hours. 
When Peter the Great was in England 
he sold him a great gcograpiiical clock 
which told the time at any part of 
the world. " John Carte, watch 
maker from Coventry, and lately lived 
at the iJinl and Crown near Essex St. 
in the Stranti, is now removed to the 
corner of Lombard St." (^Fl ijing Pod, 
Oct., 1(596). 

Carter, Thomas, admitted t".C. IfioO. 

Carter, Jno., apprenticed 1069 to Andrew 
AUuni, C.C. : Francis, apprenticed 
1670 to Kobt. Uingley, C.C. ; Sam., 
apprenticed 1683 to Wm. Fuller, 
U.C. ; Thos., apprenticed KiOO to 
Joanna May ; C.C. 1699. 

Carter, Leon Augustus, C.C. 1726. 

Carter, John, itartholomew Close, C.C. 
1 72S-7L'. 

Carter, Jas,, Hampsteatl : tine cliiming 
lonti-case clock, about 1770. 

Carter, William, Bermondsey St., 1700 ; 
207, Tooley St., 1794. 

Carter, J., 57, Church St., Mile End. 

Carter, Wm., Junr., 180.5-26. 

Carter, John, son of Wm. Carter, Tooley 
St. ; apprenticed to Bovs Err Burrill 
in 1817, 207, Tooley St., 1829-42 ; 
afterwards 61, Cornhill ; Lord Mayor, 
1857 : master C.C. 1856, 1859, 1804 ; 
died 1878. 

Carter, William, watch-case maker, 22, 
(ialway St., St. Luke's, 1885. 

Cartier, Jaques, maker of a watch said 
to have belonged to Oliver Cromwell 
1635 ; another watch "Cartier, Lon- 
don," about 1(;80. 

Cartwright, Thomas, apprenticed to 
Christopher Gould, 1693. He lived 
" behiutl the Exchange ' ' ; watch by 
him in gold rejiousse case, Schloss 
collection, inscribed " Thos. Cart- 
wright, watchmaker to the Prince ' ' 
about 1715 ; another example in the 
Guildhall Museum is a watch with 
crystal cock, jewelled, 1700-30. 

Cartwright, George, C.C. 1706-12. 

Cartwright, William, admitted C.C. 

Cartwright, N., Lombard St., watch 
with pierced silver pillars, in Guild- 
hall Museum, about 1720. 

Cartwright, Benj., 18, West Smithfield, 

Cartwright. Ann, 45, New Bond St., 1783. 

Carver, Isaac, admitted C.C. 1667. 

Cashmore, John, 11, Be vis Marks, 1852, 
afterwards at Eldon St., Finsbury. 

Casinghurst, Christopher, apprenticed 

l(;;io to liobt. Xcnies, C.C. 
Casper, Ellis and Co., 29, Finsbury 

Place, ISO 1-4 L'. 
Casper, Nathaniel, 13, Bury St., St. 

Mary Axe, 1804-42. 
Cassiway, Chas,, apprenticed 1656 to 

Thos. Mills. C,C. 
Castang, Philip, London ; watch, Nel- 

thropp collection, 1777. 
Caster, Wm., apprenticed 1690 to Joshua 

Hutchin, C.C. 
Caster, B., London ; watch, silver outer 

case cml)ossed, about 1770. 
Castlefranc, Peter, 40, Pall Mall, 1769- 


Catchpool, Thos., 113, Strand, 1823. 

Catchpool, Wm., Fenchurch St., 1830-35. 

Cater, —, widow, Moortields, 1671. 

Carter, J,, London ; about 1780. 

Catherwood, Joseph, 10, Bunhill Row, 

Catherwood. Joseph and William, 2, New- 
cast le Place, Clerkenwell, 1804-42. 

Catherwood, G. and K., 35, Kirby St., 
Hatton Garden, 1809-30. 

Catherwood, Robert, 35, Kirby St., 
Platton Garden, 1835. 

Catley, Dan., C.C. 1731. 

Catlin, Danl., Lynn ; bird cage clock, 
4 inches by 3 inches ; bob pendulum, 
about 1652, Mr. Albert Hartshorne. 

Caton, Robt., New St., 1730. 

Cattell, William, Fleet St. ; admitted 
C.C. 1672; maker of a lantern clock, 
inscribed "William Cattell. in Fleete 
Street, Londini," 1671-90. ' 

Cattell, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1688. 
" Lost in Chancery Lane, a silver 
Minute Pendulum Watch, with a 
green and silver ribbond to the key, 
the watch made by Cattle, London ' ' 
{Lond. Gaz., January 19-23, 1692). 

Cattell, Thos., apprenticed in 1691 to 
Thos. Cattell, C.C. 

Cattle, John, fecit 1633, inscription 
under the alarum disc of a lantern 

Cattlin, James, 58, Great Marylebone 
St., 1804-42. 

Catton, Richd., Leadenhall St. ; duplex 
watch, h.m., 1818. 

Caul and Dennis, 19, Plumtree St., 

Cave. See Robinson and Cave. 

Cavendish, Richard, livery C.C. 1810. 

Caveton and Clark, Fetter Lane, 1730 ; 
clock, about 1760. 

Cawdrey. See Corderoy. 

Cawdron, Geo , apprenticed 1675 to Jas. 
Graves ; free of C.C. by patrimony, 

P P 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Cawkutt, Thos., apprenticed 1G93 to 
Nat. Bird, C.C. 

Cawley, Sam., 115, Berraondsey St., 

Cawne, Robt,, apprenticed 1663 to 
Lionel Wythe ; C.C. 1675. 

Cawson, Lancaster ; Jas., 1779 ; Edwd., 
1790 ; Wm., 1817. 

Caygill, C, Askrigg, died 1792, aged 90. 

Cayne, Andrew, Without Bishopsgate, 

Cellier, Lyons, 1580-90. 

Ceson, Londres ; on a watch with 
chain-repeating work, about 1710. 

Cetti, Joseph, London ; watch, 1800, 

Cetti and Co., London ; watch, 1830. 

Cext, Catharine, apprenticed to James 
Hubert and his wife, 1730. 

Chaband, Hy., 9, Plumtree St., Blooms- 
bury, 1816-25. 

Chadd and Eagsdale, New Bond St ,1775. 

Chad wick, John, 36, Cornhill, 1783- 
1813 ; 138, Holborn Hill, 1817. 

Chadwick, Joshua, 138, Holborn Hill, 

Chadwick, Wm., London : watch, 1825. 

Chadwick, James, 18, Great Bath St., 
Clerkenwell, 180-1-12. 

Chalfont, Walter, Barnsbury ; an in- 
ventive watchmaker, 1850-86. 

Chalk, James, 36, Bishopsgate St. 
Within, 1798. 

Challoner, William, SJdnner St. ; livery- 
man C.C. 1776. 

Chalmers, George, 1, Prince's St., 
Leicester Sq., 1783-88. 

Chamberlain, Thomas, Chelmsford. In 
the B.M. is a watch by him, about 
1630 ; calendar and striking watch, 
S.K.M., with pierced case of silver 
gilt, movement signed '• T. Chamber- 
lain fecit." 

Chamberlain, Dan, apprenticed 1660 to 
Thos. Chamberlain. 

Chamberlaine, Nathaniel, C.C. 1659. 

Chamberlaine, Nathaniel, apprenticed 
1650 to Ben. Hill ; admitted C.C. 
1685; master, 1717. " These are to 
give notice that Nathaniel Chamber- 
lin. Watchmaker (who hath lived 
several years at Chelmsford, in Essex), 
for the better accommodation of his 
friends and customers, hath, at the 
request of divers of them, taken a 
Chamber at Mr. John Must's, in Angel 
Court, in Lumhavd Street, where lie 
doth intend, God willing, to attend 
the last Fortnight in every Term, for 
the mending his own Work, and 
accommodating all persons that shall 
have occasion for New " QZond. Ga:., 
January 22-25, 1676-77). 

I Chamberlaine, Thomas, apprenticed to 
I Samuel lioss, and turned over to 
' Henry Harper : admitted C.C. 1687. 

Chamberlaine, John, Bury, C.C. 1687 ; 
watch by him with day of the month 
ring, B.M., about 1670 ; lantern clocks 
by him, aboirt 1700. 

Chamberlaine, Joseph, Norwich. " A 
little Gold Watch made by Joseph 
Chamberlain, of Norwich, with a 
plain Dial Plate in a plain black 
Shagreen Case " {Lond. Ga:., March 
1.3-19, 1687). 

Chamberlaine, — , Mark Lane, 1717. 

Chambers, Edwd,, apprenticed 1670 to 
Evan Jones, C.C. 

Chambers, Jonathan, London ; long 
black and gold case clock, 10-inch dial, 
about 1690, Wetherfield collection. 

Chambers, James, 3, Squirrils, St. 
Dunstan's Church, 1690. 

Chambers, 56, Cornhill, 1823. 

Chambers, Wm., watch finisher. City 
Ed., 1830 ; afterwards in partnership 
with Prior, Ed., at 18, Powell St. 
East, King Sq. 

Champion, Bobert, lantern clock, 
'' Robert Champion, of Wells, fecit, 

Champion, John, brother C.C. 1611, 

Champion, John, C.C. 1651-76. 

Champion, Denis, Paris ; clockmaker to 
the iJuke of Orleans, 1669. 

Champion, Guillanme et Isidor, Paris ; 
watch, in the possession of Mr. Edward 
Watkins, Manchester, formerly the 
property of Love-Jones Parry, Car- 
narvonshire, about 1680. 

Champion, John, London ; a watch by 
him in S.K.M., outer case of shagreen, 
about 1770; another enamelled case, 
Schloss collection, about 1780. 

Champion, Charles, Paris ; about 1770. 

Chance, B., London ; maker of a watch 
in ithe B.M. with the filagree and 
steel case, 1720. 

Chance,W. and G., London ; watch, 1815. 

Chancellor, Jno., 81, Bishopsgate With- 
out, 1793. 

Chancellor and Son, Sackville St., 
Dublin, well - known clockmakers, 
1800-40. In 1811 Jno. Chancellor 
patented (No. 3187) a musical clock. 

Chancey, Jas., London ; watch, Nel- 
throjip collection, 1741. 

Chandler, B., Nottingham, 1770. 

Chandler, Robert, Martin's Court, 1793 ; 
8, Leicester Sq., 1815-25. 

Channell, Geo., London ; watch, 1795. 

Chantler, — , London, about 1750. 
Hatton speaks with admiration of his 

Former Clock and Watchmakers. 


Chapeau, Peter, London, extra large 

repeating watch belonging to Mr. 

Chas. Freeman ; cylinder esicajjement. 

three cases, inner pierced case silver,, 1 746, second case rr.pouusc group 

poiirt raying Aeneas and Dido ; outer 

case tish skin. 
Chapman, Thos., apprenticed 1G48 to 

Kalph Asli. ('.(,'. 
Chapman, Simon, C.C. I(»7i5. 
Chapman, Juo., apprenticed 1(17!) to 

Wm. Hrrltcrt. C.C. 
Chapman, Titus, apprenticed 1683 to 

Thos. Williamson, C.C. 
Chapman, Peter, C.C. St. Amies Lane. 

Chapman, Thos., Bath ; long case 

niiisical clork, about 1760. 
Chapman, B., l-ondon ; watch, 17ti5. 
Chapman, Jno. , " opposite the Kiging 

House in liie (Jari-ison, Sheerness," 

about 1780. 
Chapman, William, 6, New Hound 

Court, Strand, 17;)0-1)4. 
Chapman, J., clock-case maker. (1. Ited 

Lion St., Clorkenwell, 183.".. 
Chappel, Robert, admitted VX'. 1720 ; 

maker of small size sheep's-head 

arch-dial clocks, " Robert Chappel, 

London," on disc. 
Chappel, Thomas, Little Tower St.. 

Chappuis, Jubile, (ieneva, 1800. 
Charas, Charles Samson, i\C 16il2. 
Charle, George, I'J, Wilderness How. 

Charlepose, — , London : gold repeating 

watch, silver cap engraved with the 

arms of Queen Anne, outer case set 

with lapis lazuli, rubies, and diamonds, 

about 170."). 
Charleston, Jno., apprenticed 1676 to 

Ed. Clough, C.C. ; watch, 168.") ; Mr. 

Edwd. Sudell has another of a later 

Charlson, P., London ; watch, h.m., 17ii4. 
Charlson, W., London; watch, 1800. 
Charlstrom, "William, Percival St. : 

livery, C.('. 1810 ; 1800-38. 
Charlton, John, one of the first assistants 

of the C.C. : master, 1640. 
Charlton, Matjonah, apprenticed to Geo. 

Craham : admittetl C.C. 1728. 
Charlton, Jas., 13, Lisson St. Xorth, 

Charman, Peter, 64, Piccadilly, 181(1-2,^. 
Charnock, Jas., apprenticed 16!»3 to 

Thus. Wheeler, C.C. 
Charrington, S., died while master, 

(.'.C. 1768. 
Chartier, — , Blois ; excelled as a watch- 
case enameller. 1650-70. 

Chartier, Francis, 1. Angel Court, 

Throgniorton St., 17(!.")-71. 
Charweil, James, London ; maker of a 
repeating watch at S.K.M., outer case 
sliagreen piqvie, about 1740. 
Chassereau, Robt., 4, Beech St., Bar- 
bican, 1804-8. 
Chasseur, — , London ; small timepiece 
with i)endulum swinging in front, 
about 1700 (see p. 240). 
Chatbourne, Jno., apprenticed 1677 to 

Jno. iSennett, C.C. 
Chater, James, admitted C.C. 1727. 
Chater, James, and Son, 3, Cherry Tree 

Court, Aldersgatc. 17.">4-.")9. 
Chater, Eliezer and James, 3, Cherry 
Tree Court, 1760-86 ; in 1785 Jas. C. 
patented (No. 1785) a watch guard. 
Chater, Eliezer, 10, Exchange Alley, 
Cornhill; master, C.C. 1772; livery, 
Chater and Livermore, 2, Exchange 
Alley. 17'.tO; lo, Bartholomew Lane. 
17',t4 : 3(1, Tokenhouse Yard, 1800. 
Chater, Richd., 14, Cornhill. 1787-1812. 
Chater, Wm., 134, (ioswoll St., 1804-42. 
Chaters, J., watch motion manufac- 
turer. 17, Gee St., Goswell St., 1835. 
Chatfield, — . "Lost on Saturday last, 
between Frith St., Sohoe, and Lum- 
bard St., a Silver Minute Pendulum 
Watch in a tortoise shell case with a 
black ribon, engraved on the Dyal 
Plate (Chattield, liondini). Whoever 
brings it to Mr. Clerkson at the King's 
Head, near the Pump in Chancery 
Lane, shall have 20.*." — Land. Gaz., 
April 4, 16'.t5. 
Chatham, Wm., London ; watch, 1782. 
Chatier, Isaac, 1, Angel Court, Throg- 
niorton St.. 1768-88. 
Chaulter. Hatton, writing in 1773, 

esteems his work. 
Chaund, John, London ; long-case clock, 

about 1760. 
Chaunes, — , Paris ; watch, 1620 ; small 
watch, " Chaunes le jeune," about 
16.50 (see p, 165). 
Chauvell, James D., Old Broad St. ; 
C.C. 16',»'.l ; clock-watch 1705 ; also 
a re^ieating watch in S.K.M., about 
Chawner, Thomas, 34, Ludgate Hill, 

Cheeny, J., clockmaker at East Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, U.S.A., 1790. 
Cheeseman, Daniel, C.C. 16911. 
Cheesman, R., Horsmunden : lantern 

clock, about 1700. 
Cheltenham, Michael, C.C. 1712. 
Cheneviere and Deonna, Geneva, about 

P P 2 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Cheneviere, Urban, (ieneva, 176U. 
Cheney, Withers, apprenticed 164(5 to 
Elias Allen : admitted C.C. 1(557 : 
elected master 1695, but excused on 
making a contribution to the poor-box. 
Chariton, Geo., apprenticed 1685 to Jno. 
Buckenhill, C.C. 

Cherril, Edwd. , 6, Newcastle Place. 
1814 ; E. and Son, 1825-30. 

Chesnon, Solomon, Blois ; maker of a 
very diminutive watch in the B.M.. 
with outer leather case, about 1640 ; 
another watch by him described in 
vol. xi. Arcliceological Journal had 
no hands ; the hours indicated by an 
escutcheon engraved on a circular 
plate, which revolved within the hour 
circle. " Lost on Sundaj', the eighth 
of this instant March, about 12 o'clock, 
between St. Paul's and St. Dunstan's 
Church, a French gold watch enameld 
with Flowers in a Case studded with 
gold studs made by Solomon Chesnon 
at Blois, tyed with a Pink-coloured 
Kibbon. Whoever shall bring the 
same watch to Major Pinkney's sho}) 
at the Three Squirrels over against 
the West End of St. Dunstan's Church 
in Fleet Street shall have fourty shil- 
lings."— ir>//^/. Ga:., March 12, 1673. 

Chesson, Thos., Ludgate Hill, 1754-59. 

Chester, George, from Loudon, opens a 
shop at the sign of the Dial, on the 
new Dock (advt., Nev,- York). 1757. 

Chester, Wm., 55, Shoreditch. 1804-40. 

Chettle, W., 35, Commercial Road. 
Lambeth, 1830-38. 

Chetwood, John, apprenticed 1692 to 
Jno. Pilcher, C.C. 

Cheuillard, — , Blois ; watch, Marfels 
collection, about 1620. 

Chevalier and Co., Geneva ; watch, 
about 1750. 

Chevalier and Cochet, Paris. 1790-1805. 

Chevallier, aux Tuileries, Paris ; clock- 
maker to Louis XV. ; line long-case 
clock, somewhat similar to Fig. 386. 
about 1760. 

Chilcott, Richard, C.C. 1690 ; long-case 
clock, about 1700, inscribed," Richard 
Chillcott, London." 

Chilcott, John, admitted C.C. 1721. 

Child, Richard, Fleet St., admitted 
C.C. 1632 ; warden, 1640-43. In 
1638 the Blacksmiths' Company sued 
'■ Child, the clockmaker," for breach 
of his oath. 

Child, Henry, brother, C.C. 1642 ; died, 
while master, 1664. Mr. Edou Dick- 
son has a three ti-ain " ting tang "' 
lantern clock by him, inscribed, 
"Henricus Childe, Londini." 

Child, Ralph, admitted C.C. 1661. 

Child, Henry, apprenticed 1670 to Nich, 
Piussell, Tower Eoyal, Budge PiOW, 
1677-93. "Lost the 28 instant at 
Aldermarj' Church, or between that 
and the Tower Royal, a plain Gold 
Pendulum Watch, in a new Fashion 
Gold Grav'd case, name, Henry 
Child. It had a TuHp Hand, long 
freised hours, in the middle of the 
dial plate engraven with two Birds 
and Flowers ; it was in a Gold 
Pinned Case " {Loml. Gaz., May 
25-29, 1693). 

Child, Jno., apprenticed to Thos. Taylor, 
C.C. 1769. 

Chilton, Thos., London ; maker of 
lantern clock, with arch dial, added 
about 1700. 

Chinn, T. W., Huddersfield ; three train 
bracket chiming clock, arch dial, 
walnut case, about 1720, Wetherfield 

Chipp, Roht., apprenticed 1679 to Robt. 
Seignior, C.C. 

Chismon, Timothy, summoned to take 
up livery C.C. 1786 ; master, 1803. 

Chophard, Saul, Artillery Lane, appren- 
ticed to David Hubert ; admitted 
C.C. 1730. 

Christie, Wm., 22. Chancery Lane, 

Christie, Hy., 3, Duke St., Manchester 
Sq.. 1842. 

Christin, — , Paris, 1770. 

Christmas, Jas., apprenticed 1682 to 
Thos. Birch. C.C. 

Church, Jno. Thos., 19, Oakley St., 1835. 

Churchill, Chas. , London; centre- 
seconds watch, h.m., 1787. 

Churchman, Michael, C.C. 1694. 

Clare, Thos., Warrington ; long-case 
clock, Battevsca enamel dial, Wether- 
field collection, about 1790. 

Clare, Henry T., 15, Meredith St., 

Clare, Peter, a Quaker and watchmaker, 
well known about 1800. In an 
account of the village of Hatton, 
Chester, where he resided, the fol- 
lowing reference to him is made : — 

There's tlie cottage of Peter, 

That ciinning old fox 
Wlio kept tlie sun right 

By the time of his clocks. 

He appears to have been derided 
for asserting that the sun was wrong 
and his clocks right, though of 
course if mean time was desired he 
would have been doubtless correct in 
his assertion. 

Former Clock and WatcJunakers. 


Clare, Peter, son of thefoicuoiiig ; born 
in Manchester in 1781, was a pro- 
minent ligurc there till he died in 

Clark, Mary, apprenticed Km-I to Hy. 
]"\'Von and Christian his wife, C.C. ; 
Clark, Elizabeth, apprenticed' to the 
same. lOTC. 

Clark, Stanford, London, (*.('. KilMi ; 
watch. 171(1. 

Clark, Thomas, admitted ('.V. 1720. 

Clark, l^ancaster ; Cornelius, 1733 ; 
Thos., 17(;7. 

Clark, Jas., Morpeth, 17.'.it. 

Clark, Cure, watch, 17511. 

Clark, Anthony, Serjeants Inn. Fleet 
Street. 17(i;i. 

Clark, Edwd., 17, ^Middle Jloortields, 

Clark, Wm., 2t), Abingdon St., 1730; 
I'ishopsgate St., 17.")4-74 ; Pater- 
noster liovv, 1775. 

Clark, Edw., .".(j, Cornhill, 1768-75. 

Clark, Robert, clock and watch-spring 
maker. Providence Pow, 1775-!)!» ; 
watch. Robert Clarke, London, 1780. 

Clark, David, watch-case maker, 58, 
Featherstone St., 1789-1)4. 

Clark, Francis, 10, Jewin St., 1789-94. 

Clark. Wm., (;, King St., Clerkenwell. 

Clark, Jno., 73, Mark Lane, 1794-1823. 

Clark, Thos., 9, Goswell St., 1830-40. 

Clark, George, 24, Bartholomew Ter- 
race. St. Luke's. 1842. 

Clarke, George, Whitechapel ; admit- 
ted C.C. 1(;32. 

Clarke, William, admitted C.C. 1G54. 

Clarke, Humphrey, Hertford, C.C. 1G(J8 ; 
lantern clock by him about 1700. 

Clarke, John, Bristol. In the B.M. is a 
watch of his make in an outer 
of leather pique. 1630-40. 

Clarke, Jno., admitted C.C. 1691 ; 
Clarke, Andrew, apprenticed 1682 to 
Chris. Gould, C.C. ; Clarke, Sam, 
apprenticed 1687 to Jno. Martin. C.C. 

Clarke, Wm., apprenticed 1688 to Thos. 
Clifton. C.C. On the mantelpiece 
of the Punch Dining Hall at Bouverie 
St. is a small bracket clock inscribed 
""Wm. Clarke, Whitechaple," dating 
from about 1700. 

Clarke, John, Stanford, C.C. 1696. 

Clarke and Dunster, London ; repeating 
watch, about 1705. Mr. E. Wehrle. 

Clarke, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1709. 

Clarke, Richard, Cornhill, C.C. 1720: 
calendar watch by him. dials back 
and front, 1745 : Richard Clark and 
Sons, Cheapside, 1815. 

Clarke, Geo., Leadenhall St., 1725-36. 

Clarke, Edward, 9. Holborn. 1 76S. 

Clarke, Jas., Paternoster Row, 1768. 

Clarke, William, (it'orge Yard, White- 
chapel. 1769-72. 

Clarke, John Basul, St. .John's Lane, 
liveryman, C.C. 1776. 

Clarke," Jas., 52, Habere St., 1778-1840. 

Clarke, Wm., 87. Gt. Sutton St., 1804-20. 

Clarke, Hy., warden ('.C. 1822-26. 

Clarke, William, and Sons, 8, Goswell 
St., 1,SH0-12. 

Clarke, Job Guy, 15, King William St.. 
London Bridge, 1852-6 ; Sir Edward 
Clarke, K.C.. Solicitor-General, is his 
son, and when a lad was his assistant. 

Clarke, William (Clarke and Sons, 
Goswell Rd.). die(l 1875, aged 75. 

Clarke, Abraham (Clarke and Sons, 
Goswell Pd.). died 1890, aged 79. 

Clarke, Daniel (Clarke and Sons, Gos- 
well Pul.), trustee of the Horological 
Institute, master C.C. 1892, died 
1897, aged 78. 

Clarkson, Jno., apprenticed 1649 to 
Jno. Nieasius : C.C. lt)57: 

Claxton, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1646 ; 
signed petition against oppression of 
the Company in 1656 ; master, 1670. 

Clay, William,' brother C.C. ; maker of 
a watch Cromwell presented to Col. 
Bagwell at the siege of Clonmel ; also 
of a clock, inscribed '• William Clay, 
King's Street, Westnunster." See 
p. 462 ; watch of later date G.M. 

Clay, Samuel, apprenticed to Jeremy 
Gregory. 1680 ; admitted C.C. 1687. 

Clay, Thomas, Chelmsford, a maker of 
lantern clocks, about 1650. 

Clay, Charles, Stockton, Yorkshire. 
Petitioned Parliament for a patent 
in respect of a repeating and musical 
watch or clock, his invention. Mr. 
(^lare produced a watch to answer 
the same end as Mr. Clay's. The 
Attorney-General reported in favour 
of Mr. Clay. The C.C, however, 
opi)osed Mr. Clay, and after a tough 
fight, extending from Feb. 1716 to 
the latter part of 1717, the patent 
was not granted. He seems to have 
lived subsequently in the Strand (see 
p. 354). 

Clay, Charles, Fenchurch St. ; watch 
in crystal case, S.K.M. 1740 ; another 
example with chased outer case, 
about 1750. 

Clay, B., London ; watch h.m., 1770. 

Clayton, Thomas, admitted C.C. 1646; 
assistant, 1671. 

Clayton, Chas., London ; watches, 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Cleare Wm., apprenticed 1688 to Hy. 
Jones, C.C. 

Cleeke, Henry, admitted C.C. 1655. 

Cleeve, William, brother C.C. 1654. 

Cleghorn, Saml., 65, Shoe Lane, 1790. 

Clement, Edward, C.C. 1671 ; the in- 
scription "Edward Clement, Exon," 
on a lantern clock may apply to 

Clement, William, admitted as a brother 
C.C. 1677; he applied to clocks the 
anchor escapement invented by Dr. 
Hooke, probably about 1676 ; this 
allowed of the use of a long pendulum 
with a lesser angle of vibration than 
was possible with the verge escape- 
ment ; instead of hanging the pendu- 
lum from a cord or a shackle he used 
a spring to suspend it from : this 
proved to be a much better attach- 
ment and one which has continued in 
favour. He was master of the C.C. 
in ] 694. Mr. Wetherfield has a long- 
case timepiece by him inscribed 
"Gulielmus, Clement, Londini, fecit," 
the construction of which is very 
similar to that of the clock by Jno. 
Fromantil described on p. 301 (see 
p. 459). In 1684 William Clement, 
presumably his son, was apprenticed 
to him. 

Clements, Robert, C.C. 1686. 

Clements, Moses, Broadwav, New York, 

Clements, Thos., London; maker of 
bracket clocks, about 1760. 

Clements, Jno., London; watch, 1820; 
214, Oxford St., 1810. 

Clemson, Eichd,, apprent ced 1661 to 
Thos. Ciaxton ; C.C. 1678. 

Clent, Geo., apprenticed 1684 to Jno. 
Barnett. C.C. 

Clerk, Jno., Bristol, 1687. 

Clerke, Danl., Amsterdam, about 1720. 

Clerke, George, 3, Cherry Tree Court, 
Aldersgate St. ; summoned to take 
up livery C.C. 1786; 1780-1820. 

Clerke, Geo., Cherry Tree Court, son of 
the foregoing ; livery C.C. 1810-42. 

Clerke, Nathaniel, London ; watch, h.m.. 

Clerke, F. W,, Coruhill : died 1885, aged 

Clewes. See Clowes. 

Clidesdale, — , Bell Yd., Temple Bar : 
C.C. 1 780. 

Cliff, Wm., apprenticed 1670 to Sam 
Davis. C.C. 

Clift, Thos., Hull ; long black lacquer 
case clock, and dial, about 1730, 
Wetherfield collection. 

Clifton, Thomas, brother C.C. 1651. 

Clifton, Thomas, apprenticed to Chas. 
Gretton ; admitted C.C. 1687. 

Clifton, John, 14, Fazakerley St., Liver- 
pool, 1785-90. ' 

Clinch, George, London ; long japanned 
case clock, about 1740. 

Cliverdon, Thomas, Holborn ; C.C. 1722. 

Clodion, Michel Claude, born at Nancy 
1728, died at Paris 1814, celebrated 
artist and designer of clock cases. 

Clopton, Wm., apprenticed 1655 to 
Onesiphorus Heldeu, C.C. 

Closon, Peter, at Holborne Bridge ; sub- 
scribed to incorporation of C.C. 1630 ; 
three years senior warden, 1636-38 ; 
lantern clock with balance escape- 
ment, inscription on fret, " Peter 
Closon at London, fecit ' ' (see p. 451). 
On another example is " Peter Closon, 
at Holborne Bridge." Sir Theodore 
Fry has a lantern clock inscribed 
" Peter Closon. neare Holborn Bridge, 
fecit. ' ' 

Clothier, Jas., 121, Pall Mall, 1842. 

Clough, Edward, Fetter Lane. A 
watch of his make, with an outer 
case of leather pique, in the B.M., is 
inscribed, " Mayor Johne Miller, his 
watche," 1630-40. "Stolen a silver 
watch in a black case, studded about 
the edges, and one studded flower 
at the back of it, having a minute 
motion and the figures of the hours 
and minutes twice over the plate, 
made by Edward Clough, near Gray's 
Inn Gate, in Holborn" {Lund. Ga~., 
October 6-9. 1690). 

Clowes, Jas., admitted as a brother 
C.C. 1670; long-case clock, about 

Clowes, John, admitted C.C. 1672; 
elected a warden, 1713, but unable 
to serve through ill-health ; small 
square bracket-clock, bob pendulum, 
locking plate, cherub corners, in- 
scribed, "'J. Clowes, Londini, fecit " ; 
long-case clock inscribed, "Jon. 
Clows, Russell St., Convent Garden." 

Clowes, B., Liverpool ; watch, 1795. 

Clowes, 0. B., Liverpool ; watch, 1805. 

Clowes, Koht., London ; watch, 1812. 

Cluer, Obadiah, apprenticed 1682 to 
Hy. Evans; admitted C.C. 1709; 
long-case clock signed, " Obed. Cluer," 
about 1712 ; a man-of-war above the 
dial rocks with the swing of the 
pendulum ; underneath are the words, 
"The Royal Ann." 

Cluer, John, 22. Skinner St., Clerken- 
well, 1835. 

Cluter, William, admitted C.C. 1709. 

Clutton and Co., 48, Rupert St., 1825. 

Former Clock and Watchmakers. 


Clyatt, Samuel, ndmittcd O.C. 1672, 

I'.ell Alley. Coleman St. 
Clyatt, Abraham, admitted C.C. 1080. 
Clyatt, John, admitted C.C. 1708. 
Clyatt, William, admitted C.C. 1709. 
Clyatt, Samuel, admitted C.C. 1711. 
Coastfield, Jno., apprenticed 1082 to 

Kobt. Starr, C.C. 
Coates, Archibald, Wigan ; about 1780. 
Coates, Thos., Loudon ; watch, 1780. 
Cobb, John, apprenticed to Andrew 

Veatman : admitted C.C. 1703. 
Cobham, Jno., Barbican ; C.C. 1725 ; 

pendulum watch, 17o0. 
Cobham, Stockley, C.C," Red Lion St., 

Clerkeuwell, 1 780. 
Cochard, Geo., 10, Henrietta St., 

Coveut Garden, 1822-2.5. 
Cochin, D., a celebrated repousse chaser 

of watch cases, 1740-70. 
Cochin, D., Paris; A'atch, 1790. 
Cochran, Saml., 291, Wappino;, 1700-94. 

Mr. Edward V. Cockev, New York, 

has a pair-cased watch by him, h.m., 

Cochran, W., 266, Regent St., 1825. 
Cock, Jno., London; long-case square dial 

clock, chiming on bells, about 1700. 
Cock, Chas., Bow Lane ; apprenticed to 

Thomas Reynolds ; admitted C.C. 

Cocky, Cockey, Cokey, Cockney. Several 

generations of Somerset clockmakers ; 

clock, \Vm. Cokey, Wincanton, about 

1 700 ; astronomical clock, dating from 

about 1780, by Edward Cockney, 

Warminster, formerly belonging to 

Lord Carrington, sold at Stevens' in 

1900 for £235. 
Cockerton, Jonas, 1751-78. 
Cockford, Matthew, C.C. 1093. 
Codevelle, — . rue de Bussy, Paris, 1770. 
Cogdon, Thomas, Budge Row, chrono- 
meter maker, apprenticed to Jno. 

MacLennan, died 1885, aged 67. 
Coggs, John, against St. Clement's 

Church. 1090-1700. 
Cogniat, — , Paris ; watch, 1720. 
Cohen, Sam Jacob, 3, Castle St., 

Whitechapel, 1815. 
Cohen, A. S., 9, Newcastle St., White- 
chapel, 1820. 
Coignet, — , began in 1005 and in 1667 

finished the clock of the Pont Neuf, 

Paris, since known as "I'horloge de 

la samaritaine." 
Coke, Wm., apprenticed 1673 to Wm. 

Glazier ; C.C. 1681. 
Coker, Ebenezer, Clerkenwell Close, 

Colambell, Anthony, Aldersgate St., 

liveryman, C.C. 1770. 

Colbert, J. G. I., Grafton St., 1825. 

Cole, Daniel, apprenticed to Geo. 
(irahani ; admitted C.C. 1726. 

Cole, Thos., Lombard St., 1754-03. 

Cole, John, C.C. 1729 ; maker of long- 
case clocks, 1 729-60. 

Cole, Ipswich; Richard Stiuton, 1780; 
Richard, 1830. 

Cole, I. B., 54, Barbican, 1785. 

Cole, Wm., Gutter Lane, 1780-1805; 
pedometer by him, B. M. 

Cole, James Ferguson, Hans Place, 
Chelsea; then Park St., Grosvenor 
Sq. ; then 9, Motcombe St., Bel- 
grave Sq. ; born 1799, died at Tower 
House, Bexley Heath, 1880 ; an able 
watchmaker and expert springer. 
He devoted much attention to the 
lever escapement, of which he devised 
several forms, and was for some time 
a vice-president of the Horological 

Cole, Thomas, 11, Upper King St., 
Bloomsbury, an excellent maker of 
spring clocks ; brother of J. F. Cole ; 
died 1804. 

Colehed, Richd., Liverpool, 1800. 

Coleman, — , clock, signed, " F. Francis 
Coleman. Ipswich, fecit 1005." 

Coleman, Fr., Ipswich ; watch, 1720. 

Coleman, John, 115, Newgate St. ; hon. 
freeman of C.C. 1781 ; 'l 708-83. 

Coleman, Geo., London ; bracket clock, 
about 17S0. 

Coleman, William, Arthur St., 1790 ; 14, 
Strand, 1794-99. 

Coleman, Sampson, London ; watch, 

Coleman, Thomas, 0, Westmoreland St., 
St. Mary-le-bone, maker of bracket 
clock, Chippendale style of case, 
1810-42 ; livery C.C. 1813. 

Coles, M. A., 25, Red Lion St., 1790. 

Coley, S., London ; watch finely 
enamelled royal blue, Schloss col- 
lection, 1795. 

Colladon, — , Geneva ; watch, silver 
bridge, about 1705. 

Colladon and Sons, watch, painting on 
dial, about 1785. 

CoUard, Leonard, apprenticed 1075 to 
Jno. Delander. 

CoUes, Christopher, long-case clock, 
about 1700. 

CoUett, John, Royal Hospital Row, 
Chelsea, 1780-99 ; maker of maho- 
gany long-case clock, and dial, silver 

Colley, Joseph, apprenticed to James 
Harrison ; admitted C.C. 1752. 

Colley, Robt., Fleet St., 170,5-85. See 
also Barkley and Colley. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Colliber, Jno., apprenticed 1690 to Wm. 
Slough, O.C. 

Collier, Benjamin, a noted maker : 
admitted CO. 1693 ; Lord Chesham 
has a gold double-case repeater made 
by him ; 1693-1730. See Colly er : 
also p. 501. 

Collier, Robt., C.C, Gutter Lane, 1730. 

Collier, John, Red Lion St., Clerken- 
well, 1770-75. 

Collier, Archibald, 9, New Bond St., 

Collier, Chas., 159, Sloane St., 1822. 

Collingridge, Edmund, 27, Wilderness 
Row ; livery C.C. 1810 ; 1793-1830. 

Collingridge, Thos. , 136, Aldersgate St.. 

CoUingwood, Samuel James, 8, Long 
Alley, livery C.C. 1786 ; 1766-94. 

Collins, Robt., apprenticed 1646 to 
Ahasuerus Frumantil, C.C. 

Collins, Peter, apprenticed 1679 to Jas. 
Atkinson : C.C. 1687. 

Collins, John, admitted C.C. 1701 ; at 
the " White Horse and Black Boy," 
Great Old Bailey, in 1705. See 
Shelton, John. 

Collins, Clement, admitted C.C. 1705. 

Collins, John, C.C. 1727 ; repeating 
watch, silver case pierced, silver dial 
with raised figures, about 1730. 

Collins, Jno., Wattisfield, born 1750. 
died 1829. 

Collins, Wm., London ; watch, 1810. 

Collins, R., 52, Strand. 1813. 

Collins, Jas., 66, Long Acre, 1822. 

Collinson, Jas., London ; watch, 1770. 

Collis, Chas,, London ; watch. 1720. 

Collis, Richd., Romford, 1802-7. 

Collomby, Henri, Hiiniugen (Upper 
Alsace), 1680-1730 : watch in ena- 
melled case, S.K.M., signed " H. 
Collomby a Hmiingiien." 

Collomby, Abraham, Geneva ; watch, 
1745, Mr. Paul Ditisheim ; another 
with calendar, Messrs. Lambert ; 
another specimen suspended from a 
long and handsomely enamelled 
chatelaine, outer case enamelled and 
studded with diamonds about the 
same date. At the S.K.M. is a 
calendar watch, about 1750, signed 
"Abr. Collomby, London." 

CoUum, A., 74, Lower East Smithfield, 

Collyer, Benj., London ; long green 
lacquer case clock, arch dial, about 
1725, Wetherfield collection. 

Colson (? Colston), Richd., apprenticed 
1637toJas.Vantronier; C.C. 1646. 

Colston, Jno., admitted C.C. 1653. 

Colston, Richard, free of C.C. by patri- 

mony, 1682 ; curious 24-day clock at 
Battle Abbey, Sussex ; other examples 
of his work are a fine watch, Evan 
Roberts' collection, with pierced con- 
trate wheel, and a watch (inscribed 
" Colston London "), with sun and 
moon pointers (see p. 226) ; long burr 
walnut case clock, 12-inch dial, 
Wetherfield collection, 1682-1710. 

Colyer. See Collyer. 

Comber, Richard, Lewes, died 1824, 
aged 82 ; chiming clock, 1778 (see 
p. 471) ; clock, Victoria Hospital, 
Lewes, about 1790. Mr. S. Tanner, 
Lewes, says : " I have never met with 
a bad or imperfect specimen ; his work 
will endure for many generations." 

Combes, Simon, watch, 1780. 

Combret, Pierre, Lyons ; calendar watch 
(see p. 145), 1613 ; watch in shell- 
shaped case, S.K.M., about the same 

Combs, Joseph, admitted C.C. 1720. 

Comfort, William, brother C.C. 1647; 
signed a petition in 1756. 

Comley, Thos., London ; watch, G.M., 
about 1780. 

Commander, Sam., St. James' St., Clerk- 
en well, 1845. 

Compigne, — , bracket clock, about 1710, 
inscribed " Compigne, Winton " ; 
watch, " Dav, Compigne, Winton," 
about 1750. 

Comport, Ebenezer, Temple Bar ; C.C. 

Compton, "Walter, Vere St., 1692. 

Compton, Adam, admitted C.C. 1716. 

Comtesse, Louis, watch-case maker, 
succeeded Peterman and Debois at 
Soho, 1810 ; afterwards at East St., 
Lamb's Conduit St. See Stram. 

Conden, Robert, 51, Clerkenwell Close, 
1 780-85. 

Conduitt, Sam., apprenticed 1671 to 
Robt. Halsted, C.C. 

Condy, Thos., apprenticed 1684 to 
Cornelius Jenkins ; C.C. 1692. 

Congreve, William, Garden Court, 
Temple, and at Woolwich ; inventor 
of curious clocks (see p. 438). 

Council, William, 22. Myddelton St., 
1839 ; a clever watchmaker who suc- 
ceeded Ganthony, at 83, Cheapside, 
in 1845 ; died 1862 ; his son, Wm. 
Geo., died 1902. 

Connelly, Wm., 93, Piccadilly, 1825. 

Conrad and Reiger, German octagonal